Jihar Cross River
Sunan barkwancin jiha: Jihar birnin kwal.
Wuri
Wurin Jihar Cross River cikin Nijeriya.
Ƙidaya
Harsuna Efik, Ejagham da Turanci
Gwamna Benedict Ayade (PDP)
An kirkiro ta 1967
Baban birnin jiha Calabar
Iyaka 20,156km²
Mutunci
2006 (ƙidayar yawan jama'a)

3,737,517
ISO 3166-2 NG-CR

Jihar Cross River Jiha ce dake yankin kudu maso kudancin Najeriya. Jihar ta samo asalin sunanta ne daga Kogin Cross River, wacce aka samar daga tsohuwar Yankin Gabashin Najeriya a ranar 27 Mayun 1967. Babban birnin jihar itace Calabar, kuma ta hada iyaka da Jihar Benue daga arewa, daga yamma da jihohin Ebonyi da Abiya, daga kudu maso yamma da Jihar Akwa Ibom, yayinda iyakokinta na gabas suka hada iyaka da kasar Kamaru.[1] A da anfi saninta da suna Jihar Kudu maso Gabas kafin a canza mata suna a shekarar alif 1976, Jihar Cross River a da ta hada da yankin Jihar Akwa Ibom ta yau, wacce ta zamo jiha mai zaman kanta a shekara ta 1987.[2]

Acikin Jerin jihohi 36 dake Nijeriya, Jihar Akwai Ibom itace ta goma sha tara a fadin kasa, kuma itace ta ashirin da bakwai a yawan jama'a a Najeriya tare da kiyasi na kimanin mutum miliyan 3.8 bisa shekara ta 2016.[3] Ta fuskar yanayin kasa, jihar ta rabu tsakanin Guinean forest–savanna mosaic daga kuryar arewacin jihar da kuma Cross–Sanaga–Bioko coastal forests a daukakin yankunan cikin Jihar. Kananun yankunan jihar sun hada da Central African mangroves daga gafen teku na kurya kudancin jihar a matsayin sashin montane Cameroonian Highlands forests daga karshen yankin arewa maso arewa maso gabas. Wani muhimmin al'amari na yanayin kasar jihar itace Kogin Cross River wacce ta raba cikin garin Cross River biyu kafin ta samar da iyakar yammacin jihar, yayinda take fada wa cikin gabar kogin Cross Riiver. Sauran muhimman ruwayen yankin sune Kogin Calaba da kuma Kogin Great Kwa wanda suke gudana daga cikin gari na yankin tsaunukan Oba kafin su hayo ta birnin Calaba kafin sannan su kwarara cikin gabar Kogin Cross River suma. Daga cikin garin kuma akwai dazukan da gwamnati ke kula da su kamarsu: Cross River National Park, Afi Mountain Wildlife Sanctuary, da kuma Mbe Mountains Community Forest. Wadannnan gandun daji suna dauke da nau'ikan dabbobi iri-irin kamar kadoji, biran gorilla da makamantansu.[4][5][6][7]

Jihar Cross River ta yau tana dauke da kabilu da dama na tsawon karni da dama; irinsu Mutanen Efik dake zaune a yankin kudancin Kogin Calabar; Mutanen Ekoi, dake kudancin cikin gari; Kabilar Akunakuna, Mutanen Boki, Mutanen Bahumono, da kuma Mutanen Yakö dake zaune a yankin tsakiyar jihar, da kuma Bekwarra, Bette, Igede, Ukelle (Kukele) dake yankin arewacin jihar. Jihar Cross River ta yau kafin zuwan Turawan mulki mallaka ta rabu zuwa kashi daban daban yayin da wasu ke karkashin "Kungiyar Aro" su kuma kabilar Aro suka hada Akwa Akpa na (tsohuwa Calabar). Yankin kungiyar Aro ta zamo sashe na mulkin mallaka a shekarar 1884 a matsayin babban birnin yankin mulkin mallaka na Oil River, amma turawa basu gama samun cikakke iko a yankin ba sai a shekarar 1900. A wannan lokacin ne har wayau aka hade wannan yankin (wacce aka sake wa suna zuwa "Niger Coast Protectorate") acikin Yankin mulkin mallakar Turawa na Kudan in Najeriya wacce daga baya ta zamo Najeriya ta Birtaniya. Bayan an hade yankunan Kasar, mafi akasarin Jihar Cross River ta fada karkashin yankunan da suka bijirewa mulkin mallaka na turawa da kuma "rikicin mata" da kuma cinikayya ta hanyar tashar kasa da kasa dake Calabar.[8][9]

Bayan Najeriya samun 'yancin kai a 1960, mafi akasarin yankunan Jihar Cross River ta yau na daga cikin Yankin Gabashin Najeriya, har zuwa shekarar 1967, lokacin da aka raba yankin kuma jihar ta fada karkashin Yankin Kudu maso Gabashin Najeriya. Kwanaki kadan bayan haka ne yankin Inyamurai na gabas suka janyo Yakin basasar Najeriya wanda aka kwashe tsawon shekaru uku ana gwabzawa, a kokarinsu na samar da kasa mai zaman kanta na Biyafara; Anyi tarzoma sosai a yankin tashar jirgin ruwa na Calabar (Operation Tiger Claw), yayi da sojojin Biyafara sukai ta kwashe asalin mutanen Cross River saboda su ba Inyamurai bane.[10] Bayan yakin basasar, bayan an hade yankin cikin Kasar Najeriya, jihar ta fada karkashin Jihar Kudu maso Gabas har zuwa shekarar 1976 lokacin da aka canza mata suna zuwa Jihar Cross River.[11] Shekaru goma sha daya bayan haka, an sake raba yankin yammacin jihar inda aka ƙirƙiri sabuwa Jihar Akwa Ibom.[2] Jihar a da ta ƙunshi yanki mai arzikin man fetur na Bakassi amma daga baya an mika ta zuwa ga Kasar Kamaru a ƙarƙashin wata yarjejeniya ta Yarjejeniyar "Greentree Agreement".

Kasancewar cewa akwai yankunan da ake noma a jihar, tattalin arzikin Jihar sun ta'allakane ta wani fannin akan noman cocoyam, roba, manja, doya, cocoa, kashuw da ayabar plantain da kuma kamun kifi. Sauran muhimman harkoki sun hada da yawon bude idanu a yankunan tarihi, bikin Calabar Carnival, wurin shakwatawa na tsibiri Obudu. Jihar Cross River na da itace ta goma sha uku acikin Jerin Jihohi Najeriya dangane da Ma'aunin Cigaban Jama'a sannan akwai ma yan makarantu na gaba da sakandare a jihar.[12]

Jiha nada yawan filin kasa kimanin kilomita araba’i 20,156 da yawan jama’a milyan uku da dubu dari bakwai da talatin da bakwai da dari biyar da sha bakwai (ƙidayar yawan jama'a shekara 2006). Babban birnin jahar ita ce Calabar. Benedict Ayade shi ne gwamnan jihar tun zaben shekara ta 2015 har zuwa yau. Mataimakin gwamnan shi ne Ivara Esu. Dattijan jihar sun hada da: Gershom Bassey, Rose Okoji Oko da John Enoh.[13]

Yanayin kasaGyara

Jihar Cross River ta samo asalin sunanta ne daga Kogin Cross River wacce ta rasa ta tsakiyar jihar. Jiha ce dake gaɓar teku a yankin Niger Delta, kuma ta mamaye fili mai faɗin murabba'in kilomita 20,156kmsq. Jihar ta hada iyaka da jihar Benue daga arewa, jihohin Ebonyi da Abiya daga yamma, daga gabas kuwa da gundumar Sud-Ouest na Kasar Kamaru, sannan daga kudu kuwa da jihar Akwa Ibom da Tekun Atalanta.[14] Akwai ƙananan hukumomi 18 a jihar.

Kananan HukumomiGyara

Jihar Cross River tanada Kananan hukumomi guda goma sha bakwai (17). Sune:

TarihiGyara

An kirkiri Jihar Kudu maso Kudancin Najeriya a ranar 27 Mayu 1967, daga tsohuwar Yankin Gabashin Najeriya, a lokacin mulkin tsohon shugaba kasa Gen. Yakubu Gowon. An canza mata suna zuwa Jihar Cross River a shekarar 1976 a lokacin mulkin soja na Gen. Murtala Mohammed daga Yankin Kudu maso Gashin Najeriya.[15] An cire Jihar Akwa Ibom daga ciki ta bisa ga sabon tsarin jihohi da aka fidda a watan Satumban 1987 na lokacin mulkin shubagan kasa Ibrahim Babangida.[16] Gwarmayar samar da sabbin jihohi ta soma a shekarar 1980, a lokacin mulkin farar hula ta Shehu Shagari, a yayin da sanata Joseph Oqua Ansa(MON) mai wakiltar mazabar Calabar na kan iko. Babban birnin jihar itace Calabar. Muhimman biranenta sun hada da Calabar Municipality, Akamkpa, Biase, Kalabar ta Kudu, Ikom, Igede, Obubra, Odukpani, Ogoja, Bekwarra, Ugep, Obudu, Obanliku, Akpabuyo, Ofutop, Iso-bendghe, Danare, Boki, Yala, Bendeghe Ekiem, Etomi, Ediba, Itigidi, Ugep, Ukpe da kuma Ukelle.[17]

Shugabanni da dama sun jagoranta jihar wanda suka hada da: Udoakaha J. Esuene, Paul Omu, Tunde Elegbede, Clement Isong, Donald Etiebet, Daniel Archibong, Ibim Princewill, Ernest Atta, Clement Ebri, Ibrahim Kefas, Gregory Agboneni, Umar Faoruk Ahmed, Christopher Osondu, Donald Duke, Liyel Imoke da kujma Benedict Ayade. Gwamna mai ci shine Benedict Ayade, wanda aka rantsar a ranar 29 Mayun 2015. An sake zabar sa a karo na biyu a zaben shekara ta 2019 a karkashin jam'iyyar PDP.

Jama'aGyara

Jihar ta hada kabilu da dama,[18][19] wanda suka hada da e Efik, Ejagham, Yakurr, Bahumono, Bette, Yala, Igede, Ukelle da kuma kabilar Bekwarra da dai sauransu. Akwai muhimman harsuna hudu da akafi amfani dasu a jihar, Faransanci, Efik, Bekwarra, da kuma Ejagham. Ana amfani da harshen Mutanen Efik a kowanne sashi na jihar, musamman a garuruwan Calabar Municipality, Calabar ta kudu, Akpabuyo, Bakassi, Akampkpa, Biase, da kuam Odukpani. Akwai kuma harshen Jagham wanda ake amfani dashi a duk fadin Jihar Cross River.

Mafi akasarin masu magana da harshen Efik na zaune ne a yankin mazabar Kudancin Cross River, ko kamar yadda akafi saninta da gundumar Greater Calabar, wacce ta hada da kananan hukumomin Calabar Municipality, Calabar South, Bakassi, Biase, Akpabuyo, Odukpani, da kuma Akamkpa. Har wayau, akwai kuma shugaban mutanen Qua a Calabar, wadanda ke magana da harshen Ejagham. Kabilar Ejagham ta asali sun mamaye yankunan Calabar Municipality, Odukpani, Biase da kuma Akampkpa na Jihar Cross River.

Haka zalika kuma, akwai kabilun Yakurr/Agoi/Bahumono a kananan hukumomin Yakurr da Abi, yayinda su kuma Mbembe ake samunsu a karamar hukumar Obubra. Daga can tsakiyar arewacin jihar kuma akwai harsuna da dama da suka hada da; Etung, Olulumo, Ofutop, Nkim/Nkum, Abanajum, Nseke da kuma Boki duka a kananan hukumomin Ikom, Etung da Boki. Har ila yau ana samun mutanen Yala/Yache, Igede, Ukelle, Ekajuk, Mbube, Bette, Bekwarra da kuma Utukwang a yankunan Ogoja, Yala, Obudu da Obanliku da kuma karamar hukumar Bekwarra. Yaren Yala sun kasance wani reshe na yaren Idoma, daga cikin reshen Yala kuwa akwai mutanen Igede wanda ake zaton sunyi kaura daga Oju na Jihar Benue, da Ora, na Jihar Edo.

Yaren Bekwarra na daya daga cikin harsuna da akafi amfani dasu a Jihar Cross River. har sauran yaruka na yankin na fahimtar yaren. Ana amfani da wannen harshe tare da sauran harsuna irinsu Efik da Ejagham a wajen watsa labarai a tashohin rediyo da na telebijin na jihar.

Duk da rabe-raben harsuna daban daban na jihar, dukkannin wadanna harsuna sun samo asali ne daga Yarukan Niger-Congo. Daga karshe, A jihar ake gudanar da bikin Carnival mafi girma a Afirka.[20][21]

HarsunaGyara

Harsunan Cross River dangane da kananan hukumomin da ake amfani dasu sun hada da:[22]

LGA Languages
Abi Agwagwune; Humono; Ikwo-Igbo
Akamkpa Agoi; Bakpinka; Doko-Uyanga; Efik; Lubila; Nkukoli; Ukpet-Ehom; Ejagham; Kiong; Korop; Ubaghara; Ukwa; Umon
Bekwarra Bekwarra; Tiv; Utugwang-Irungene-Afrike
Biase Agwagwune; Efik; Ubaghara; Ukwa;Umon
Boki Bete-Bendi; Bokyi
Calabar Efik; Ejagham
Ikom Efik; Ejagham; Abanyom; Bukpe; Efutop; Mbembe,; Nde-Nsele-Nta; Ndoe; Nkukoli; Nnam; Olulumo-Ikom; Yala
Obanliku Bete-Bendi; Evant; Iceve-Maci; Obanliku; Otank; Tiv
Obubra Agoi; Hohumono; Legbo; Lenyima; Leyigha; Lokaa; Mbembe; Nkukoli; Yala; Ikwo-Igbo
Obudu Bete-Bendi; Bukpe; Bumaji; Elege; Tiv; Ubang; Utugwang-Irungene-Afrike; Efik
Odukpani Efik; Ejagham; Idere; Kiong; Korop; Odut; Usaghade
Ogoja Ekajuk; Igede; Kukele; Mbe; Nkem-Nkum; Nnam; Utugwang-Irungene-Afrike; Uzekwe; Efik
Yakurr Lokaah; Agoi, Asiga
Yala Izii-Igbo; Mbembe; Igede; Yace; Yala; Kukelle

Other languages spoken in Cross State are Eki, Ibibio, Ilue, Ito, and Okobo.[22][23]

BukukuwaGyara

Bukukuwa da ake gudanarwa a Jihar Cross River sun hada da:

  • Bikin Kirismeti na Jihar Cross River – 1 December to 31 December annually[24]
  • Bikin Carnival Float na Jihar Cross River – 26 and 27 December yearly
  • Bikin Yakurr Leboku Yam festival – 28 August annually
  • Bikin Calabar Boat Regata
  • Bikin Anong Bahumono Festival wanda ake gudanarwa a Kauyen Anong, inda ake raye-raye iri-iri, wanda suka hada da Ikpobin (wanda ake dauka matsayin rawa na nishadi a jihar), Ekoi, Obam, Emukei da kuma Eta[25]
  • Ediba Bikin Bahumono Festival wandaake gudanarwa a Kauyen Ediba Duk ranar Asabar ta karshen kowanne watan Juli
  • Bikin Bekwarra, Obudu, Obanliku, Igede New yam festival wanda ake gudanarwa a duk ranar Asabar ta farko na watan Satumban kowacce shekara.

Bude IdanuGyara

 
Cross River National Park

Wuraren bude idanu a jihar sun hada da: Waterfalls of Agbokim, Kogin Calabar, Tinapa Business Resort, Calabar Marina, Calabar Residency Museum da Calabar Slave Park, Ikom Monoliths, Mary Slessor Tomb, Calabar Drill Monkey Sanctuary, Cross River National Park, Afi Mountain walkway canopy, Kwa falls, Agbokim waterfalls, Tinapa Business Resort, titin jirgin kasa na Mono da kuma bikin shekara-shekara Calabar Carnival da ake gudanarwa a lokacin bikin kirismeti.

Za'a iya riskar Jihar Cross River ta tashar Filin jirgin saman Kalaba, ana sufurin mutane da kayayyaki zuwa yankun daban daban na kasar. Akwai kuma sauran filayen jirgi kamar su Air peace Airlines, Ibom Air Airlines da kuma na kwanannan Cally Air,wanda Aero Contractors ke gudanar da ita.

IlimiGyara

An fara karatu da harsunan gargajiya a jihar. Makarantu da dama na amfani da harsunan gargjiya a wajen koyarwa a jihar.[26] The Tertiary educational institutions in the State includes:

Duba KumaGyara



Jihohin Najeriya
Babban birnin tarayyar (Abuja) | Abiya | Adamawa | Akwa Ibom | Anambra | Bauchi | Bayelsa | Benue | Borno | Cross River | Delta | Ebonyi | Edo | Ekiti | Enugu | Gombe | Imo | Jigawa

Kaduna | Kano | Katsina | Kebbi | Kogi | Kwara | Lagos | Nasarawa | Neja | Ogun | Ondo | Osun | Oyo | Plateau | Rivers | Sokoto | Taraba | Yobe | Zamfara

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