Fāṭima bint Muḥammad ( Larabci: فَاطِمَة ٱبْنَت مُحَمَّد‎ , 605/15–632 CE), wanda aka fi sani da Fāṭima al-Zahrāʾ ( فَاطِمَة ٱلزَّهْرَاء ), ta kasance diyar annabin musulunci Muhammad da matarsa Khadija . [1] Mijin Fatima shi ne Ali, shine na hudu a cikin Khalifofin Rashidun kuma Imamin Shi'a na farko . 'Ya'yan Fatima su ne Hasan da Husaini Imaman Shi'a na biyu da na uku. [2] [3]

Fatima
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Makkah, 27 ga Yuli, 604
ƙasa Khulafa'hur-Rashidun
Harshen uwa Larabci
Mutuwa Madinah, 14 Disamba 632
Makwanci Al-Baqi'
Ƴan uwa
Mahaifi Muhammad
Mahaifiya Khadija Yar Khuwailid
Abokiyar zama Sayyadina Aliyu
Yara
Ahali Ummu Kulthum, Rukayyah, Zainab yar Muhammad, Ibrahim ɗan Muhammad, Yaran Annabi da Abdullahi ɗan Muhammad
Karatu
Harsuna Larabci
Sana'a
Sana'a maiwaƙe
Imani
Addini Musulunci

An kwatanta Fatima da Maryamu mahaifiyar Isah, musamman a aqidar Shi'a. [4] [5] An ce Muhammadu ya dauke ta a matsayin mafificiya a mata [2] [6] kuma mafi soyuwa a gare shi. [7] [2] Sau da yawa ana kallonta a matsayin babban abin tarihi ga matan musulmi da kuma ita me tausayi, karimci, da jurewa wahala. [4] Ta hanyar Fatima ne zuriyar Muhammadu suka wanzu har yau. [8] [6] Sunanta da lakabinta sun kasance sanannen zaɓi ga 'yan mata musulmai. [9] [10]

Lokacin da Muhammadu ya rasu a shekara ta 632, Fatima da mijinta Ali sun ƙi amincewa da mulkin khalifa na farko, Abubakar . Ma'auratan da magoya bayansu sun yi imanin cewa Ali shi ne mafi cancantar magajin Muhammadu, [4] mai yiwuwa suna nufin sanarwarsa a Ghadir Khumm . [11]

Rigima ta kunno kai dangane da mutuwar Fatima a cikin watanni shida da mutuwar Muhammadu. [8] Ahlus Sunna sun yarda cewa Fatima ta rasu ne da bakin ciki. [3] A cikin Shi’a kuwa, an ce mutuwar Fatima (barin da tayi) ta yi ne kai tsaye sakamakon raunukan da ta samu a lokacin wani farmaki da aka kai gidanta don murkushe Ali, wanda Abubakar ya umarta. [2] An yi imanin cewa fatawar Fatima da ta rasu shi ne kar khalifa ya halarci jana’izarta. [12] [13] An binne ta a asirce da daddare kuma ba a tabbatar da ainihin inda aka binne ta ba. [14] [15]

Suna da laƙabi Gyara

Mafi sanannan laƙabinta shi ne al-Zahra ( lit. 'me haskakawa', 'me haske ' ), [2] wanda ke nuni akan taqawarta da tsayuwarta a cikin addu'a. [16] Shi'a sun yi imani da wannan taswirar cewa tana nuni ne ga halittarta ta farko daga hasken da ke ci gaba da haskakawa a cikin halittu. [2] Shi'a Ibn Babawahy ( d. 991 ) ya rubuta cewa, duk lokacin da Fatima ta yi addu'a, haskenta yana haskakawa ga mazauna sama kamar yadda hasken taurari ke haskaka mazaunan duniya. [7] Sauran lakabin ta a cikin Shi'a su ne al-Shiddiqa ( lit. 'me gaskiyta ' ), [10] al-Tahira ( lit. 'me tsarki' ), [1] al-Mubaraka ( lit. 'me albarka' ), [1] da al-Mansura ( lit. 'wanda Allah ya taimaka' ). [2] Wani lakabin Shi'a kuma shi ne al-Muḥadditha, bisa la'akari da rahoton cewa mala'iku sun yi magana da Fatima a lokuta da dama, [17] [18] [19] kamar Maryamu mahaifiyar Isah . [18]

Manazarta Gyara

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Campo 2009a.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Buehler 2014.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Veccia Vaglieri 2022a.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Fedele 2018.
  5. Ernst 2003.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Qutbuddin 2006.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Soufi 1997.
  8. 8.0 8.1 Abbas 2021.
  9. Amir-Moezzi & Calmard 1999.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Rogerson 2006.
  11. Amir-Moezzi 2022.
  12. Mavani 2013.
  13. Kassam & Blomfield 2015.
  14. Khetia 2013.
  15. Klemm 2005.
  16. Ruffle 2011.
  17. Aslan 2011.
  18. 18.0 18.1 Ayoub 2011.
  19. Pierce 2016.