Anambra

Jiha ce a Najeriya
Jihar Anambra
Sunan barkwancin jiha: Hasken Al'ummar.
Wuri
Wurin Jihar Anambra cikin Nijeriya.
Ƙidaya
Harsuna Igbo da Turanci
Gwamna Charles Chukwuma Soludo (APGA)
An kirkiro ta 1991
Baban birnin jiha Awka
Iyaka 4,844km²
Mutunci
2006 (ƙidayar yawan jama'a)

4,177,828
ISO 3166-2 NG-AN

Jihar Anambra jiha ce dake yankin kudu maso gabashin Najeriya.[1] An kafa jihar a ranar 27 Augustan, 1991.[2] Jihar Anambara ta hada iyaka da Jihar Delta daga yamma, Jihar Imo daga kudu, Jihar Enugu daga gabas, sai Jihar Kogi daga arewa.[3]

Al'ummar Anambra a bukukuwan al'ada
Sakateriya ta Anambra

Dangane da kidayar jama'a na shekara ta 2006, akwai mazauna garin fiye da miliyan 4.1 a Jihar Anambra.[4] An kafa jihar ne a shekarar alif 1976 daga tsohuwar Jihar Gabas ta Tsakiya. An sanyawa jihar suna bayan rafin Kogin Anambra.[5][6] Babban birnin jihar itace Awka, birnin da ke samun yawaitar jama'a da kimanin mutum miliyan 300,000 zuwa miliyan 3 a tsakanin shekara ta 2006 da shekarar 2020. Birnin Onitsha, birni mai dumbin tarihi mai tashar jirgin ruwa a lokacin mulkin mallaka na turawa, wanda ya kasance har yau muhimmin cibiyar kasuwanci a jihar.[7]

Ana mata inkiya da "Fitilar Kasa" (wato "Light of the Nation"), Jihar Anambra itace jiha ta takwas a yawan jama'a a Najeriya, duk da cewa an musanta hakan sosai, bisa la'akari da cewa Birnin Onitsha ta kai kimanin miliyan 5 ta fuskar yawan a shekara ta 2019.[8] Akwai tarin al'umma masu yawa a Adamawa, duk da cewa itace ta biyu a karancin girma.[9][10] Yankin da aka sani a matsayin Anambra a yau ta kasance tushen cigaba na yankuna da dama tun a karni na 9 (bayan rasuwar Yesu), wanda ta hada Masarautar Nri, wacce babban birni ta itace mai dumbin tarihi na Igbo-Ukwu. Mafi akasarin mazauna Anambra Inyamurai ne.[11][12] A yau, Jihar Anambra ta kasance babban birni,[13] Kuma ta dauki matakai da dama na rage talauci.[14]

Birnin Anambra
Kasuwannain Anambra
Lambar motar Anambra
Wasu unguwanni cikin anambra

Asalin KalmaGyara

An kikiri sunan Anambra ta hanyar hade kalmomin Anam da branch. Anam wata alqarya ce a yankin Omambala kuma kabilar Inymaurai na karshe da turawa suka riska yayin da suke haurawa zuwa kudancin Najeriya ta hanyoyin ruwa. A da ana kiran yankin Anambra a yau da suna 'Anam branch' (reshen Anam) na kusa da makwabtansu na Arewa. Hakan ta sa Anam da sauran alkaryun dake kewaye da ita suka zamo kananan hukomomi a lokacin da aka bata Jiha. A yanzu Anam na yankin karamar hukumar Anambra ta Yamma tare da Olumbanasa.

TarihiGyara

Tarihin Anambra ya faro ne tun daga karni na 9 Bayan mutuwar Yesu, kaman yadda tsaffin ma'adanai suka nuna a yankin Igbo-Ukwu da Ezira. Suna da ayyuka kyawawa da dama na sarrafa karafa, murjani, azurfa, tagulla da kuma laka. Akwai tarihin tsarin sarauta na musamman a yankin, wanda ta fara a yankin Anambra tun daga c. 948 AD har zuwa 1911. A wasu birane kamar Ogidi da sauransu, iyalai marasa karfi da dukiya na iya gadon sarauta na tsawon karni da dama.[15][16]

Turawan Burtaniya sun amince da wasu daga cikin wadannan sarakunan na gargajiya a tsarin mulkinsu na mulki da ba na kai tsaye ba, na yankin mulkin mallakarsu ta Kudancin Najeriya. A farkon karni na 19, sun nada wasu daga cikinsu matsayin shugabannin yanki kuma suka basu ikon karban haraji da sauran matsayi.

Anambra na daga cikin yankin Inyamurai da ta shiga cikin tawayen da ya jawo kafa Jamhuriyar Biyafara a 1967, bayan rashin jituwa da Arewacin Najeriya. A lokacin yakin yakin Najeriya da Biyafara tsakanin (1967–1970), injoniyoyin Biyafara sun gina wani dan filin jirgin sama a birnin Uli/Amorka (wacce ake wa lakabi da "Annabelle"). Ta wannan filin jirgi ne wasu kasashe kamar Sao Tome da sauransu ke kawo wa yankin Biyafara agaji na abinci, magunguna da sauransu. Ta wannan tashar jirgi ne sojojin sama na Amurka kamar Alex Nicoll da makamansu ke kawo akayi agaji da dama ga al'ummar Biyafara.[17]

Don tsananin kyamar wahalhalu da koke-koken matuwa na mutane da dama a yankin Biyafara ta sanadiyyar yunwa, hadi da cigaba da tozarta yankunan kasar da sojojin saman Najeriya ke yi yasa Carl Gustaf von Rosen ya ajiye aiki a matsayin sojan sama mai kai agajin gaggawa na Red Cross. Ya taimakawa 'yan Biyafara wajen samar da tawagar sojojin sama na mutum biyar da jiragen Malmö MFI-9 a yankin filin jirgin sama dake Uga. Ya sanyawa wannan tawagar suna "Babies of Biafra" don tunawa da jarirai da suka mutu da yunwa a Biayafara.[18][19][20]

An kafa tsohuwar Jihar Anambra a shekarar alif 1976 daga sashin Jihar Gabas ta Tsakiya, wacce babban birninta ke Enugu. A 1991, sauyin tsari yasa an raba Jihar Anambra zuwa jihohi biyu, Jihar Anambra da kuma Jihar Enugu. Babban birnin Anambra itace Awka.[21]

Labarin kasaGyara

Birane da yankun gudanarwaGyara

Jihar Anambra na samun ruwan sama na kimanin kashi 2.2% a duk shekara, mafi akasarin mutanen jihar na zaune ne a birane. Ta kasance daga cikin jihohin da suka fi kowacce habakar birane a Najeriya.

Muhimman biranen Jihar Anambra sune Onitsha, kamar biranen Okpoko, Ogbaru; Nnewi, da kuma Awka, wato babban birnin jihar. Biranen Awka da Onitsha sun cigaba tun kafin zuwan turawan mulkin mallaka. Awka itace cibiyar masana'antu na daular Nri. Onitsha kuma birnin jiha ce a Neja, inda ta cigaba a matsayinta na tashar jirgin ruwa da kuma cibiyar cinikayya.

Onitsha birnin kasuwanci ce dake habaka cikin sauri, kuma ta cigaba ta zamo mashahuriyar birni da kai har yankunan Idemili, Oyi da karamar hukumar Anambra ta Gabas, da kasuwar ta dake daya daga cikin manyan kasuwanni Nahiyyar Afurka ta kudu.

Sauran muhimman birane a Anambra sun hada da: Abagana, Abba, Abacha, Umueri, Abatete, Achalla, Achina, Adazi Ani, Adazi-Enu, Adazi-Nnukwu, Agukwu, Aguleri, Agulu, Aguluezechukwu, Aguluzigbo, Ajalli, Akpo, Akpu, Akwaeze, Akwukwu, Alor, Amaetiti, Amansea, Amanuke, Amaokpala, Amawbia, Amesi, Amichi, Amorka, Anam, Anaku, Atani, Awa, Umueri, Awba-Ofemili, Awgbu, Awka-Etiti, Awkuzu, Azia, Azigbo, Ebenator Ozulogu, Ebenebe, Ekwulobia, Ekwulumili, Enugwu-Adazi, Enugwu-Agidi, Enugwu Aguleri, Enugwu Ukwu, Ezinifite, Ezinihite, Eziowelle, Ezira, Ichi, Ichida, Ideani, Ifitedunu, Ifite-Ogwari, Igbakwu, Igbariam, Igbedor, Igbo-Ukwu, Ihembosi, Ihiala, Ikenga, Inoma, Iseke, Isuaniocha, Isulo, Isuofia, Lilu, Mbosi, Mgbakwu, Mmiata Anam, Nando, Nanka, Nawfia, Nawfija, Nawgu, Ndikelionwu, Ndi-okpaleke, Ndiukwuenu, Nibo, Nimo, Nise, Nkpologwu, Nkpor, Nkwelle-Ezunaka, Neni, Nnobi, Nnokwa, Nsugbe, Nteje, Nzam, Oba, Obeledu, Obosi, Ochuche-Umuodu, Ogbunike, Ogbunka, Ogidi, Ojoto, Okija, Oko, Okpeze, Omasi, Omogho, Omor, Onneh, Ora-Eri, Oraifite, Oraukwu, Orsumoghu, Ossomala, Osumenyi, Owerre-ezukala, Owelle-Olumbanasa, Ozubulu, Ubuluisiuzor, Ufuma, Uga, Ugbenne, Ugbenu, Uke, Ukpo, Ukpor, Ukwalla-Olumbanasa, Ukwulu, Uli, Umuanaga, Umuawulu, Umuchu, Umudioka, Umueje, Umuerum, Umueze Anam, Umuoba Anam, Umudora Anam, Umumbo, Umunnachi, Umunankwo, Umunya, Umunze, Umuoji, Umuomaku, Umuona Unubi, Odekpe-Oluumbanasa, Utuh,Odeh-Olumbanasa, Igbokenyi Olumbanasa, Odomagwu-Olumbanasa, da kuma Allah/Onugwa-Olumbanasa.

Kananan hukumomiGyara

WuriGyara

Jihar ta hada iyaka da Jihar Delta daga yamma, Jihar Imo da Rivers daga kudu, Jihar Enugu daga gabas da kuma Jihar Jihar Kogi daga arewa. Jihar ta samo asalin sunanta ne daga Kogin Anambra wacce ke kwarara a yankin kuma ta kasance reshen ne na Kogin Neja.

Inyamurai ne mutanen asali na jihar (wanda ke da kashi 99%) da 'yan kwararan mutane wadanda ke amfani da wasu harsunan kuma mafi yawancinsu na zaune ne a yankin arewa maso yammacin jihar.[22]

Jihar Anambra itace ta takwas a yawan mutane a Najeriya kuma itace ta biyu a cushewar jama'a bayan jihar Lagos (jiha). A duk nisan kilomita 45km tsakanin yankuna akwai kwauyukan da kananan birane dake zaune a daji wanda ya baiwa mutanen yanki matsakaicin cushuwar jama'a na kimanin 1,500–2,000 na mutane duk tafiyar kilomita square.[23]

Albarkatun kasaGyara

Jihar Anambra na da arzikin man fetur, gas, bauxite, da ceramic.[24] Tana da kaso akalla 100 na kasan noma.

Jihar Anambra na da wasu albarkatun da suka shafi noma da kiwo kaman kiwon kifi da noma, da kuma amfani da dabbobi wajen noma da kuma kiwo.

Fetur da gasGyara

A shekara ta 2006, anyi bikin tunawa da matatar mai na 'yan kasuwa na farko a Najeriya, Orient Petroleum Refinery (OPR), wacce akayi a yankin Aguleri.[25] Gwamnatin tarayya ta bai wa kamfanin Orient Petroleum Resource Ltd (OPRL) na mai kamfanin OPR lasisin gina matatar man fetur mai iya tace barrel 55,000 a duk rana (~7,500 t/d).

Acikin shekara ta 2012, bayan kokarin da gwamna Peter Obi yayi tare da sauran masu hannun jari a kamfanin Orient Petroleum, Jihar Anambra ta zamo jiha mai samar da man fetur da kanta a Najeriya. Kamfanin man na Anambra na tsotso man fetur daga kwarin Kogin Anambra.[26]

A ranar 2 ga watan Augustan 2015, kamfanin Orient Petroleum Resources Plc ta sanar cewa tana shirin kara yawan man fetur da take samarwa da barrel 3000 a duk rana zuwa watan Satumba na 2015, saboda ta fara sabon aiki a sabbin rijiyoyin mai a yankin filayen mai na Aguleri. Wani kamfani na mutanen garin Nails and Stanley Ltd, na shirin samar da matatar gas a Umueje dake karamar hukumar Ayamelum don tallafawa harkokin tattalin arziki da kuma ma'aikatun mai da gas a jihar.[27]

Tattalin arzikiGyara

Noma na daga cikin muhimmin sashin tattalin arziki a Anambra. Manja, Masara, Shinkafa da rogo na daga cikin kayan da ake nomawa a yankin. Kamun kifi na daga cikin muhimman al'amurra a jihar.

Kamfanin da ya fara kera ababen hawa a Najeriya Kamfanin Innoson na nan a yankin Nnewi na Jihar Anambra.[28][29][30]

Mutane daga kowanne sako na Yammacin Afurka na halartar kasuwar Onitsha don cinikayya, wanda hakan na kara bunkasa tattalin arzikin jihar, kuma ya sanya ta daya daga cikin manyan biranen kasuwanci na Afurka.[31][32]

Anambra ta kasance cibiyar kirkire-kirkire ce, kere-kere, da samarwa. Akwai kirkire-kirkire da dama a Anambra, a sanadiyyar ilimi wanda hakan ya kara wa jihar yawan kudin shiga.

Fitar da albarkatun noma daga yankin Jihar Anambra ya karawa jihar kudaden shiga, a shekara ta 2017, an samun kimanin miliyan $5 a sanadiyyar fitar da ganyen yakuwa.[33]

Akwai tarin man fetur da gas a Najeriya, da yankin Anambra Basin da ke tarin mai na 1000 trillion cubic da ba'a tsotso ba. Jihar na da rijiyoyin mai fiye da guda 13 a Anambra. Jihar Anambra na da ikon tace akalla barrel 100,000 a rana, yayinda matatun mai na gida watau Orient Petroleum, da kuma Sterling Oil Exploration and Production Co. LTD (SEEPCO) suke aikin taxewa.[34]

SufuriGyara

Anambra na da hanyoyi masu kyau zuwa wasu jihohin Najeriya. Kogin Neja ya hada Onitsha da sauran tashoshin jirgin ruwa na Port Harcourt a Jihar Rivers da Bururu da Warri a Jihar Delta. Akwai gadar Neja ta biyu a Onitsha wanda ake kan ginawa.[35]

Birane da gine-gineGyara

Tun karshen shekarun 1990, an samu yawaitar hijira daga kauyuka zuwa birane, wanda hakan yasa biranen Anambra suka cika makil da mutane: kusan kaso 62% na mutanen kasar na zaune ne a birane.

Al'adu da wuraren ziyaraGyara

UNESCO sun lissafo Ogbunike Caves[36] a matsayin daya daga cikin wuraren tarihi na duniya.[37] ya kasance daya daga cikin wurin tarihi da akafi ziyara a Jihar Anambra. An kasa ta cikin jerin kogunan sandstone (Lateritic na shekarun Campanian-Miocene).[38] Kogon Owerre Ezukala da makwararan ruwa (waterfall) sun kasance wuraren ziyara a jihar.[39] Ana daukar wadannan koguna a matsayin daya daga cikin manyan koguna a Afurka.[40][41]

Wurin tarihi na Igbo-Ukwu:[42] wata tsohuwar hari ce da tayi kaurin suna a kere-kere karafuna kyawawa; masu ziyara na cigaba da zuwa don ganin kere-keren tagulla.

Jihar Anambra na da nau'oin abinci iri-iri, wanda suka hada da farar miya mai yaji na mutanen China, hamburger, sharwarma da kuma shahararriyar miyan onugbu.[43][44]

CociGyara

Cocukan Jihar Anambra sun hada da cocukan Catholic, Anglican da Pentecostal. Cocin Catholic cathedral baban coci ne dake yankin 13B New Nkisi Rd, GRA 434106, Onitsha. Shi kuma cocin Anglican Cathedral coci ne dake GRA 434106, Onitsha.

A Jihar Anambra akwai cocukan Pentecostal da dama wadanda suka hada da: God Church,[45] Redeemed Church,[46] House on the Rock, Dominion City,[60] Dunamis, Winners' Chapel, da kuma cocin Christ Embassy.

IlimiGyara

Anambra tayi fice a fannin ilimin zamani a Najeriya, musamman a fannin kimiyya da fasaha. A shekara ta 2018, dalibai biyar daga makarantar sakandare na Regina Pacis Model,[47] Onitsha, sun lashe kyautay zinare a wani gasar World Technovation Challenge da akayi a Silicon Valley, San Francisco.[48]

Makarantun gaba da sakandare na gwamnatiGyara

Makarantu masu zaman kansuGyara

Awka itace babban birnin jihar, kuma itace cibiyar masana'antu karfe da sarrafawa a Najeriya.

Akwai masu ilimi da dama dangane da sauran kasashen Najeriya. Daliban jihar cin lashe kyautuka da dama na gasar kasa da duniya baki daya. Wannan abun la'akari ne dangane da sauran jihohin Najerya.[67][68][69][70] Daliban dake shiga makarantun firamare da sakandare na da yawa a yankin.[71] A kwannan, Jihar Anambra ta fidda dalibai mafi yawa da zasu rubuta jarabawar JAMB a Najeriya. A tsakanin shekarun 2011/2012 zuwa 2014, dalibanta sun sami mafi kyawun sakamako a jarabawar WAEC da NECO.[72][73]

Makarantun sakandare na kwana na jihar Anambra na daga cikin ingantattun makarantu a Najeriya. Gwamnatin jihar ta mayar da hankali sosai a ingancin ilimin sakandare.[74][75]

SiyasaGyara

Za'a iya alakanta siysar Anambra a matsayin mai canza. An samu rikice-rikice iri-iri kafin karni na 21, an sama rudani da yawa a jihar. Sanadiyyar cewa ta taka muhimmiyar rawa a tarihin Najeriya, sai yasa ake kiran ta da "Hasken Kasar Najeriya" (The Light of The Nation). A ranar 29 May 1999, an rantsar da Chinwoke Mbadinuju a matsayin gwamnan jihar na farko, bayan mulkin soja na tsawon lokaci. Gwamnatinsa ta sama matsaloli daban daban: wanda sukayi fice sune, rike albashin malaman makaranta, wanda ya janyo yajin aikin malaman sakandare na duka makarantun jihar.[76]

Kafin mulkin Mbadinuju, karatun sakandare kyauta ne a jihar. Gwamnatinsa ta wajabta biyan naira 3,000 a duk term a daukakin makarantun sakandare na jihar, wanda hakan ya jawo zanga zanga a yankuna da dama na jihar. Mutane suna alakanta gazawar mulkin Mbadinuju da iyayen gidansa; wanda ya gaje shi ma ya sha fama da iri wadannan matsaloli. A ranar 26 ga watan May 2003 ne, aka rantsar da Chris Ngige a matsayin gwamnan jihar, amma an tsige shi a shekarar ta 2006, bayan dan takarar APGA, Peter Obi ya maka shi kara a kotu akan magudin zabe. Kotun Enugu ta yanke hukuncin cewa nasarar zabe da Ngige yayi ya kasance ta hanyar magudi kuma ta umurce shi da ya bar kujerar.[77]

Wani sashe na majalisar dokokin Jihar Anambra ta kori Obi inda ta musanya shi da mataimakin shi Virginia Etiaba,[78] A ranar 9 Febrerun 2007 ne, Etiaba ya maida ikon gwamnati ga Obi, bayan kotu ta haramta cire Obi da akayi.[79]

A ranar 14 ga watan Aprelu 2007 ne, aka sake zaben Peter Obi don komawa makaminsa a wa'adi na biyu, bayan adawa mai zafi a aka tafka da Chris Ngige tare da tsohon gwamnan Bankin Najeriya Charles Soludo da kuma Andy Uba, wani mai fada aji a jihar.[80][81] Sauran 'yan takara sun hada da; Mrs Uche Ekwunife, Prince Nicholas Ukachukwu da dai sauransu. 'Yan takara mutum 25 suka fito zaben, an tabbatar da Obi a matsayin gwamna bayan yayi nasara da kaso 30% daga na biyunsa. An rantsar da Willie Obiano a ranar 17 March 2014 matsayin gwamnan jihar bayan ya ci zabe a ranar 16 ga watan Nuwamban 2013. An sake rantsar da Willie Obiano a matsayin gwamna a karo na biyu a ranar 17 March 2018 bayan yayi nasarar lashe zabe a ranar 18 November 2017.[82][83] Daga nan an mika wa Charles Soludo kujerar gwamnan Jihar Anambra wanda yayi nasara a ranar 17 March 2022.[84][85]

Sanannun mutaneGyara

Duba kumaGyara

ManazartaGyara

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