Beer yana daya daga cikin tsofaffin kuma mafi yawan nau'in abin sha a duniya, kuma na uku mafi mashahurin abin sha gabaɗaya bayan ruwa da shayi.[1] [2] Ana samar da ita ta hanyar brewing da fermentation na sitaci, galibi ana samun su daga hatsin hatsi-mafi yawanci daga sha'ir mara kyau, kodayake alkama, masara (masara), shinkafa, da hatsi kuma ana amfani da su. A lokacin aikin shayarwa, fermentation na sitaci sugars a cikin wort yana samar da ethanol da carbonation a cikin sakamakon giya. Yawancin giya na zamani ana yin su ne da hops, wanda ke kara baci da sauran abubuwan dandano kuma suna aiki azaman mai kiyayewa na halitta da daidaitawa.[3] Za a iya hada wasu abubuwan daɗin ɗanɗano irin su gruit, ganye, ko 'ya'yan itatuwa ana iya haɗa su ko amfani da su maimakon hops. A cikin shayarwa na kasuwanci, ana cire tasirin carbonation na halitta sau da yawa yayin aiki kuma an maye gurbin shi da force carbonation. Wasu daga cikin sanannun rubuce-rubucen dan adam na farko suna magana ne akan samarwa da rarraba giya: Code of Hammurabi sun hada da dokokin da ke tsara wuraren shan giya da giya, da "Wakar Wakokin Ninkasi", addu'a ga gunkin giyar Mesopotamiya, wanda aka yi aiki a matsayin duka biyun. addu'a kuma a matsayin hanyar tunawa da girke-girke na giya a cikin al'ada tare da 'yan masu karatu.

Giya
fermented alcoholic beverage (en) Fassara, mixture (en) Fassara da alcopop (en) Fassara
Kayan haɗi hops (en) Fassara
Kayan haɗi Sha'ir, hops (en) Fassara, ruwa da yeast (en) Fassara
giya kenan

Ana rarraba giya a cikin kwalabe da gwangwani kuma ana samun su akan daftarin, musamman a mashaya da kuma bars. Masana'antar yin giya kasuwanci ce ta duniya, wacce ta gunshi manyan kamfanoni na kasa da kasa da yawa da kuma dubban kananan masana'antun da suka fito daga brewpubs zuwa wuraren sana'a na yanki. Karfin giya na zamani yawanci yana kusa da 4% zuwa 6% barasa ta kara (ABV), ko da yake yana iya bambanta tsakanin 0.5% da 20%, tare da wasu masana'antun samar da misalai na 40% ABV da sama.

Biya wani bangare ne na al'adun al'ummomi da yawa kuma yana da alaqa da al'adun zamantakewa irin su bukukuwan giya, da kuma al'adun mashaya masu dorewa da suka hada da ayyuka kamar rarrafe mashaya, tambayoyin mashaya da wasannin mashaya.

Lokacin da aka narkar da giya, abin da ke haifar da giya shine nau'i na whiskey.[4]

Asalin kalma

gyara sashe
 
Old English 'giya'

A farkon nau'ikan Ingilishi, kuma a cikin harsunan Scandinavia, kalmar da aka saba don giya ita ce kalmar wacce nau'in Ingilishi na zamani shine ale.[5]

Kalmar giya ta zo cikin Turanci na yau daga Tsohon Turanci bēor, kanta daga Jamusanci gama gari; ko da yake ba a tabbatar da kalmar a reshen Jamus na Gabas na harshe-iyali ba, ana samun ta a cikin yarukan Yamma na Jamus da Arewacin Jamus (bier na Dutch na zamani da Jamus. Tsohon Norse bjórr). An yi muhawara akan asalin kalmar: manyan ka'idoji guda uku sune cewa kalmar ta samo asali ne daga Proto-Germanic *beuzą (daga Proto-Indo-European *bʰeusóm), ma'ana 'yisti na masu shayarwa, digon giya'; cewa yana da alaqa da kalmar sha'ir; ko kuma cewa ko ta yaya aka aro daga Latin bibere 'don sha'.

A cikin Tsohon Turanci da Tsohon Norse, giya kalma ba ta nuna wani abin sha na barasa ba kamar ale, amma abin sha mai dadi, mai karfi da aka yi daga zuma da ruwan 'ya'yan itace na daya ko fiye da 'ya'yan itatuwa ban da inabi, da yawa fiye da ale, watakila an yi amfani da su. a cikin nau'in kananan kofuna na sha a wasu lokuta ana samun su a cikin kayan kabari na farko: abin sha kamar nama ko cider. A cikin Jamusanci, duk da haka, ma'anar giya-kalma ta fadada don rufe ma'anar ale-kalmar riga kafin rubutaccen shaidarmu ta farko. Kamar yadda Jamusanci hopped ale ya zama abin salo a Ingila a ƙarshen Tsakiyar Tsakiya.[6]




Manazarta

gyara sashe
 
Samfurin katako na Masarawa na yin giya a tsohuwar Masar, Gidan Tarihi na Masarawa na Rosicrucian, San Jose, California.
  1. Richard Rudgley (1993). The Alchemy of Culture: Intoxicants in Society. London: British Museum Press. ISBN 978-0714117362.
  2. Ben McFarland (2009). World's Best Beers: One Thousand Craft Brews from Cask to Glass. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-4027-6694-7.
  3. Barth, Roger. The Chemistry of Beer: The Science in the Suds, Wiley 2013: ISBN 978-1-118-67497-0.
  4. Pomranz, Mike (18 May 2016). "From Brews to Booze: Turning Craft Beer Into Whiskey". Eater. Retrieved 19 December 2020.
  5. Christine Fell, ‘Old English Beor Archived 3 October 2020 at the Wayback Machine’, Leeds Studies in English, n.s., 8 (1975), 76–95.
  6. Christine Fell, ‘Old English Beor Archived 3 October 2020 at the Wayback Machine’, Leeds Studies in English, n.s., 8 (1975), 76–95.