Yazidi (kuma ana rubutawa kamar Yezidis ( /j ə z na d i z / , Kurdish) suna cikin haɗari kuma galibi suna magana ne da harshen Kurman ji 'yan tsiraru, yan asalin yankin zuwa Mesopotamia na Upperasar. Mafi yawan Yazidis da suka rage a Gabas ta Tsakiya a yau suna zaune ne a yankunan arewacin Iraki da ake takaddama a kan su, musamman a cikin gwamnonin Nineveh da Dohuk . Akwai sabani a kan ko Yazidis ne a addinin rukuni na Kurdawa ko wani jinsin na haɗaka tsakanin ƙabila da addini kungiyar, tsakanin malamai da kuma Kurdawa da kuma Yazidis kansu. Addinin Yazidi yana da tauhidi kuma ana iya samo shi daga tsoffin addinan Mesopotamia .

Yazidi
Yezidis of Mount Sinjar.jpg
Jimlar yawan jama'a
1,000,000
Yankuna masu yawan jama'a
Irak, Siriya, Turkiyya da Armeniya
Addini
Yazidism (en) Fassara

A cikin watan Agustan shekara ta 2014, Yazidis sun zama wadanda ke fama da kisan kare dangi daga Daular Islama ta Iraki da Levant a yakin da take yi na kawar da tasirin da ba na Musulunci ba.

AsaliGyara

 
Shugabannin Yazidi da limamai na Kaldiya suna ganawa a Mesopotamia, ƙarni na 19
 
Babban Yazidi a Bashiqa, hoto na Albert Kahn (1910s)

Sunan Yazidis na kansu Êzîdî ko, a wasu yankuna, Dasinî, kodayake na ƙarshen, tsananin magana, suna ne na ƙabila. Asalin Yazidawa suna cikin duhu. Wasu malaman yamma sun samo sunan ne daga Halifa Umayyawa Yazīd bn Muʿāwiya (Yazid I). Koda yake, duk Yazidawa sun yi watsi da duk wata alakar da ke tsakanin sunansu da halifancin. Kalmar "Yazidi" na nufin "bawan mahalicci". Sauran masana sun samo shi ne daga tsohuwar yazata ta Iran, yazad ta Farisa ta tsakiya, allahntakar. [1] Wani asalin kalmar asalin ya danganta da Ez dā ("Halicce ni"). Yazidis kuma suna nufin Xwedê ez dam ("Allah ne ya halicce ni") da kuma Em miletê ezdaîn ("Mu ne al'ummar Ezdayi").

Ɗaya daga cikin manyan mutanen Yazidanci shine 'Adī bn Musafir. Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir ya zauna a kwarin Laliş (kusan 36 miles (58 km) arewa maso gabashin Mosul ) a tsaunukan Yazidi a farkon ƙarni na 12 kuma suka kafa 'Tsarin sufanci na Adawiyya. Ya mutu a cikin 1162, kuma kabarinsa a Laliş wuri ne na hajjin Yazidi da kuma babban wurin mai tsarki na Yazidi. [2] Yazidism yana da tasiri da yawa: Ana iya ganin tasirin Sufi da hoto a cikin kalmomin addini, musamman ma a cikin maganganun Yazidis na adabin da ke tattare da su, amma yawancin tiyolojin ba na Islama bane. Tsarin sararin samaniya a bayyane yana da maki da yawa iri ɗaya da na tsoffin addinan Iran waɗanda suka haɗu da abubuwa na tsohuwar al'adun addinin Mesopotamia na zamanin Islama.

Kamanceceniya tsakanin Yazidawa da Yaresan sun tabbata; wasu za a iya gano su zuwa ga wasu abubuwa na dadaddiyar imanin da wataƙila ta fi rinjaye tsakanin Yammacin Iraniyawa kuma ana kamanta su da ayyukan addinin Mithraic kafin Zoroastra .

Marubutan farko sun yi ƙoƙari su bayyana asalin Yazidi, ta fuskar magana gaba ɗaya, dangane da Islama, ko Farisanci, ko kuma wani lokacin ma har da " arna " addinai; duk da haka, binciken da aka buga tun daga 1990s ya nuna irin wannan hanyar don zama mai sauƙi.

Wata ka'idar ta asalin Yazidi ta bayar ne daga malamin Ilimin Farisa Al-Shahrastani . A cewar Al-Shahrastani, Yazidis mabiyan Yezîd bn Unaisa ne, waɗanda suka riƙe abota da Muhakkamah na farko kafin Azariḳa. Na farko Muhakkamah na nuna jin daɗi ne da ake amfani da shi a kan yan uwa musulmai masu suna Al-Ḫawarij. Dangane da haka, yana iya zama alama cewa Yazidawa asalinsu aarijite ne ƙaramin mazhaba. Yezid bn Unaisa haka kuma, an ce ya kasance yana tausaya wa Ibadis, darikar da 'Abd-Allah Ibn Ibaḍ ya kafa . [3]

A cewar Ernest Leroux, da wuya a ce Yazidawa ragowar mutanen Babila ne wanda kuma za a iya samun tsafinsu a tsakanin Yazidawa.

AinihiGyara

 
'Yan matan Yazidi cikin kayan gargajiya

Ana lura da ayyukan al'adun Yazidi a cikin Kurmanji, wanda kusan dukkanin al'adun addinai na Yazidis da ake watsawa ta baki. Koyaya, Yazidawa a cikin Bashiqa da Bahzani suna magana da Larabci a matsayin yaren mahaifiyarsu. Kodayake Yazidawa suna magana da akasari a cikin Kurmanji, ainihin asalinsu lamari ne na takaddama a tsakanin malamai, hatta a tsakanin al’ummar da kanta da kuma tsakanin Kurdawa, ko Kurdawa na asali ko kuma suna da wata kabila ta daban. Yazidawa sun auri wasu Yazidawa ne kawai; wadanda suka auri wadanda ba Yazidawa ba an kore su daga danginsu kuma ba su da damar kiran kansu Yazidawa.

 
Matashi ba Yazide cikin kayan gargajiya. A Sinjar, Yazidis maza suna sanya kayan alade.

Wasu Yazidawan zamani suna nuna cewa wani rukuni ne na jama'ar Kurdawa yayin da wasu kuma ke bayyanarsu a matsayin kungiyar ta kabilanci da addini daban . A cikin Armenia da Iraki, an yarda da Yazidis a matsayin ƙabilu daban. A cewar masanin halayyar ɗan Adam Armeniya, Levon Abrahamian, Yazidawa gabaɗaya sun yi imanin cewa Kurdawan Musulmi sun ci amanar Yazidanci ta hanyar shiga addinin Islama, yayin da Yazidawa suka kasance masu aminci ga addinin kakanninsu. Evliya Çelebi ya bayyana sojojin Abdal Khan na Bitlis a matsayin "Ƙurdawan Yezidi" kuma a karni na goma sha huɗu, bakwai daga cikin fitattun ƙabilun Ƙurdawa su ne Yazidi, kuma Yazidism addini ne na masarautar Ƙurdawa ta Jazira . Wasu tatsuniyoyin gargajiya na Yazidis suna ba da labarin cewa Yazidis 'ya'yan Adam ne kawai ba na Hauwa ba, don haka suka rabu da sauran' yan Adam. A m Kurdistan yankin na kasar Iraki, Yazidis suna dauke kabilanci Kurdawa da kuma m yankin ya wadãtu da Yazidis ya zama "asali Ƙurdawa". 'Yar majalisar Yazidi daya tilo a majalisar Iraki Vian Dakhil ita ma ta bayyana adawa ga duk wani yunkuri na raba Yazidis da Kurdawa. Aziz Tamoyan shugaban Yezidi National Union ULE da sauran Yazidawa da yawa suna nuna cewa ana amfani da kalmar Yazidi ga wata al'umma kuma ana kiran yarensu da Ezdiki kuma addininsu shine Sharfadin . A cewar mai binciken Victoria Arakelova, Yazidism wani lamari ne na musamman, daya daga cikin manyan zane-zanen nuna bambancin kabila da addini, wanda ya danganci addinin da Yazidawa ke kira Sharfadin .

 
Aziz Tamoyan, Shugaban kungiyar Yezidi ta Kasa ULE a Armeniya

Tarayyar Soviet ta yi wa Yazidis da Kurdawa rajista a matsayin ƙabilu daban-daban guda biyu na kidayar 1926, amma sun caccaka su biyun a matsayin ƙabilu daya a Ƙididdigar daga shekara ta 1931 zuwa shekara ta 1989. Sharaf Khan Bidlisi 's Sheref-nameh na shekarar 1597, wanda ya ambaci bakwai daga cikin kabilun Kurdawa a matsayin akalla Yazidi wani bangare ne, kuma kungiyoyin kabilun Kurdawa suna dauke da bangarorin Yazidi masu yawa.

Akasin haka, yayin tafiye-tafiyen bincikensa a cikin shekara ta 1895, masanin halayyar ɗan adam Ernest Chantre ya ziyarci Yazidis a cikin Turkiya ta yau kuma ya ba da rahoton cewa Yazidis sun ce Kurdawa suna magana da yarensu ba akasin haka ba.

A tarihance, an samu tsanantawa kan Yazidawa a hannun wasu kabilun Kurdawa. kuma wannan fitinar a lokuta da dama ta yi barazanar kasancewar Yazidis a matsayin rukuni na daban. Wasu kabilun Yazidi sun musulunta kuma sun rungumi asalin Kurdawa.

AddiniGyara

Yazidism ne tauhidi addini dogara ne a kan imani da Allah daya, wanda ya halicci duniya, ya danƙa shi a cikin kula da wani Heptad na bakwai Mai Tsarki Halittar, sau da yawa da aka sani da Mala'iku ko heft sirr (da Bakwai abubuwan ban mamaki). Manya daga cikin wadannan shine Tawûsê Melek (wanda aka fi sani da "Melek Taus"), Mala'ikan Peacock. A al'adance, ana daukar Yazidawa wadanda suka auri wadanda ba Yazidawa ba sun koma addinin matansu.

Halittar jiniGyara

Yazidis daga Arewacin Iraki na iya samun ci gaba mai ƙarfi game da asalin mutanen Mesopotamia. Mutanen Yazidi na arewacin Iraki an same su a tsakiyar ci gaba da ci gaba tsakanin Nean Gabas da Kudu maso Gabashin Turai. [4]

Yawan jama'aGyara

Wani kundi na Yazidi na 2014

A tarihi, Yazidis suna rayuwa ne a cikin al'ummomin da ke cikin Iraki, Turkiya, da Siriya ta yanzu kuma suna da adadi mai yawa a Armenia da Georgia. Koyaya, abubuwanda suka faru tun daga ƙarshen ƙarni na 20 sun haifar da canjin yanayin alƙaluma a cikin waɗannan yankuna da ƙaura mai yawa. Sakamakon haka, ƙididdigar yawan jama'a ba ta da tabbas a yankuna da yawa, kuma ƙididdigar girman yawan jama'a ya bambanta.

IraqGyara

Mafi yawan jama'ar Yazidi suna zaune a Iraki, inda suke cikin mahimman Ƴan tsiraru. Kimanin girman waɗannan al'ummomin sun bambanta sosai, tsakanin 70,000 zuwa 500,000. Suna da yawa sosai a arewacin Iraq a cikin Nineveh Governorate . Manyan al'ummomin biyu suna cikin Shekhan, arewa maso gabashin Mosul da Sinjar, a iyakar Syria 80 kilometres (50 mi) yamma da Mosul. A cikin Shekhan akwai hubbaren Sheikh Adi ibn Musafir a Lalish . A farkon 1900s yawancin mazaunan saharar Siriya sun kasance Yazidi. A cikin karni na 20, al'ummar Shekhan sun yi gwagwarmaya don mamayar tare da al'ummar Sinjar masu ra'ayin mazan jiya. Watakila bayanin martabar jama'a ya canza sosai tun farkon yakin Iraki a 2003 da faduwar gwamnatin Saddam Hussein .

A al'adance, Yazidis a Iraki sun kasance cikin keɓe kuma suna da ƙauyukansu. Koyaya, da yawa daga ƙauyukansu gwamnatin Saddam ce ta rusa su. Ba'athists sun kirkiro kauyuka gama gari kuma sun tilastawa Yazidawa matsuguni daga garuruwansu na tarihi da za a rusa.

 
Yazidi na gudanar da bikin sabuwar shekara a Lalish, 18 Afrilu 2017
 
Maza biyu Yazidi a bikin sabuwar shekara a Lalish, 18 Afrilu 2017

A cewar Kungiyar Kare Hakkin Dan-Adam, Yazidis suna ƙarƙashin tsarin Larabawa na Saddam Hussein tsakanin 1970 da 2003. A shekara ta 2009, wasu Yazidawa waɗanda a da suke rayuwa a ƙarƙashin tsarin Larabawa na Saddam Hussein sun koka game da dabarun siyasa na Yankin Kurdistan da ake son sanya Yazidawa su nuna kansu a matsayin Kurdawa. Wani rahoto daga Human Rights Watch (HRW), a cikin 2009, ya bayyana cewa don haɗa yankuna masu rikici a arewacin Iraki - musamman lardin Nineveh - a cikin yankin Kurdawa, hukumomin KDP sun yi amfani da kayan siyasa da tattalin arziƙin KRG don sanya Yazidis su nuna kansu a matsayin Kurdawa . Rahoton na HRW kuma ya soki dabaru masu karfi. ”

SiriyaGyara

Yazidis a Siriya suna rayuwa ne musamman a cikin al'ummomi biyu, ɗaya a yankin Al-Jazira ɗayan kuma a Kurd-Dagh . Adadin yawan jama'ar Yazidi na Siriya ba a san su ba. A shekarar 1963, an kiyasta jama'ar kusan 10,000, bisa ga ƙidayar ƙasa, amma ba a samu lambobi na shekarar 1987 ba. [5] Akwai yuwuwar tsakanin Yazidawa kusan 12,000 zuwa 15,000 a Siriya a yau, koda yake fiye da rabin alumman na iya yin ƙaura daga Siriya tun daga 1980s. Kiyasi ya kara rikitarwa saboda isowar 'yan gudun hijirar Yazidi kusan dubu 50 daga Iraki a lokacin yakin Iraki.

 
Yazidi maza

GeorgiaGyara

Yawan Yazidi a Georgia yana raguwa tun daga 1990s, galibi saboda ƙaurawar tattalin arziki zuwa Rasha da Yammacin Turai. Bisa ga ƙidayar jama'a da aka gudanar a 1989, akwai sama da Yazidis 30,000 a Georgia; bisa ga ƙidayar jama'a a shekara ta 2002, amma, kusan Yazidis 18,000 ne suka rage a Georgia. Koyaya, ta wasu ƙididdigar, jama'ar sun faɗi daga kusan mutane 30,000 zuwa ƙasa da 5,000 yayin shekarun 1990s. A yau yawansu bai kai 6,000 ba ta wasu kimantawa, gami da 'yan gudun hijira na kwanan nan daga Sinjar a Iraki, wadanda suka tsere zuwa Georgia sakamakon tsanantawar da kungiyar ISIL ke yi musu . A ranar 16 ga Yuni 2015, Yazidis sun yi bikin bude gidan Sarki Ezid da kuma cibiyar al'adu, wanda aka sanya wa sunan Sultan Ezid a Varketili, wani yanki na Tbilisi . Wannan ita ce irinta ta uku a cikin duniya bayan waɗanda ke Kurdistan na Iraki da Armenia .

ArmeniyaGyara

Bisa ga ƙidayar jama'a a shekarar 2011, akwai Yazidis 35,272 a Armenia, wanda ya sa suka zama mafi yawan tsirarun kabilun Armenia. Shekaru goma da suka gabata, a ƙidayar 2001, an yi wa Yazidis 40,620 rajista a Armeniya. Suna da matsayi mai mahimmanci a cikin lardin Armavir na Armenia. Kafofin watsa labarai sun kiyasta yawan Yazidawa a Armeniya tsakanin 30,000 zuwa 50,000. Mafi yawansu zuriyar 'yan gudun hijirar ne da suka tsere zuwa Armenia domin gujewa fitinar da suka sha a baya a lokacin mulkin Ottoman, gami da guguwar tsangwama da ta faru a lokacin kisan kare dangi na Armenia, lokacin da Armeniya da yawa suka sami mafaka a ƙauyukan Yazidi.

 
Haikalin Ziarat a Aknalich, Armenia

Akwai gidan ibada na Yazidi da ake kira Ziarat a ƙauyen Aknalich a yankin Armavir . A watan Satumba na 2019, mafi girman gidan ibada na Yazidi a duniya da ake kira " Quba Mere Diwane ", an buɗe shi a Aknalich, 'yan mitoci kaɗan daga haikalin Ziarat. Haikalin yana da kuɗi ta Mirza Sloian, wani ɗan kasuwar Yazidi wanda ke zaune a Moscow wanda asalinsa asalin yankin Armavir ne.

TurkiyaGyara

 
Yazidi maza a Mardin, Turkey, ƙarshen karni na 19

A sizeable ɓangare na autochthonous Yazidi yawan Turkey tsere daga kasar domin ba-rana Armenia da Georgia fara daga marigayi 19th karni. Akwai ƙarin al'ummomi a cikin Rasha da Jamus saboda ƙaura kwanan nan. Yaungiyar Yazidi ta Turkiyya ta ƙi sauka a cikin ƙarni na 20. Yawancinsu sun yi ƙaura zuwa Turai, musamman Jamus; waɗanda suka rage suna zaune a ƙauyuka a cikin tsohuwar ƙauyukansu na Tur Abdin .

Yammacin TuraiGyara

Wannan ƙaura ta ƙaura ta haifar da kafa manyan al'ummomin Yazidi mazauna ƙasashen waje. Mafi mahimmancin waɗannan shine a cikin Jamus, wanda yanzu ke da jama'ar Yazidi fiye da 200,000 ke zaune musamman a Hannover, Bielefeld, Celle, Bremen, Bad Oeynhausen, Pforzheim da Oldenburg . Mafi yawansu daga Turkiya ne kuma, kwanan nan, Iraki kuma suna zaune a jihohin yammacin North Rhine-Westphalia da Lower Saxony . Tun daga shekara ta 2008, Sweden ta ga girman girma a cikin ƙaurarsa ta Yazidi, wanda ya kai kusan 4,000 a shekara ta 2010, kuma akwai ƙaramar al'umma a cikin Netherlands. Sauran kungiyoyin Yazidi da ke zaune a kasashen Belgium, Denmark, Faransa, Switzerland, United Kingdom, Amurka, Canada da Australia; wadannan suna da yawan jama'a mai yiwuwa kasa da 5,000.

Amirka ta ArewaGyara

Wani yanki na Yazidis sun zauna a matsayin 'yan gudun hijira a Amurka da Kanada . Yawancin Yazidis yanzu suna zaune a Lincoln, Nebraska da Houston, Texas . Ana tunanin cewa Nebraska yana da mafi yawan mazauna (an kiyasta adadin aƙalla 10,000) na Yazidis a cikin Amurka, tare da tarihin ƙaura zuwa jihar a ƙarƙashin shirye-shiryen sasantawa da aka fara a ƙarshen 1990s. Da yawa daga cikin mutanen sun kasance a matsayin masu fassara ga sojojin Amurka.

ManazartaGyara

  1. P.G. Kreyenbroek, "Yazīdī" in Encyclopedia of Islam, s.v.
  2. Late Antique Motifs in Yezidi Oral Tradition by Eszter Spät. Ch. 9 "The Origin Myth of the Yezidis" section "The Myth of Shehid Bin Jer" (p. 347)
  3. Joseph 1919, pp. 119–21
  4. "Consequently, despite corresponding to isolated and homogenous populations, contemporary Syriacs and Yazidis from Northern Iraq may in fact have a stronger continuity with the original genetic stock of the Mesopotamian people, which possibly provided the basis for the ethnogenesis of various subsequent Near Eastern populations.
    the Northern Iraqi Assyrian and Yazidi populations from the current study were found to position in the middle of a genetic continuum between the Near East and Southeastern Europe." http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0187408
  5. Federal Research Division. Syria. "Chapter 5: Religious Life". Library of Congress Country Studies. Retrieved 20 August 2010.