Biyafara, a hukumance ita ce haramtacciyar Jamhuriyar Biyafara, ta kasance yankin da ta ke kokarin ballewa daga tarayyar Nijeriya wanda ya wanzu daga watan Mayun shekara ta 1967 zuwa Janairun shekara ta 1970. Yankin ta ya kunshi Yankin Gabashin Nijeriya .An kafa Biyafara ne sakamakon kishin kasa na ƙabilar Ibo na Nijeriya, wanda ya haifar da yakin basasar Nijeriya .Nijeriya ta shelanta yaki da Biyafara jim kadan bayan ta ayyana ‘yancin kai, daga karshe ta fatattaki Biafra tare da sake hade jihohin biyu.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10]

Globe icon.svgBiyafara
Republic of Biafra (en)
Flag of Biafra (en) Coat of arms of Biafra.svg
Flag of Biafra (en) Fassara

Take Land of the Rising Sun (en) Fassara

Wuri
Biafra in its region.svg
 6°27′N 7°30′E / 6.45°N 7.5°E / 6.45; 7.5

Babban birni Enugu, Owerri da Umuahia
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 13,500,000
• Yawan mutane 174.63 mazaunan/km²
Harshen gwamnati Harshen Ibo
Turanci
Addini Kiristanci da animism (en) Fassara
Labarin ƙasa
Yawan fili 77,306 km²
Bayanan tarihi
Ƙirƙira 1967
Rushewa 1970
Tsarin Siyasa
Tsarin gwamnati jamhuriya
Ikonomi
Kuɗi Kuɗin Biafra
wannan shine Nnamdi kanu shugaban haramtacciyar ƙungiyar IPOB na wannan lokacin banda can da
ƴa'ƴan haramtacciyar ƙungiyar Biafra (IPOB) suna zanga-zanga a saki shugaban su
wani shugaban haramtacciyar ƙungiyar IPOB ya bayani ga ƴaƴan ƙungiyar
wannan ita ce tutar haramtacciyar ƙungiyar IPOB

Gabon, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Tanzania, da Zambiya sun amince da Biafra a hukumance. Sauran ƙasashe, waɗanda ba su ba da sanarwa a hukumance ba amma sun ba da tallafi da taimako ga Biafra, sun haɗa da ƙasar Faransa, Spain, Portugal, Norway, Rhodesia, Afirka ta Kudu, da Vatican City. [lower-alpha 1] Biafra ta samu tallafi ne daga ‘yan wasan da ba‘ yan jihar ba, ciki har da Joint Church Aid, Holy Ghost Fathers of Ireland, kuma a karkashin jagorancin su Caritas International, da US Catholic Relief Services .Médecins Sans Frontières suma sun samo asali ne saboda amsar wahala.

Bayan shekaru biyu da rabi na yaƙin, a lokacin kusan fararen hula ‘yan Biafra miliyan biyu (  daga cikinsu ƙananan yara) sun mutu daga yunwa sanadiyyar toshe yankin gaba ɗaya da gwamnatin Najeriya tayi, sojojin Biafra ƙarƙashin taken Nijeriya na "Babu mai nasara, Ba-nasara" sun mika wuya ga Gwamnatin Sojan Tarayyar Nijeriya (FMG). Mika wuya ya samu sahalewar ne daga Mataimakin Shugaban Kasar Biafran kuma Babban Hafsan Hafsoshin Soja, Manjo Janar Philip Effiong, wanda ya zama shugaban Jamhuriyar Biyafara bayan tsohon Shugaban kasa, Kanar Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu, ya tsere zuwa Ivory Coast . Bayan mika wuya na Biafra, wasu ‘yan kabilar Ibo da suka tsere wa rikicin sun koma gidajensu amma ba su iya karbar su daga sababbin mazauna yankin ba. Wannan ya zama doka a cikin Dokar Kadarorin Abandened (28 Satumba 1979). An yi ikirarin cewa a farkon yakin basasa, Ibo sun cire kudadensu daga bankunan Nijeriya suka mayar da shi kudin Biafra. Bayan yakin, an kwace asusun ajiyar banki mallakar 'yan Biafra kuma wani kwamitin Nijeriya ya yanke shawarar bai wa kowane dan kabilar Ibo da asusu 20 kacal fam. Ayyukan tarayya a cikin Biafra suma an ragu sosai idan aka kwatanta da sauran sassan Najeriya. A wani binciken da aka gudanar tsakanin mutane an gano cewa jami'an tsaron Nijeriya sun kuma karbi kusan dala 100 miliyan a kowace shekara daga toshe hanyoyi ba bisa ka’ida ba da kuma wasu hanyoyi daga ƙasar Igbo - yanki ne na yankin Biafra a yankin da ke kudancin Najeriya a yanzu, wanda ke haifar da rashin yarda da ’yan kabilar Ibo ga jami’an tsaron Nijeriya.

Tarihi da asalin mutumGyara

 
Taswirar Afirka ( Abraham Ortelius, 1584)
 
Taswirar Yammacin Afirka ( Rigobert Bonne (Royal Cartographer of France) 1770)
 
Taswirar Yammacin Afirka (1839); An nuna Biyafara a yankin " Lower Guinea "

Farkon taswirar Afirka daga karni 15 zuwa 19 , waɗanda aka samo daga asusun da masu bincike da matafiya suka rubuta, suna nuna nassoshi ga Biyafara, A cikin rubuce-rubucensa na sirri daga tafiyarsa, Rev. Charles W. Thomas ya ayyana wuraren da tsibirai suke a Bight of Biafra a matsayin "tsakanin kwatankwacin nisan 5 ° da 9 °<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwbw"> </span>Gabas da latitude 4 °<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwcQ"> </span>Arewa da 2 °<span typeof="mw:Entity" id="mwcw"> </span>Kudu ". Jama'ar yankin sun bayyana Biyafara a matsayin ƙasar da ta ke makwabtaka da Bight of Biafra sannan kuma kasa ce ta asali, wacce ta kasance kafin Turawan mulkin mallaka su kirkiro wasu ƙungiyoyi kamar Najeriya.

Abubuwan da ke haifar da yaƙiGyara

A shekara ta 1960, Najeriya ta sami 'yencin kanta daga Kasar Ingila. Kamar yadda yake tare da sauran sababbin ƙasashen Afirka, iyakokin ƙasar ba su nuna alamun ƙabilanci, al'ada, addini, ko siyasa ba. Don haka, yankin arewacin kasar yana da mafi rinjaye na musulmai, kasancewar asalinsa ya kasance yankin Calian asalin Sokoto. Yawan mutanen kudanci galibinsu mabiya addinin kirista ne, kasancewar asalinsu yankuna ne na asalin Yarabawa da jihohin Igbo a yamma da gabas. Bayan samun ‘yancin kai, an shata kannun Najeriya da farko ta hanyar kabilu: Hausawa da Fulani masu rinjaye a arewa, Yarbawa masu rinjaye a Yamma, da Igbo a Gabas.

Rikicin ƙabilanci ya ɓarke a Najeriya yayin tattaunawar samun 'yanci, amma a tsakiyar karni na ashirin, rikicin kabilanci da na addini ya fara faruwa. A shekara ta 1945 wani rikicin kabilanci barke a Jos inda Hausa-Fulani suka auna wa ‘yan kabilar Ibo suka kashe mutane da dama da raunata. Dole ne aka kawo 'yan sanda da sojoji daga Kaduna don maido da zaman lafiya. Wani labarin jarida ya bayyana abin da ya faru Kamar haka:

A Garin Jos a cikin shekara ta 1945, wani harin bazata da 'yan Arewa suka kai wa mutanen Gabas ya ba su mamaki, kuma kafin a shawo kan lamarin, gawawwakin matan Gabas, maza, da yara kanana sun cika tituna kuma an rage dukiyarsu ta dubban fam. yamutsewa

HarsunaGyara

Yarukan Biafra sune: Igbo, Anaang, Efik, Ibibio, Ogoni, da Ijaw, da sauransu. Koyaya, anyi amfani da Ingilishi azaman harshen ƙasa.

SiyasaGyara

Jamhuriyar Biafra jamhuriya ce mai dunƙulalliya wacce aka gudanar karkashin matakan gaggawa. Ya ƙunshi Ɓangaren zartarwa, a matsayin Chukwuemeka Odumegwu Ojukwu, da bangaren shari'a a cikin Ma’aikatar Shari’a. Tsarin shari'arta ya dogara ne da Dokar gama gari ta Ingilishi.

Tattalin arzikiGyara

Cibiyar farko da gwamnatin Biafra ta kirƙira shine Bankin Biyafara, wanda aka kammala shi a karkashin "Dokar No. 3 na shekara ta 1967 ". . . .

SojaGyara

 
Zagayen sojojin sama na Biyafara.
 
Sabon shafin jaridar Najeriya, 7 Janairu 1970. Karshen yakin basasar Najeriya da Biafra. "Yanzu haka an kame Owerri. Ojukwu ya gudu daga yankin nasa. " Hotunan sojoji Obasanjo, Jallo, Bissalo, Gowon.

LegacyGyara

 
Yaro da ke fama da tsananin yunwa da rashin abinci mai gina jiki a lokacin da aka killace Najeriya

Duba kumaGyara

Bayanan kulaGyara

 

ManazartaGyara

  1. Daly, Samuel Fury Childs (2020). A History of the Republic of Biafra: Law, Crime, and the Nigerian Civil War. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi:10.1017/9781108887748. ISBN 978-1-108-84076-7.
  2. McCormack, Fergus (4 December 2016). "Flights of angels". Would you believe?. RTÉ Press Centre. Archived from the original on 23 January 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  3. Staunton, Enda (Autumn 2000). "The forgotten war". History Ireland magazine (in Turanci). Vol. 8 no. 3. Archived from the original on 22 January 2018. Retrieved 22 January 2018.
  4. Phillips, James F. (2018). "Biafra at 50 and the birth of Emergency Public Health". American Journal of Public Health. 108 (6): 731–733. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2018.304420. ISSN 0090-0036. PMC 5944891. PMID 29741940.
  5. Jacos, Dan (1987-08-01). "Lest we forget the starvation of Biafra". The New York Times. Opinion (in Turanci). ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-03-26.
  6. Philips, Barnaby (13 January 2000). "Biafra: Thirty years on". BBC News. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 9 March 2011.
  7. Mwalimu, Charles (2005). The Nigerian Legal System (in Turanci). Peter Lang. ISBN 9780820471266 – via Google Books.
  8. Made, Alexsa (9 January 2013). "Group sues FG over abandoned property, others". Vanguard News, Nigeria. Biafra (in Turanci). Archived from the original on 26 March 2013. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  9. "What is wrong with Nigeria?". Indigenous People of Biafra USA (in Turanci). Archived from the original on 29 March 2019. Retrieved 5 April 2019.
  10. "Nigeria security forces extort N100 billion in Southeast in three years". Indigenous People of Biafra USA (in Turanci). Archived from the original on 25 April 2019. Retrieved 2019-04-25.

Hanyoyin haɗin wajeGyara


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