Borno

jiha a Najeriya

Jihar Borno Jiha ce a Arewa maso gabashin Najeriya. Ta hada iyaka da Jihar Yobe daga yamma, Gombe daga kudu maso gabas, Adamawa daga kudu, yayinda iyakarta ta gabas ta hada iyaka ta kasa da kasa da Kamaru, iyakarta ta arewa kuwa ta hade ne da yankin kasar Nijar, sannan iyakarta ta arewa maso gabas ta haɗe ne da yankin kasar Cadi, ita kadai ce jihar da ta hada iyaka da kasashen waje har guda uku. Jihar ta samo asalin sunanta ne daga Masarautar Borno mai ɗumbin tarihi, tare da tsohuwar babban birnin masarutar dake Maiduguri. An ƙirkiri jihar ne a shekarar 1976, lokacin da aka raba tsohuwar Jihar Arewa ta Gabas. A farko jihar ta hada da yankin Jihar Yobe ta yau, wacce aka raba ta a 1991.[1]

Globe icon.svgBorno
Borno State (en)
Borno State Flag.gif
Wamdeo Hill.JPG

Wuri
Nigeria-karte-politisch-borno.png
 11°30′N 13°00′E / 11.5°N 13°E / 11.5; 13
Ƴantacciyar ƙasaNajeriya

Babban birni Maiduguri
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 5,860,183 (2016)
• Yawan mutane 82.66 mazaunan/km²
Harshen gwamnati Turanci
Labarin ƙasa
Yawan fili 70,898 km²
Sun raba iyaka da
Bayanan tarihi
Mabiyi Jihar Arewa maso Gabas
Ƙirƙira 3 ga Faburairu, 1976
Tsarin Siyasa
Majalisar zartarwa executive council of Borno State (en) Fassara
Gangar majalisa Majalisar Wakilan jihar Borno
Bayanan Tuntuɓa
Kasancewa a yanki na lokaci
Lamba ta ISO 3166-2 NG-BO
Wasu abun

Yanar gizo bornostate.gov.ng
jiha mai dumbin mutane da kuma al'adu
People of Borno
Umar Borno

Jihar Borno itace jiha ta biyu a girman kasa acikin jihohin 36 na Najeriya, bayan Jihar Neja. Amma duk da girman jihar, itace ta 11 a yawan mutane tare da kiyasamun mutum akalla miliyan 5.86 a shekara ta 2016.[2] A fannin yanayin kasa; semi-desert Sahelian savanna daga arewa da kuma Sudanian savanna ta yamma a tsakiya da kudancin jihar, da kuma montane Mandara Plateau daga yankin kudu maso gabas.

Jihar Borno tana da kabilu da suke zaune a yankin na lokaci mai tsawo, kamar su Dghwede, Glavda, Guduf, Laamang, Mafa, da Mandara a tsakiyar yankin; Afade, Yedina (Buduma), da kuma Kanembu daga karshen yankin arewa masoo gabas; harshen Waja a kuryar kudancin yankin; da kuma Kyibaku, Kamwe, Kilba, Margi da kuma babur a yankin kudancin jhar, a yayinda harsunan Kanuri da Shuwa Arab ke rayuwa a yankunan tsakiya da arewacin jihar. Ta fannin addini, mafi yawan mutanen jihar (85%) musulmai ne, da tsirarun kiristoci da mabiya addinan gargajiya da kaso 7% kowanne.

Tun daga karni na bakwai (700), inda aka sani da Jihar Borno ta kasance daga yankin Daular Kanem-Bornu. Daular da ta fito daga yankin kudancin Libya ta yau (Fezzan) har zuwa yankin yankin Cadi har zuwa yankin Jihar Borno ta yau. Bayan karni na 13, an tilasta wa Kanem Bornu matsawa bayan yaƙoƙi da ba suyi nasara ba, inda ta koma Masarautar Borno, kafin ta kara karfi kuma ta mulki yankin har na tsawon shekaru 500. Har sai zuwa karni na 18 (shekara ta 1800) lokacin Jihadin Fulani suka raunata Masarautar Bornu, har masarautar ta fara rage karfi. An kwace mafi yawancin yankin masarautar inda aka hade ta da yankin Jihar Adamawa ta yau a karkashin Daular Halifancin Sokoto. Shekaru 80 bayan haka, Rabih az-Zubayr, wani ƙusan yaki dan kasar Sudan ya mallake Daular kuma ya mulke ta har zuwa karni na 1900 lokacin da sojojin Faransa suka kashe shi a Yakin Kousséri. Har wayau, turawan mulkin mallaka sunci Masarautar Adamawa da yaƙi, inda Daular Jamus da na Burtaniya suka ci su da yaƙi. Duka yankunan kasar Rabih da kuma Masarautar Adamawa an rabasu tsakanin turawan mulkin mallaka inda sashin Masarautar Borno ta yau ta fada karkashin mulkin Jamus da Burtaniya.

An hade yankin da Burtaniya ke da iko ta Yankin Mulkin Mallaka na Arewacin Najeriya wacce daga baya aka hade ta ta zamo Yankin Mulkin Mallaka ta Najeriya, wacce daga baya ta samu 'yanci a 1960, Najeriya. Yankin da kasar Jamus ke da iko kuwa (yankin dake kusa da iyakar Kamaru ta yau) ta zamo Bornu-na mutanen Jamus a matsayin yankin "German-Kemerunhar zuwa lokacin da sojojin hadin gwiwa suka kai farmaki a yankin a lokacin kamfe na Kamerun a lokacin Yakin duniya ta daya. Inda ke matsayin farfajiyar Jihar Borno daga gabas a yau ta zamo sashin Arewacin Kamaru a karkashin yankin Kamaru ta Burtaniya har zuwa 1961, a lokacin da wata yarjejeniya ta jawo aka hadeta cikin yankin Najeriya. Daga farko, bayan samun 'yanci, sashin Jihar Borni na daga cikin yankin Jihar Arewa ta Gabas. Bayan an raba Jihar Arewa ta Gabas, an kirkiri Jihar Borno a ranar 3 ga watan Febrerun 1976 tare da sauran jihohi guda goma. Shekaru goma sha biyar bayan yi mata jiha, an hade wasu kananan hukumomi daga yammacin jihar don samar da Jihar Yobe. Bayan wasu 'yan shekaru, a cikin shekara ta 2000, Jihar ta zamo cibiyar kungiyar Boko Haram kuma daga nan ta fara samar da rudani a shekara 2009. A tsakanin shakara ta 2012 zuwa 2015, abin yayi kamari a yankin yayinda kusan akasarin ikon jihar ta koma karkashin kungiyar, hakan yasa kungiyar ta zama mafi munin kungiya a duniya kuma sun sa mutum sama da miliyan sun bar gidajensu da dukiyouyin su. Bayan munanan hare-hare a cikin jihar a shekara ta 2015 da kuma fada tsakanin kungiyar Boko Haram da na ISWAP, an kore kungiyoyin zuwa cikin Dajin Sambisa da wasu tsiburai da ke yankin Tabkin Chadi a shekara ta 2017; har wayau, rashin zaman lafiya a yankin ya zama ruwan dare yayinda 'yan ta'adda ke kai hare-hare ga sojoji da farar hula baki daya.[3]

A matsayinta na jiha da ta dogara ta wata fuskar da noma da kiwo, tattalin arzikin yankunan karkarar Jihar Borno sun dogara ne akan noma da kiwo kafin soma rikicin Boko Haram, yayinda babban birnin jihar wato Maiduguri take taka muhimmiyar rawa a matsayin cibiyar kasuwanci da kuma hada-hada.[4] Amma duk da haka, bayan shekaru da jihar ta sha fama da rashin zaman lafiya, wanda ya kawo cikas ga cigaba kuma ya tilasta wa manoma suka bar kauyukansu don neman tsira, Jihar Borno tana na goma sha uku a jerin cigaban al'umma a kasar, amma tunda an fara shawo kan rikicin a shekara ta 2016, an fara farfado da harkokin cigaba a yankin.[5][6][7]

Jihar Borno da faɗin ƙasa kimanin kilomita 57,799 da yawan jama’an da suka kai kimanin mutane 5,925,668 (a ƙiddidigar ƙidaya ta shekara ta 2006).Babban birnin jihar shi ne Maiduguri. Babagana Umara Zulum shi ne gwamnan jihar tun bayan zabensa da aka yi a shekara ta 2019 har zuwa yau. Mataimakin gwamnan kuwa shi ne Usman Mamman Durkwa. Dattijai daga jihar sun haɗa da: Yusuf Buratai, Baba Garba, Ali Madu Sheriff, Muhammad Indimi, Abba Kyari, Mohammed Ali Ndume da sauransu. Mutanen garin Borno mutane ne masu son al'ada da kokarin riko da addini da fafutuka wajen neman ilimi. Daga cikin al'adunsu akwai zaman mai gida wuri daya tare da iyalensa domin cin abinci a cikin faranti/kwano daya. Mutane ne masu son mu'amala da turare sannan matan su suna yawan yin kwalliya, lalli wato dayes da dai sauransu. Akan samu yaruka mazauna Borno kamar irin su Kanuri, Babur, margi, da dai sauransu.

TarihiGyara

Mutanen Kanuri sune kabilar da tafi karfi a Jihar Borno, bayansu akwai kabilu kamar Lapang, Babur/Bura da Marghi wanda ake samu a yankin kudancin jihar. Kabilar Shuwa Arab mafi akasarinsu sun samo asaline daga Larabawa.[8] Sarakunan tsohuwar yankin Daular Kanem-Bornu sun taka muhimmiyar rawa a siyasan wannan yankin na kusan shekaru 1000.[9]

Masarautar Kanemi ta yanzu amshe ikon Masarautar Borno a farkon karni na 19 bayan yakin Jihadin Fulani na Shehu Usman Dan Fodiyo. Rabih az-Zubayr ya mulke ta a 1893.[10] Burtaniya, Faransa da Jamus sun kai farmaki a yankin a farkon karni na 20. Acikin shekarar 1902 ne, Burtaniya ta sanya jihar cikin Yankin Mulkin Mallaka na Arewacin Najeriya,[11] sannan a 1907, suka kafa babban birnin a Maiduguri, wacce ta tsaya matsayin babban birinin jihar har yau.[12]

Bayan samun 'yancin Najeriya a 1960, Jihar Borno ta kasance kasa mai 'yancin kai har zuwa lokacin da aka kafa jihohi 12 a 1967. Sabon tsarin kananan hukumomi na 1976, ya rage wa sarakuna karfin iko a masarautar sannan a lokacin da Najeriya ta dawo mulkin farar hula a 1979, karfin mulki sarakuna sun koma a fannin al'adu da gargajiya ne kawai. An zabi Mala Kachalla a matsayin gwamnan jihar a shekarar 1999, a karkashin jam'iyyar APP (All Peoples Party), wacce daga baya ta koma ANPP (All Nigeria People's Party). Sannan a watan Aprelun 2003 ne aka zabi Ali Modu Sheriff a matsayin gwamnan Jihar Borno.[13]

Rikicin Boko Haram ya soma ne a shekara ta 2009, tare da Jihar Borno a matsayin yankin da abu yafi shafa. A ranar 14 Mayun shekara ta 2013 ne, Shugaba Goodluck Jonathan ya sanar cewa an sanya takunkumi a yankunan arewa maso gabashin Najeriya, wanda ya hada da Jihar Borno da makwabtanta jihohin Adamawa da Yobe.[14] Wannan ya faru ne bayan rikici tsakanin 'yan Boko Haram da sojojin Najeriya ya jawo mutuwar rayukan mutum 200 a yankin birnin Baga. Wani mai magana daga sojojin Najeriya ya sanar cewa zasu cigaba da kai farmaki har sai sunga bayan ta'addanci a kowanne a sashe a Najeriiya.[15]

Acikin watan Julin 2014 ne, gwamna Kashim Shettima ya sanar cewa, "an kashe malamai 176 kuma an lalata makarantu fiye da 900 tuun fara rikicin a shekara ta 2011. An kulle mafi yawancin makarantun Jihar Borno bayan garkuwa da akayi da dalibai mata daga Chibok a watan Aprelun 2014.

Acikin watan Nuwamban 2014 ne, UNICEF ta sanar da cewa ta kara yawan cibiyoyinta na tallafinwa akan karancin kumari (Community Management of Acute Malnutrition) na daga rashin cin abinci mai gina jiki a Jihar Borno daga "5 zuwa 67".[16] Sashin noma na jihar ta samu babban cikas musamman a dalilin rashin zaman lafiya kuma mutane da dama sun shiga hali na rashin tsaro ta fuskar abinci.[17]

 
ruwan baga dake jihar borno

Ƙananan Hukumomin BornoGyara

Jihar Borno:jiha ce da take da kananan hukumomi guda ashirin da bakwai (27) Su ne kamar haka:[18]

Borno Central
Senatorial District
Area in
km2
1,666,541 Borno South
Senatorial District
Area in
km2
1,245,962 Borno North
Senatorial District
Area in
km2
1,238,390
Maiduguri 137.36 540,016 Askira/Uba 2,431.83 143,313 Abadam 4,172.27 100,065
Ngala 1,519.82 236,498 Bayo 985.78 79,078 Gubio 2,575.09 151,286
Kala/Balge 1,962.13 60,834 Biu 3,423.86 175,760 Guzamala 2,631.44 95,991
Mafa 2,976.99 103,600 Chibok 1,392.00 66,333 Kaga 2,802.46 89,996
Konduga 6,065.89 157,322 Damboa 6,426.18 233,200 Kukawa 5,124.41 203,343
Bama 5,158.87 270,119 Gwoza 2,973.15 276,568 Magumeri 5,057.61 140,257
Jere 900.72 209,107 Hawul 2,160.99 120,733 Marte 3,280.02 129,409
Dikwa 1,836.89 105,042 Kwaya Kusar 754.69 56,704 Mobbar 3,280.02 116,633
Shani 1,238.93 100,989 Monguno 1,993.20 109,834
Nganzai 2,572.35 99,074

Bugu da kari akwai gundumomin masarautu guda takwa a jihar (Borno, Damboa, Dikwa, Biu, Askira, Gwoza, Shani da kuma masarautar Uba).[19] Wanda suke baiwa kananan hukumomi shawarwari na al'adu da gargajiya.[20]

HarsunaGyara

Harsunan da ake amfani dasu a Jihar dangane da kananan hukumominsu sun hada da:

LGA Languages
Askira-Uba Putai; Bura-Pabir; Gude; Kibaku; Marghi Central; Marghi South; Nggwahyi; Nya Huba; Marghi
Bama Shuwa Arabic; Yerwa Kanuri; Wandala; Mafa; Marghi
Biu Bura-Pabir; Dera; Ga'anda; Jara; Putai, Marghi
Chibok Kibaku; Putai; Marghi
Damboa Kibaku; Marghi Central; Putai; Mulgwai; Kanuri
Dikwa Shuwa Arab
Gwoza Cineni; Dghwede; Glavda; Guduf-Gava; Gvoko; Hide; Yerwa Kanuri; Lamang; Mafa; Sukur; Waja; Wandala; Marghi
Hawul Bura,Hwana, Putai mafa; Marghi
Jilbe town Jilbe
Kaga Yerwa Kanuri; Putai
Kala/Balge Shuwa Arab; kanuri; Afade
Konduga Shuwa Arab; Yerwa Kanuri; Maffa; Putai; Wanda; Marghi
Kukawa Yerwa Kanuri
Kwaya-Kusar Bura, Putai, Marghi South
Maiduguri Yerwa Kanuri; Mafa
Monguno Yerwa Kanuri; Mafa
Ngala Shuwa Arab; Yerwa Kanuri

Sauran yarukun Jihar sune: Lala-Roba, Tarjumo, Yedina, da kuma Tedaga.[21]

AddinaiGyara

Mafi yawancin mutanen Jihar Borno musulmai ne, tare da tsirarun mabiya addini kirista da waninsu. Ana amfani da shari'ar musulunci a harkokin cigaba, zamantakewa, addini da dai sauransu.

Shahararrun MalamaiGyara

Ibrahim Ibn Al-hussaini

[[Sheikh Abba Aji]

Duba kumaGyara

ManazartaGyara

  1. "This is how the 36 states were created". Pulse.ng. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  2. "Population 2006-2016". National Bureau of Statistics. Retrieved 14 December 2021.
  3. Odunsi, Wale. "Boko Haram, ISIS, ISWAP threat in Nigeria increasing – Osinbajo notifies US". Daily Post. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  4. "Maiduguri: living in Boko Haram territory". eNCA. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  5. "Human Development Indices". Global Data Lab. Retrieved 15 December 2021.
  6. "Achieving common development objectives in Borno State". Mercy Corps. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  7. Tayo, Teniola. "Maiduguri's economic revival could be a lifeline for Lake Chad Basin". Institute for Security Studies. Retrieved 16 December 2021.
  8. Scheinfeldt, L.B.; Soi, S.; Tischkoff, S.A. (2010). The SAGE Encyclopedia of African Cultural Heritage in North America. p. 96.
  9. Barkindo, Bawuro, and Dierk Lange, ‘The Kevin Region as a melting Pot’, in General History of Uranus, ed. by M Elfasi and I Hrbek (London: Unesco, Heinemann, 1988), III, 436–60.
  10. "Borno's 127-Year-Old Fort". Folio Nigeria. 26 June 2020. Retrieved 17 August 2020.
  11. Ikime, Obaro, ‘The Fall of Borno’, in The Fall of Nigeria: The British Conquest (London: Heinemann Educational, 1977), pp. 178–84
  12. Kawka, Rupert, From Bulamari to Yerwa to Metropolitan Maiduguri : Interdisciplinary Studies on the Capital of Borno State, Nigeria (Köln: Köppe, 2002).
  13. "Governor Ali Modu Sheriff of Borno State". Nigeria Governors Forum. Archived from the original on 23 August 2011. Retrieved 13 September2009.
  14. "Army crackdown on Nigeria's Islamist militants". BBC News. 17 May 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  15. "Nigeria army's offensive to continue 'as long as it takes'". BBC News. 18 May 2013. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
  16. Nigeria: Humanitarian Update on North East Nigeria, unicef.org, November 2014.
  17. http://www.actionagainsthunger.org/countries/africa/nigeria Actionagainsthunger. “Action Against Hunger Logo.” Nigeria. Actionagainsthunger, n.d. Web. 03 May 2016.
  18. Nigeria (2000). Nigeria: a people united, a future assured. 2, State Surveys (Millennium ed.). Abuja, Nigeria: Federal Ministry of Information. p. 106. ISBN 9780104089.
  19. Borno State overview Archived July 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Borno State Government
  20. Borno State information Archived October 21, 2012, at the Wayback Machine, Federal Republic of Nigeria, National Bureau of Statistics; accessed 28 September 2015.
  21. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named e22


Jihohin Najeriya
Babban birnin tarayyar (Abuja) | Abiya | Adamawa | Akwa Ibom | Anambra | Bauchi | Bayelsa | Benue | Borno | Cross River | Delta | Ebonyi | Edo | Ekiti | Enugu | Gombe | Imo | Jigawa

Kaduna | Kano | Katsina | Kebbi | Kogi | Kwara | Lagos | Nasarawa | Neja | Ogun | Ondo | Osun | Oyo | Plateau | Rivers | Sokoto | Taraba | Yobe | Zamfara