Tunisiya (Larabci:تونت، Abzinanci ⵜⵓⵏⴻⵙ; Faransanci: Tunisie). [1]Jamhuriyar Tunisiya (Turanci Republic of Tunisia (Larabci : الجمهورية التونسية‎ al-Jumhūrīya at-Tūnisīya) kasa ce mai cin yancin gashin kanta a yankin arewacin Afrika, mai fadin kasa sukwaya mita 165,000 (sukwaya mil 64,000).Tayi iyaka da kasar Libya daga kudu maso gabas, sai Aljeriya daga yamma da kudu maso gabas, sai kuma da kogin miditaraniya daga Arewa da kuma gabas. Yana fasalta wuraren binciken kayan tarihi na Carthage tun daga karni na 9 BC, da kuma Babban Masallacin Kairouan. An san shi da tsohon gine-ginensa, souks, da bakin teku masu shuɗi, [Tunusia]] ta mamaye fili da yakai 163,610 km2 (63,170 sq mi), kuma yana da yawan jama'a miliyan 12.1. Ya ƙunshi ƙarshen tsaunin Atlas da arewacin hamadar Sahara; mafi yawan sauran yankinta ƙasar noma ce. Tsayinta ya kai na kilomita 1,300 (810 mi) na bakin teku ya haɗa da haɗin gwiwar Afirka na yamma da gabas na Basin Mediterranean. Tunisiya gida ce ga yankin arewacin Afirka, Cape Angela. Tana kan gabar tekun arewa maso gabas, Tunis shine babban birni kuma birni mafi girma a ƙasar. Sunan Tunisiya bayan Tunis.

Tunisiya
تونس (ar)
Flag of Tunisia (en) Coat of arms of Tunisia (en)
Flag of Tunisia (en) Fassara Coat of arms of Tunisia (en) Fassara


Take Humat Al Hima (en) Fassara (12 Nuwamba, 1987)

Kirari «حرية، كرامة، عدالة، نظام»
Suna saboda Tunis
Wuri
Map
 34°N 10°E / 34°N 10°E / 34; 10

Babban birni Tunis
Yawan mutane
Faɗi 11,565,204 (2018)
• Yawan mutane 70.69 mazaunan/km²
Harshen gwamnati Larabci
Labarin ƙasa
Bangare na Arewacin Afirka da European Union tax haven blacklist (en) Fassara
Yawan fili 163,610 km²
Wuri a ina ko kusa da wace teku Bahar Rum
Wuri mafi tsayi Jebel ech Chambi (en) Fassara (1,544 m)
Wuri mafi ƙasa Shatt al Gharsah (en) Fassara (−17 m)
Sun raba iyaka da
Bayanan tarihi
Mabiyi French protectorate of Tunisia (en) Fassara
Ƙirƙira 20 ga Maris, 1956
Ranakun huta
Tsarin Siyasa
Tsarin gwamnati parliamentary republic (en) Fassara da semi-presidential system (en) Fassara
Majalisar zartarwa Government of Tunisia (en) Fassara
Gangar majalisa Assembly of the Representatives of the People (en) Fassara
• President of Tunisia (en) Fassara Kais Saied (en) Fassara (23 Oktoba 2019)
• Prime Minister of Tunisia (en) Fassara Ahmed Hachani (en) Fassara (1 ga Augusta, 2023)
Ikonomi
Nominal GDP (en) Fassara 46,687,298,709 $ (2021)
Kuɗi Dinar na Tunisiya
Bayanan Tuntuɓa
Kasancewa a yanki na lokaci
Suna ta yanar gizo .tn (en) Fassara
Tsarin lamba ta kiran tarho +216
Lambar taimakon gaggawa 190 (en) Fassara, 198 (en) Fassara, 193 (en) Fassara da 197 (en) Fassara
Lambar ƙasa TN
Sabon jirgin 'Citadis' da aka yi amfani da shi a cikin layin dogo na Tunis
lokacin karatu a wani karni a tusnisiya
Tunisiya
Tunisiya
Kais Saied shugaba na yanzu ma ci

Tun daga farkon zamanin da, ƴan asalin ƙasar Berber ne ke zaune a Tunisiya. Phoeniciyawa, jama'ar Yahudawa, sun fara isowa a karni na 12 BC, suna zaune a bakin teku tare da kafa ƙauyuka da yawa, waɗanda Carthage ya kasance mafi ƙarfi a ƙarni na 7 BC. Zuriyar mazauna Phoenician sun zama sanannun mutanen Punic. Tsohuwar Carthage babbar daula ce ta 'yan kasuwa kuma abokin hamayyar soji ne ga Jamhuriyar Rum har zuwa 146 BC lokacin da Romawa suka mamaye Tunisiya tsawon shekaru 800 masu zuwa. Romawa sun gabatar da Kiristanci  kuma sun bar gadon gine-gine kamar Amphitheater na El Jem. A karni na 7 AD, Musulman Larabawa sun mamaye duk ƙasar Tunisiya (a ƙarshe sun yi nasara a cikin 697 bayan yunƙuri da yawa da suka fara a 647) kuma suka zauna tare da kabilunsu da iyalansu, suna kawo al'adun Islama da na Larabawa ga mazauna gida. Daga baya babban ƙaura Larabawa  na Banu Hilal da Banu Sulaym a cikin 11th-Karni na 12 sun hanzarta wannan tsari. A kusan karni na 15, yankin Tunisiya na zamani ya riga ya zama kusan Larabawa, wanda ya kafa Larabawa a matsayin mafi yawan al'umma. [2] Sannan, a cikin shekarar alif ɗari biyar da arba'in da shida 1546, Daular Usmaniyya ta kafa iko a wurin,tana da iko sama da shekaru 300, har zuwa shekarar alif ɗari takwas da tamanin da ɗaya 1881, lokacin da Faransa ta mamaye Tunisia. A cikin 1956, Tunisiya ta sami 'yencin kai  a matsayin Jamhuriyar Tunisiya a ƙarƙashin jagorancin Habib Bourguiba  tare da taimakon masu fafutuka irin su Chedly KallalaFarhat Hached, da Salah Ben Youssef. A yau, al'adun Tunisiya da asalinsu sun samo asali ne daga wannan haɗin kai na tsawon ƙarni na al'adu da ƙabilanci.

A cikin shekara ta dubu biyu da goma sha ɗaya 2011, juyin juya halin Tunisiya, wanda ya samo asali daga rashin gamsuwa da rashin 'yanci da dimokuradiyya a karkashin mulkin shugaba Zine El Abidine Ben Ali na shekaru 24, ya tuntsure gwamnatinsa tare da haifar da babban yunkuri na Larabawa a fadin yankin. An gudanar da zaben 'yan majalisu na jam'iyyu da yawa kyauta jim kadan bayan haka; kasar ta sake zaben majalisar dokoki a ranar 26 ga watan Oktoba na shekara ta dubu biyu da goma sha huɗu 2014,[3] da kuma shugaban kasa a ranar 23 ga watan Nuwamba na shekara ta dubu biyu da goma sha huɗu 2014.[4] Daga shekarar 2014 zuwa 2020, an dauke ta a matsayin kasa daya tilo ta dimokuradiyya a cikin kasashen Larabawa, bisa ga tsarin dimokuraɗiyya (The Economist). [5]Bayan koma bayan dimokuraɗiyya, ƙasar Tunisiya tana da tsarin mulkin gamayya. [6] Tana ɗaya daga cikin ƙananan ƙasashe a Afirka da ke da matsayi mafi girma a ƙimar ci gaban ɗan adam, tare da ɗaya daga cikin mafi girman yawan kuɗin shiga kowane mutum a nahiyar, wanda ke matsayi na 129 a GDP na kowane mutum.

Harshen gwamnati na Tunisiya  shine Larabci na Zamani. Mafi yawan al'ummar Tunisia Larabawa ne kuma musulmi. Larabci shine yare mafi yawa a ƙasar Tunisiya wanda ake magana da shi kuma Faransanci kuma yana aiki azaman yaren gudanarwa da ilimi a wasu mahallin, amma bashi da matsayi na hukuma.

Tunisiya ta shiga cikin kasashen duniya. Wani memba ne na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, [Internationaleale]] De La Francophonie, theabungiyar Larabawa, cikin Kotun Afirka, kotun da ba a daidaita da ba a hada da laifofin kasa da kasa ba, Rukuni na 77,da sauransu. Tana kula da kusancin tattalin arziki da siyasa tare da wasu ƙasashen Turai, musamman da Faransa,[7] da [✓Italiya]], [8][9] saboda kusancinsu na yanki. Ƙasar Tunisiya kuma tana da yarjejeniyar haɗin gwiwa tare da Tarayyar Turai kuma ta sami matsayin babbar ƙawancen da ba ta NATO ba ta Amurka.

Etymology gyara sashe

Tunis § Etymology

Kalmar Tunisiya ta fito ne daga Tunis; cibiyar tsakiyar birni kuma babban birnin Tunisiya na zamani.[10] Sigar sunan yanzu, tare da karin harufa guda biyu -ia, ya samo asali ne daga Tunisie a yaren Faransa, gabaɗaya yana da alaƙa da tushen Berber ⵜⵏⵙ, da aka fassara tns, wanda ke nufin "kwance" ko "zama"[11] Wani lokaci kuma ana danganta shi da, Allolin Carthage Tanith (ko Tunit), [12]da tsohon birnin Tynes.[13][14]

An karɓo asalin Tunnisie a yaren Faransanci a cikin wasu harsunan Turai tare da ƴan gyare-gyare, yana gabatar da suna na musamman don zayyana ƙasar. Wasu harsuna sun bar sunan ba a taɓa su ba, kamar Russian Туни́с (Tunis) da Spanish Túnez. A wannan yanayin, ana amfani da suna iri ɗaya ga ƙasa da birni, kamar yadda yake da  تونس Larabci, kuma ta mahallin ne kawai za a iya nuna bambanci.[10]

Tarihi gyara sashe

Babban labarin: Tunusia

Tsohon zamani gyara sashe

Manyan labarai: Al'adun Capsian da Tsohon Carthage

Hanyoyin noma sun isa rafin Nilu daga yankin Crescent mai albarka kimanin shekara ta 5000 BC, kuma suka bazu zuwa Maghreb da kusan 4000 BC. Al'ummomin noma a filayen gabar teku masu danshi na tsakiyar Tunisiya a lokacin sun kasance kakannin kabilun Berber na yau.

 
Carthaginian dependencies and protectorates through the Punic Wars .

An yi imani a zamanin da cewa mutanen Gaetulians da Libiyawa ne ke zaune a Afirka, mutanen makiyaya ne. A cewar masanin tarihin Roma Sallust, gunkin Hercules ya mutu a Spain kuma an bar sojojinsa na gabas da yawa don su zaunar da ƙasar, wasu sun yi ƙaura zuwa Afirka. Farisawa sun tafi yamma suka yi aure da Gaetulians suka zama Numidiyawa. Mediyawa sun zauna kuma an san su da Mauri, daga baya Moors.[15]

Numidians da Moors sun kasance daga tseren da Berbers suka fito.[16][17][18] Ma'anar Numidian da aka fassara shi ne Nomad kuma hakika mutanen sun kasance 'yan ƙabilar makiyaya har zuwa lokacin mulkin Masinissa  na kabilar Massyli.A farkon tarihi, ƙabilun Berber ne ke zaune a Tunisiya.  Phoeniciyan  ne suka daidaita iyakarta tun farkon ƙarni na 12 BC (Bizerte, Utica). An kafa birnin Carthage a ƙarni na 9 BC ta hanyar Phoeniciyawa. Tatsuniyar ta ce Dido daga Taya, yanzu a Lebanon ta zamani, ya kafa birnin a shekara ta 814 BC, kamar yadda marubucin Timaeus na Tauromenium ya sake maimaitawa. Mazaunan Carthage sun kawo al'adunsu da addininsu daga Finisiya, a yanzu Labanon da yankunan da ke kusa.[19]

 
Statue of the Carthaginian general Hannibal Barca

Biyo Bayan Yaƙin Carthage Bayan jerin yaƙe-yaƙe da biranen Sicily na Girka a ƙarni na 5 BC, Carthage ya hau kan mulki kuma daga ƙarshe ya zama wayewa mafi girma a Yammacin Mediterranean. Mutanen Carthage sun bauta wa gunkin Gabas ta Tsakiya da suka haɗa da Baal da Tanit. Alamar Tanit, siffa mai sauƙi na mace mai tsayin daka da doguwar riga, sanannen gunki ne da aka samu a tsoffin wuraren. Wadanda suka kafa Carthage kuma sun kafa Tophet, wanda aka canza a zamanin Roman.Mamaya na Carthaginian na Italiya karkashin jagorancin Hannibal a lokacin Yaƙin Punic na Biyu, ɗaya daga cikin jerin yaƙe-yaƙe da Roma, ya kusan gurgunta haɓakar ikon Romawa. Daga ƙarshen Yaƙin Punic na biyu a cikin 202 BC, Carthage ya yi aiki a matsayin abokin ciniki na Jamhuriyar Roman har tsawon shekaru 50.[20]

 
Ruins of Dougga's World Heritage Site

wanda ya fara a cikin 149 BC lokacin Yaƙin Punic na Uku, Roma ta ci Carthage a cikin 146 BC. Bayan cin nasararsa, Romawa sun sake suna Carthage zuwa Afirka, tare da haɗa ta a matsayin lardi.A zamanin Romawa, yankin da ake kira Tunisiya ya sami babban ci gaba. Tattalin arzikin, ƙasar galibi a lokacin daular, ya bunkasa: wadatar yankin ya dogara ne akan noma. Wanda ake kira Granary of the Empire, yankin ainihin Tunisiya da Tripolitania, bisa ƙiyasin ɗaya, ana samar da ton miliyan ɗaya 1.0 na hatsi a kowace shekara, kashi ɗaya cikin huɗu na abin da ake fitarwa zuwa Masarautar. Ƙarin amfanin gona wanda suke nomawa sun haɗa da wake, ɓaure, inabi, da sauran 'ya'yan itatuwa.

A karni na 2, man zaitun ya yi kishiyantar hatsi a matsayin abin fitarwa. Baya ga noma da kuma jigilar namun daji daga tsaunukan yamma, manyan abubuwan da ake samarwa da fitar da su sun hada da masaku, marmara, giya, katako, dabbobi, tukwane irin su Red Slip na Afirka, da ulu.

Har ma an sami ɗimbin kayan aikin mosaics da tukwane, waɗanda aka fi fitar da su zuwa Italiya, a tsakiyar yankin El Djem (inda akwai babban wasan amphitheater na biyu a cikin Daular Roma).

Bishop na Berber Donatus Magnus shine wanda ya kafa ƙungiyar Kirista da aka sani da Donatists. [21]A cikin ƙarni na 5 da na 6 (daga shekara ta 430 zuwa 533 AD), 'yan Vandal na ƙasar Jamus sun mamaye daular da ke arewa maso yammacin Afirka wanda ya haɗa da Tripoli na yanzu. [22] An sami nasarar mamaye yankin cikin sauƙi a cikin shekara ta 533-534 AD, a lokacin mulkin Sarkin sarakuna Justinian I, ta hanyar  Romawa ta Gabas karkashin jagorancin Janar Belisarius, wanda ya share shekaru 165 na mulkin Byzantine rul.

Tarihi ya nuna cewar asalin kasar Tunisiya ta samo asaline daga Abzinawa wadanda suka kafu a hankali da kadan kadan a tsakankanin wadansu kananan kauyuka da kuma wadansu kananan mabanbantan kabilu. Mafi ya yawancin su sun gina kananan garuruwa domin gudanar da kasuwanci da fatake masu wucewa. A haka ne kauyukan abzinawan yaci gaba da karuwa sakamakon wadansu fataken na yada zango karshema sai suyi zaman su anan. Gabanin haihuwar Annabi Isah a tsakanin ƙarnuka na 8 zuwa na goma birane suka kafu a kasar ta Tunisiya.

Kasar Tunisiya ta fada hannun dauloli daban daban kamar daular Rumawa tsawon shekaru aru-aru kafin samun yancinta.

Zuwan musulunci gyara sashe

 
Lokacin zuwan musulunci tunisiya
 
Tunisiya

A karni na Bakwai ne Larabawa suka ci kasar da yaki tare da gabatar Addinin Musulunci a kasar tare da gina wani birni wanda suke kira da Kairoun. Kairoun ne birni na larabawa musulmai na farko a kasar Tunisiya. Masarautun Musulunci da dama sun shugabanci Tunisiya. Daya daga cikin fitacciyar masarautar musulmai wadda ta jagoranci Tunisiya itace Masarautar Zirids. Zirids tana karkashin ikon masarautar Fatimiyya ce ta birnin Misra dake kasar Masar.

A haka kasar tunisiya taci gaba da zama karkashin daulolin musulunci har ya zuwa lokacin da turawan mulkin mallaka na kasar Faransa suka shiga kasar a 12 ga watan Mayu, na 1881.

File:Chiesa di San Carlo Al Lazzaretto,abside da Viale Tunisia.JPG
Bayan zuwan turawan faransa tunisiya
 
Kafin zuwan turawan farasan tunusiya

Ilimi gyara sashe

 
Sadiki College in Tunis.
 
Literacy rate of Tunisia population, 15 years and older, 1985–2015. UNESCO Institute of Statistics

Babban labarin: Ilimi a Tunisiya

Kwalejin Sadiki da ke Tunisiya Cibiyar Kididdiga ta UNESCO

Adadin yawan karatun manya a shekarar 2008 ya kai kashi 78% kuma wannan adadin ya haura zuwa kashi 97.3 idan aka yi la'akari da mutane kawai daga shekaru 15 zuwa 24.  % na GNP. Ilimi na asali ga yara masu shekaru 6 zuwa 16 ya zama tilas tun daga 1991. Tunusiya tana matsayi na 17 a cikin rukunin "[Ingantacciyar tsarin ilimi [mafi girma]" da 21st a rukunin "ingancin ilimin firamare" a cikin Duniya Rahoton Gasa 2008-09, wanda Cibiyar Tattalin Arzikin Duniya ta fitar. Yayin da yara gabaɗaya ke samun Larabcin Tunusia a gida, idan sun shiga makaranta suna da shekara shida, ana koya musu karatu da rubutu cikin Standard Larabci. Tun suna shekara 8, ana koyar da su Faransanci yayin da ake shigar da Ingilishi suna da shekaru 11.

Shekaru huɗu na karatun sakandare a buɗe suke ga duk masu riƙe Diplôme de Fin d'Études de l'Enseignement de Base inda ɗalibai ke mai da hankali kan shiga matakin jami'a ko shiga aikin aiki bayan kammalawa. Enseignement secondaire ya kasu kashi biyu: ilimi na gabaɗaya da na musamman. Tsarin ilimi mafi girma a Tunisia ya sami saurin haɓaka kuma adadin ɗalibai ya ninka fiye da sau uku a cikin shekaru 10 da suka gabata daga kusan 102,000 a 1995 zuwa 365,000 a 2005. Yawan shiga makarantun gaba da sakandare a 2007 ya kai kashi 31 cikin ɗari, tare da Ma'anar daidaiton jinsi na GER na 1.5.

Lafiya gyara sashe

Babban labarin: Lafiya a Tunisiya

A cikin shekarar dubu biyu da goma 2010, kashe kuɗi kan kiwon lafiya ya kai kashi 3.37% na GDP na ƙasar. A cikin shekarar dubu biyu da tara 2009, akwai likitoci 12.02 da ma'aikatan jinya 33.12 a cikin 10,000 mazaunan. Tsawon rayuwa a lokacin haihuwa shine shekaru 75.73 a shekarar 2016, ko kuma shekaru 73.72 ga maza da shekaru 77.78 ga mata. Mutuwar jarirai a cikin 2016 ya kasance 11.7 cikin 1,000.

Al'adu gyara sashe

Babban labarin: Al'adun Tunisiya

Municipal Theatre

Al'adun Tunisiya ya gauraye saboda dogon tarihin da ya kafa na tasirin waje daga mutane - irin su Phoenicians, Romawa, Vandals, Rumawa, Larabawa, Siculo-Normans, Turkawa, Italiyanci, Maltese da Faransanci - waɗanda duk sun bar alamarsu a kan al'adun gargajiya na kasa.


Ƙasashen Afirka
Afirka ta Tsakiya | Aljeriya | Angola | Benin | Botswana | Burkina Faso | Burundi | Cabo Verde | Cadi | Côte d'Ivoire | Eritrea | eSwatini | Ethiopia | Gabon | Gambiya | Ghana | Gine | Gine Bisau | Ginen Ekweita | Jibuti | Kameru | Kenya | Komoros | Kwango (JK) | Kwango (JDK) | Laberiya | Lesotho | Libya | Madagaskar | Mali | Moris | Muritaniya | Misra | Morocco | Mozambik | Namibiya | Nijar | Nijeriya | Ruwanda | Saliyo | Sao Tome da Prinsipe | Senegal | Seychelles | Somaliya | Sudan | Sudan ta Kudu | Tanzaniya | Togo | Tunisiya | Uganda | Zambiya | Zimbabwe

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Manazarta gyara sashe

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  2. Holes, Clive (2018-08-30). Arabic Historical Dialectology: Linguistic and Sociolinguistic Approaches (in Turanci). Oxford University Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0-19-100506-0.
  3. "Tunisie : les législatives fixées au 26 octobre et la présidentielle au 23 novembre" [Tunisia: legislative elections fixed for 26 October and presidential elections for 23 November]. Jeune Afrique (in Faransanci). 25 June 2014.
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  5. "Democracy Index 2021". The Economist. Retrieved 22 February 2022.
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  9. Ghanmi, Monia (12 September 2014). "La Tunisie renforce ses relations avec l'Italie" [Tunisia strengthens relations with Italy]. Magharebia (in Faransanci). Archived from the original on 14 September 2014.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Room, Adrian (2006). Placenames of the World: Origins and Meanings of the Names for 6,600 Countries, Cities, Territories, Natural Features, and Historic Sites. McFarland. p. 385. ISBN 978-0-7864-2248-7.
  11. Rossi, Peter M.; White, Wayne Edward (1980). Articles on the Middle East, 1947–1971: A Cumulation of the Bibliographies from the Middle East Journal. Pierian Press, University of Michigan. p. 132.
  12. Taylor, Isaac (2008). Names and Their Histories: A Handbook of Historical Geography and Topographical Nomenclature. BiblioBazaar, LLC. p. 281. ISBN 978-0-559-29668-0.
  13. Houtsma, Martijn Theodoor (1987). E. J. Brill's First Encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913–1936. Brill. p. 838. ISBN 978-90-04-08265-6.
  14. Livy (2006). Yardley, John & Hoyos, Dexter (eds.). History of Rome. Hannibal's War: Books Twenty-one to Thirty. Oxford University Press. p. 705. ISBN 978-0-19-283159-0.
  15. Banjamin Isaac, The Invention of Racism in Classical Antiquity, Princeton University Press, 2013 p.147
  16. "Carthage and the Numidians". Hannibalbarca.webspace.virginmedia.com. Archived from the original on 31 March 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  17. "Numidians (DBA II/40) and Moors (DBA II/57)". Fanaticus.org. 12 December 2001. Archived from the original on 27 September 2011. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  18. "Numidia (ancient region, Africa)". Britannica Online Encyclopedia. Retrieved 28 October 2011.
  19. "The City of Carthage: From Dido to the Arab Conquest" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 August 2012. Retrieved 8 January 2013.
  20. Appian. The Punic Wars. livius.org
  21. "Donatist". Encyclopædia Britannica.
  22. Bury, John Bagnell (1958) History of the Later Roman Empire from the Death of Theodosius I. to the Death of Justinian, Part 2, Courier Corporation. pp.124–148