Afirka ta Yamma ko Yammacin Afirka itace yammancin nahiya Afirka. Majalisan Dinkin Duniya sun bayyana Yammacin Afirka a matsayin Kasashe Goma sha shida 16, sune Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, Gambia, Gana, Gini, Guinea-Bissau, Côte d'Ivoire, Liberia, Mali, Muritaniya, Nijar, Najeriya, Senegal, Sierra Leone da kuma Togo, haka kuma harda wasu tsuburi[1] Yawan yan Yammacin Afirka sun kai kimanin , Mutane 381,981,000 a kidayar shekarar 2017, Mata sun kai kimanin 189,672,000, Maza kuma 192,309,000.[2] Its age and widespread distribution and diversity across the continent makes its exact origin point within Africa difficult to trace with any confidence,[3] [4] [5] [6] [7]

Wikidata.svgAfirka ta Yamma
geographic region (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Bangare na Afirka
Located on terrain feature (en) Fassara Afirka
Sun raba iyaka da North Africa (en) Fassara, Afirka ta Tsakiya da Tekun Atalanta
Studied by (en) Fassara West African studies (en) Fassara
Wuri
West Africa countries (strict).png
 12°N 3°E / 12°N 3°E / 12; 3

Kasashen yammacin AfrikaGyara

Kasashe goma sha bakwai ne kamar haka:

 
Taswirar kasashen Afrika ta yamma;

* Benin * Burkina Faso * Cape Verde * Côte d'Ivoire * The Gambia

* Ghana * Gini * Guinea-Bissau * Liberia * Mali

* Nijer * Nigeria * Senegal * Sierra Leone * Togo

HotunaGyara

Manyan biranen kasashen yammacin AfrikaGyara

Karin wasu fitattun hotuna na biranen yammacin Afrika.

ManazartaGyara

  1. Paul R. Masson, Catherine Anne Pattillo, "Monetary union in West Africa (ECOWAS): is it desirable and how could it be achieved?" (Introduction). International Monetary Fund, 2001. 08033994793.ABA
  2. Soares, Pedro; Luca Ermini; Noel Thomson; Maru Mormina; Teresa Rito; Arne Röhl; Antonio Salas; Stephen Oppenheimer; Vincent Macaulay; Martin B. Richards (4 June 2009). "Correcting for Purifying Selection: An Improved Human Mitochondrial Molecular Clock". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 84 (6): 82–93. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2009.05.001. PMC 2694979. PMID 19500773. Retrieved 13 August 2009.
  3. Salas, Antonio et al., The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape, American Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 71, no. 5 (2002), pp. 1082–1111.
  4. Atlas of the Human Journey: Haplogroup L2 Archived 6 Oktoba 2011 at the Wayback Machine The Genographic Project, National Geographic.
  5. Shrine, Daniel; Rotimi, Charles (2018). "Whole-Genome-Sequence-Based Haplotypes Reveal Single Origin of the Sickle Allele during the Holocene Wet Phase". American Journal of Human Genetics. Am J Hum Genet. 102 (4): 547–556. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2018.02.003. PMC 5985360. PMID 29526279.
  6. Trombetta, Beniamino (2015). "Phylogeographic Refinement and Large Scale Genotyping of Human Y Chromosome Haplogroup E Provide New Insights into the Dispersal of Early Pastoralists in the African Continent". Genome Biology and Evolution. Genome Biol Evol. 7 (7): 1940–1950. doi:10.1093/gbe/evv118. PMC 4524485. PMID 26108492.
  7. Sims, Lynn; Garvey, Dennis; Ballantyne, Jack (2007). "Sub-Populations Within the Major European and African Derived Haplogroups R1b3 and E3a Are Differentiated by Previously Phylogenetically Undefined Y-SNPs". Human Mutation. 28 (1): 97. doi:10.1002/humu.9469. PMID 17154278.

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