Gurbacewa ita ce shigar da gurbataccen abu a cikin yanayin yanayi wanda ke haifar da mummunan canji. Gurbacewa na iya daukar nau'in kowane abu (solid, ruwa, ko gas) ko makamashi (kamar rediyo, zafi, sauti, ko haske). Masu gurbatawa, abubuwan da ke tattare da gurbatawa, na iya zama ko dai abubuwa/makamashi na waje ko gurbataccen yanayi. Ko da yake ana iya haifar da gurbacewar muhalli ta abubuwan da suka faru na yanayi, kalmar gurbatawa gabadaya tana nuna cewa gurbataccen abu yana da tushen dan adam-wato tushen da ayyukan dan Adam suka kirkira. Ana lasafta gurbataccen abu a matsayin tushen wuri ko gurbataccen tushe. A shekara ta 2015, gurbataccen yanayi ya kashe mutane miliyan 9 a duniya.

Litter a bakin tekun Guyana
Gurbacewa a Mashhad
Factory
Gurbacewa

Nau'ikan gurbataccen yanayi sun hada da gurbataccen iska, gurbataccen haske, datti, gurbataccen hayaniya, gurbataccen filastik, gurbataccen kasa, gurbataccen radiyo, gurbataccen yanayi, gurbacewar gani, da gurbacewar ruwa.

Siffofin gurbatar yanayi gyara sashe

 
Wani hayaki a tsakiyar Moscow, Rasha a watan Agusta 2010

An jera manyan nau'ikan gurbatawa a kasa tare da takamaiman gurbatattun abubuwan da suka dace da kowannensu:

  • Gurbacewar iska: sakin sinadarai da barbashi cikin yanayi. Abubuwan gurbataccen iskar gas na yau da kullun sun hada da carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) da nitrogen oxides wadanda masana'antu da motocin ke samarwa. Photochemical ozone da smog an halicce su yayin da nitrogen oxides da hydrocarbons ke amsawa ga hasken rana. Kakkarfan kwayoyin halitta, ko kura mai laushi yana da alamar girman su na micrometer PM 10 zuwa PM 2.5.
  • Electromagnetic pollution : da yawa daga electromagnetic radiation a cikin wadanda ba ionizing siffar, kamar rediyo waves, da dai sauransu, cewa mutane kullum fallasa su, musamman a manyan birane. Har yanzu ba a san ko wadancan nau'ikan radiation suna da wani tasiri ga lafiyar dan adam ba ko a'a.
  • Lalacewar haske: ya hada da keta haske, yawan haske da tsangwama a sararin samaniya.
  • Littering: mai laifi jefa abubuwan da ba su dace da mutum ba, ba a cire su ba, kan kadarorin jama'a da na sirri.
  • Gurbacewar amo: wanda ya kunshi hayaniyar hanya, hayaniyar jirgin sama, hayaniyar masana'antu gami da karar sonar.
  • Gurbacewar filastik: ya hada da tarin samfuran filastik da microplastics a cikin mahallin da ke cutar da namun daji, mazaunin namun daji, ko mutane.
  • Gurbataccen kasa yana faruwa ne lokacin da aka fitar da sinadarai ta hanyar zubewa ko zubar da ƙasa. Daga cikin mafi mahimmancin gurbataccen kasa akwai hydrocarbons, ƙarfe masu nauyi, MTBE, [1] herbicides, magungunan kashe qwari da chlorinated hydrocarbons.
  • Gurbataccen rediyo, wanda ya samo asali daga ayyukan karni na 20 a cikin ilimin kimiyyar atomatik, kamar samar da makamashin nukiliya da binciken makaman nukiliya, kira da turawa. (Dubi alpha emitters da actinides a cikin muhalli.)
  • Gurbacewar yanayi, shine canjin zafin jiki a jikin ruwa na halitta wanda tasirin ɗan adam ke haifarwa, kamar amfani da ruwa azaman sanyaya a cikin tashar wutar lantarki.
  • Gurbacewar gani, wanda zai iya nuni ga kasancewar layukan wutar lantarki na sama, allunan talla na babbar hanya, tarkacen filayen kasa (kamar daga ma'adinan tsiri ), budadden ajiyar shara, kakkarfan sharar gida ko tarkacen sararin samaniya.
  • Gurbacewar ruwa, ta hanyar fitar da ruwan sha na masana'antu daga sharar kasuwanci da masana'antu (da gangan ko ta zube) cikin ruwan saman; fitar da najasa da ba a kula da su ba, da gurbatattun sinadarai, irin su chlorine, daga najasar da aka yi da ita; sakin sharar gida da gurɓataccen abu a cikin ruwan sama da ke kwarara zuwa saman ruwa (ciki har da ɓarkewar birane da na noma, wadanda za su iya gunshi takin sinadari da magungunan kashe qwari; gami da najasar dan adam daga bayan gida a bude - har yanzu babbar matsala ce a yawancin kasashe masu tasowa); gurbatar ruwan karkashin kasa daga zubar da sharar gida da zubewa cikin kasa, ciki har da daga latrine na rami da tankunan ruwa; eutrophication da sharar gida.

Masu gurbatawa gyara sashe

 
Canal Lachine a Montreal, Quebec, Kanada
 
Magudanar ruwan shudi da alamar kifin rawaya da Hukumar Kula da Muhalli ta Burtaniya ke amfani da ita don wayar da kan jama'a game da tasirin muhalli na gurbataccen magudanar ruwa.

Gurbataccen abu ne da ke lalata iska, ruwa, ko kasa. Abubuwa uku ne ke tabbatar da tsananin gurbataccen abu: yanayin sinadaransa, yawan tattarawa, wurin da abin ya shafa da kuma dagewa.

Sources da Sanadin gyara sashe

Air pollution produced by ships may alter clouds, affecting global temperatures.

Gurbacewar iska ta fito daga tushe na halitta da na dan adam (anthropogenic). Koyaya, gurbataccen gurbataccen yanayi a duniya daga konewa, gine-gine, hakar ma'adinai, noma da yaki suna kara yin tasiri a cikin ma'aunin gurbataccen iska. [2]

Fitar da ababen hawa na daya daga cikin abubuwan da ke haddasa gurbatar iska. [3]China, Amurka, Rasha, Indiya Mexico, da Japan sune jagororin duniya wajen fitar da hayaki mai gurbata iska. Babban tushen gurɓataccen gurbataccen abu sun hada da tsire-tsire masu guba, masana'antar wutar lantarki ta kwal, matatun mai, tsire-tsire na petrochemical, aikin zubar da sharar nukiliya, incinerators, manyan gonakin dabbobi (sanan kiwo, aladu, kiwon kaji, da sauransu.), masana'antun PVC, masana'antar samar da karafa, masana'antar filastik, da sauran masana'antu masu nauyi. Gurbacewar iska ta noma ta fito ne daga al'adun zamani wadanda suka hada da saran sarewa da kona ciyayi da kuma fesa magungunan kashe qwari da maganin ciyawa [4]

Kimanin metric ton miliyan 400 na sharar gida masu hadari ana samarwa kowace shekara. Amurka kadai tana samar da kusan tan miliyan 250. Amirkawa sun kunshikasa da kashi 5% na yawan mutanen duniya, amma suna samar da kusan kashi 25% na CO na duniya, kuma suna samar da kusan kashi 30% na sharar duniya. [5] A cikin 2007, China ta mamaye Amurka a matsayin babbar mai samar da CO, [6] yayin da har yanzu ta yi nisa a baya bisa la'akari da gurbatar muhalli (wanda ke matsayi na 78 a cikin al'ummomin duniya). [7]

 
Wani yanki na masana'antu, mai tashar wutar lantarki, kudu da tsakiyar garin Yangzhou, kasar Sin

Wasu daga cikin mafi yawan gurbataccen kasa sune chlorinated hydrocarbons (CFH), karfe masu nauyi (kamar chromium, cadmium-samuwa a cikin batura masu caji, da gubar-ana samun su a cikin fenti na gubar, man jirgin sama da har yanzu a wasu kasashe, man fetur), MTBE, zinc, arsenic da benzene. A shekara ta 2001 jerin rahotannin manema labaru da suka kare a cikin wani littafi mai suna Fateful Harvest sun bayyana wata al'ada da ta yadu ta hanyar sake sarrafa kayayyakin masana'antu zuwa taki, wanda ya haifar da gurbata kasa da karafa daban-daban. Wuraren shara na yau da kullun na birni sune tushen yawancin abubuwan sinadarai da ke shiga cikin kasa (kuma galibi ruwan kasa), wadanda ke fitowa daga nau'ikan kima iri-iri, musamman abubuwan da aka jefar da su ba bisa ka'ida ba a can, ko kuma daga wuraren da ake zubar da kasa kafin 1970 wadanda watakila ba su da iko sosai a ciki. Amurka ko EU. Hakanan an sami wasu abubuwan da ba a saba gani ba na dibenzodioxins na polychlorinated, wadanda aka fi sani da dioxins don sauki, kamar TCDD.

Gurbacewar yanayi kuma na iya zama sakamakon bala'i. Misali, guguwa sau da yawa kan hada da gurbacewar ruwa daga najasa, da zubewar sinadarin petrochemical daga fashewar jiragen ruwa ko motoci. Babban ma'auni da lalacewar muhalli ba bakon abu ba ne lokacin da ake hada ma'aikatan man fetur ko matatun mai a bakin teku. Wasu hanyoyin gurbatawa, kamar tashoshin makamashin nukiliya ko tankunan mai, na iya haifar da yaɗuwa da yuwuwar sakin hadari lokacin da hatsari suka faru.

A cikin yanayin gurbatar amo babban tushen ajin shine abin hawa, wanda ke samar da kusan kashi casa'in na duk hayaniya maras so a duniya.

Fitar da iskar gas gyara sashe

 
Tarihi da hasashen iskar CO 2 ta ƙasa (kamar na 2005).



Source: Hukumar Kula da Makamashi. [8]

Carbon dioxide, yayin da yake da muhimmanci ga photosynthesis, wani lokaci ana kiransa gurbatacce, saboda yawan iskar gas a cikin yanayi yana shafar yanayin duniya. Rushewar muhalli kuma na iya nuna alaqar da ke tsakanin wuraren gurbacewar muhalli waɗanda galibi za a kebe su daban, kamar na ruwa da iska. Nazarin kwanan nan sun bincika yuwuwar hadakar matakan hadakar carbon dioxide na yanayi na dogon lokaci don haifar da dandano kadan amma hadaka mai mahimmanci a cikin acidity na ruwan teku, da yuwuwar tasirin wannan akan yanayin yanayin ruwa.

A cikin watan Fabrairun 2007, wani rahoto da Hukumar Kula da Canjin Yanayi (IPCC) ta yi, wanda ke wakiltar aikin masana kimiyya, masana tattalin arziki, da masu tsara manufofi 2,500 daga kasashe fiye da 120, ya tabbatar da cewa mutane ne suka zama sanadin dumamar yanayi tun shekara ta 1950. Wani babban rahoton yanayi ya kammala, mutane suna da hanyoyin da za su rage hayaki mai gurbata yanayi da kuma guje wa illar dumamar yanayi. Amma don sauya yanayin, sauyin yanayi daga albarkatun mai kamar kwal da mai na bukatar faruwa cikin shekaru da dama, bisa ga rahoton karshe na wannan shekara daga kwamitin sulhu na MDD kan sauyin yanayi (IPCC).

Tasiri gyara sashe

Lafiyar dan Adam gyara sashe

 
Bayanin babban illolin kiwon lafiya a kan mutane daga wasu nau'ikan gurɓatawa na gama gari

Rashin ingancin iska na iya kashe kwayoyin halitta da yawa, gami da mutane. Gurbacewar Ozone na iya haifar da cututtukan numfashi, cututtukan zuciya, kumburin makogwaro, ciwon kirji, da cunkoso . Gurbacewar ruwa na janyo mutuwar mutane kusan 14,000 a kowace rana, akasari saboda gurbatar ruwan sha ta hanyar najasa da ba a kula da su ba a kasashe masu tasowa. Kimanin Indiyawa miliyan 500 ba su da damar shiga bandaki mai kyau, Sama da mutane miliyan goma a Indiya sun kamu da rashin lafiya ta ruwa a cikin 2013, kuma mutane 1,535 suka mutu, yawancinsu yara. Kusan Sinawa miliyan 500 ba su da tsaftataccen ruwan sha. [9] Wani bincike da aka gudanar a shekara ta 2010 ya nuna cewa mutane miliyan 1.2 ne ke mutuwa da wuri kowace shekara a kasar Sin saboda gurbacewar iska. Yawan hayakin da kasar Sin ta dade tana fuskanta na iya yin illa ga jikin fararen hula tare da haifar da cututtuka daban-daban. Hukumar ta WHO ta yi kiyasin a shekara ta 2007 cewa gurbacewar iska na janyo mutuwar rabin miliyan a kowace shekara a Indiya. [10] Bincike ya yi kiyasin cewa adadin mutanen da ake kashewa kowace shekara a Amurka zai iya wuce 50,000.

Zubewar mai na iya haifar da haushin fata da rashes. Gurbacewar amo yana haifar da asarar ji, hawan jini, damuwa, da tashin hankali barci. An danganta Mercury da raunin ci gaba a cikin yara da alamun cututtukan neurologic. Tsofaffi sun fi kamuwa da cututtuka da gurbacewar iska ke haifarwa. Wadanda ke da cututtukan zuciya ko huhu suna cikin karin hadari. Yara da jarirai kuma suna cikin hadari mai tsanani. An nuna gubar da sauran karafa masu nauyi na haifar da matsalolin jijiyoyin jiki. Abubuwan sinadarai da rediyoaktif na iya haifar da ciwon daji da kuma lahani na haihuwa.

Wani bincike da hukumar Lancet ta gudanar a watan Oktobar 2017 da hukumar kula da gurbatar yanayi da lafiya ta gudanar ya gano cewa gurbacewar yanayi a duniya, musamman iska mai guba, ruwa, kasa da wuraren aiki, na kashe mutane miliyan tara a duk shekara, wanda ya ninka adadin mace-macen da cutar AIDS, tarin fuka da zazzabin cizon sauro ke haddasawa a hade, da kuma Sau 15 ya fi yawan mace-macen da yaƙe-yaƙe ke haifarwa da sauran nau'ikan tashin hankalin dan adam. Binciken ya kammala da cewa "gurbata yanayi na daya daga cikin manyan kalubalen da ake fuskanta a zamanin Anthropocene. Gurbacewar yanayi na barazana ga zaman lafiyar tsarin tallafi na duniya kuma yana barazana ga ci gaba da rayuwar al'ummomin bil'adama."

Muhalli gyara sashe

 
Babban facin facin Pacific

An gano gurbataccen abu a cikin muhalli. Akwai illoli da dama na wannan:

  • Biomagnification yana kwatanta yanayi inda gubobi (kamar karfe mai nauyi ) na iya wucewa ta matakan trophic, ya zama mai da hankali sosai a cikin tsari.
     
    Fitar da iskar carbon dioxide ta duniya ta ikon hukuma (kamar na 2015)
  • Fitar da iskar carbon dioxide yana haifar da acidification na teku, raguwar ci gaba a cikin pH na tekunan Duniya yayin da CO ke narkewa.
  • Fitar da iskar iskar gas na haifar da dumamar yanayi wanda ke shafar yanayin halittu ta hanyoyi da dama.
  • Nau'in cin zarafi na iya ketare nau'ikan 'yan kasa da rage bambancin halittu. Tsire-tsire masu cin zarafi na iya ba da gudummawar tarkace da kwayoyin halittu ( allelopathy ) wadanda za su iya canza ƙasa da abubuwan hadin sinadarai na yanayi, galibi suna rage gasa ga nau'in 'yan asalin.
  • Ana cire sinadarin Nitrogen oxides daga iska ta ruwan sama da kuma takin ƙasa wanda zai iya canza nau'in halittun halittu.
  • Smog da hazo na iya rage yawan hasken rana da tsire-tsire ke karɓa don aiwatar da photosynthesis kuma yana haifar da samar da ozone mai zafi mai zafi wanda ke lalata tsire-tsire.
  • Kasa na iya zama marar haihuwa kuma ba ta dace da tsire-tsire ba. Wannan zai shafi sauran kwayoyin halitta a cikin gidan yanar gizon abinci.
  • Sulfur dioxide da nitrogen oxides na iya haifar da ruwan sama na acid wanda ke rage darajar pH na ƙasa.
  • Gurbacewar yanayi na magudanan ruwa na iya rage matakan iskar oxygen da rage bambancin nau'in.

Wani bincike na 2022 da aka buga a Kimiyyar Muhalli & Fasaha ya gano cewa matakan gurɓatar sinadarai na ɗan adam sun wuce iyakokin duniya kuma yanzu suna yin barazana ga duk yanayin halittu a duniya.

Bayanan lafiyar muhalli gyara sashe

Shirin Toxicology and Environmental Health Information Programme (TEHIP) a Cibiyar Nazarin Magunguna ta Amurka (NLM) tana kula da cikakkiyar ilimin guba da gidan yanar gizon lafiyar muhalli wanda ya haɗa da samun damar samun albarkatun da TEHIP ke samarwa da kuma wasu hukumomi da kungiyoyi na gwamnati. Wannan rukunin yanar gizon ya kunshi hanyoyin hadin yanar gizo zuwa bayanan bayanai, litattafai, koyawa, da sauran albarkatun kimiyya da mabukaci. TEHIP kuma ita ce ke da alhakin Cibiyar Bayanan Toxicology (TOXNET) tsarin hadin gwiwar toxicology da bayanan lafiyar muhalli wadanda ke samuwa kyauta akan gidan yanar gizon.

TOXMAP shine Tsarin Bayanan Kasa (GIS) wanda ke cikin TOXNET. TOXMAP yana amfani da taswirori na Amurka don taimakawa masu amfani su gano bayanai na gani daga Hukumar Kariyar Muhalli ta Amurka (EPA) Abubuwan Sakin Guba da Shirye-shiryen Bincike na Musamman na Superfund.

Laifi gyara sashe

Wani bincike na 2021 ya gano cewa fallasa gurɓata yanayi yana haifar da haɓakar laifukan tashin hankali.

Sakamakon makaranta gyara sashe

Wata takarda ta 2019 ta danganta gurbacewar yanayi da sakamako mara kyau ga yara.

Yawan aiki na ma'aikata gyara sashe

Yawancin bincike sun nuna cewa gurbatar yanayi yana da mummunar tasiri akan yawan aiki na ma'aikata na cikin gida da waje.

Ka'ida da saka idanu gyara sashe

Domin kare muhalli daga illar gurbacewar yanayi, kasashe da dama a duniya sun kafa doka don daidaita nau'o'in gurbatar yanayi tare da rage illar gurbatar yanayi.

Kula da gurbataccen yanayi gyara sashe

 
Tarkon datti ya kama sharar da ke iyo a cikin Kogin Yarra, gabas ta tsakiya Victoria, Ostiraliya.
 
Tsarin kula da gurɓataccen iska, wanda aka sani da thermal oxidizer, yana lalata iskar gas mai haɗari daga magudanan iska na masana'antu a masana'anta a Amurka.
 
Mai tara kura a Pristina, Kosovo
 
Bututun iskar gas tare da dawo da tururi
 
Motar Kariya ta Waya a Indiya
 
Thermal oxidizers tsarkake masana'antu iska kwarara.

Kula da gurbata yanayi kalma ce da ake amfani da ita wajen sarrafa muhalli. Yana nufin sarrafa fitar da hayaki da magudanar ruwa a cikin iska, ruwa ko kasa. Idan ba tare da kula da gurbata yanayi ba, abubuwan sharar gida daga cunkoson jama'a, dumama, noma, ma'adinai, masana'antu, sufuri da sauran ayyukan dan adam, ko sun taru ko kuma sun watse, za su lalata muhalli. A cikin tsarin sarrafawa, rigakafin gurbatawa da rage sharar gida sun fi sha'awa fiye da sarrafa gurɓatawa. A fannin raya kasa, samar da karamin tasiri, irin wannan dabara ce ta rigakafin kwararar ruwa a birane.

Ayyuka gyara sashe

  • Sake yin amfani da su
  • Sake amfani da shi
  • Rage sharar gida
  • Ragewa
  • Rigakafin gurbatawa
  • Takin

Na'urorin sarrafa gurbatar yanayi gyara sashe

  • Kula da gurbataccen iska
    • Thermal oxidizer
  • Tsarin tarin kura
    • Baghouses
    • Cyclones
    • Electrostatic precipitators
  • Masu gogewa
    • Baffle goge goge
    • Cyclonic sprayer
    • Ejector venturi scrubber
    • Taimakon injin goge goge
    • Hasumiyar fesa
    • Mai goge goge
  • Maganin najasa
    • Sedimentation (maganin farko)
    • Ayyukan sludge biotreaters (jiyya na biyu; kuma ana amfani da shi don ruwan sharar masana'antu)
    • Ruwan iska
    • Gina dausayi (kuma ana amfani dashi don zubar da ruwa a birane)
  • Maganin sharar gida na masana'antu
    • API mai raba ruwa-ruwa
    • Biofilters
    • Narkar da iska (DAF)
    • Maganin carbon da aka kunna foda
    • Ultrafiltration
  • Tsarin dawo da tururi
  • Phytoremediation

Kudin gurbatar yanayi gyara sashe

Gurbacewa yana da tsada. [11] [12] [13] Ayyukan masana'antu da ke haifar da gurɓataccen iska yana ɗaukar nauyin lafiya da tsaftacewa ga dukkanin al'umma. Ayyukan masana'antu wanda ke haifar da gurbataccen iska shine misali na mummunan waje a cikin samarwa. Wani mummunan waje a cikin samarwa yana faruwa "lokacin da samar da kamfani ya rage jin dadin wasu waɗanda kamfanin bai biya su ba." Misali, idan kamfanin wanki yana kusa da kamfanin kera karafa masu gurbata muhalli, za a kara farashin kamfanin wanki saboda datti da hayakin da kamfanin kera karafa ke samarwa. Idan farashin waje ya wanzu, kamar waɗanda kazanta suka kirkira, masana'anta za su zabi samar da karin samfuran fiye da yadda za a kera idan ana buƙatar masana'anta su biya duk farashin muhalli da ke da alaqa. Domin alhaki ko sakamakon aikin kai-kai ya ta'allaka wani bangare a wajen kai, wani bangare na waje yana shiga. Idan akwai fa'idodin waje, kamar a cikin amincin jama'a, ƙasan mai kyau na iya samarwa fiye da yadda lamarin zai kasance idan mai samarwa ya karɓi biyan kuɗi don fa'idodin waje ga wasu. Koyaya, kayayyaki da sabis waɗanda ke haɗa abubuwan waje mara kyau a cikin samarwa, kamar waɗanda ke samar da gurɓataccen gurɓataccen abu, galibi ana yin su da yawa kuma ba su da tsada tunda ba a saka farashin waje a kasuwa. [14]

Gurbacewar yanayi na iya haifar da farashi ga kamfanonin da ke samar da gurbatar yanayi. Wani lokaci kamfanoni suna zaɓar, ko kuma an tilasta musu su ta hanyar ƙa'ida, don rage yawan gurɓacewar da suke samarwa. Haɗin kuɗin yin wannan ana kiran kuɗaɗen ragewa, ko ƙimar ragewa ta gefe idan an auna ta kowane ƙarin raka'a. A shekara ta 2005 yawan kashe-kashen kashe-kashe na gurɓacewar muhalli da kuma farashin aiki a Amurka ya kai kusan dala biliyan 27.

Al'umma da al'adu gyara sashe

Yawancin masana'antu masu gurbata muhalli gyara sashe

The Pure Earth, wata kungiya ce ta kasa da kasa mai zaman kanta da ta sadaukar da kai don kawar da gurbacewar rayuwa a kasashe masu tasowa, ta fitar da jerin sunayen wasu masana'antu mafi gurbata muhalli a duniya. A ƙasa akwai jerin abubuwan 2016:

Manazarta gyara sashe

  1. Concerns about MTBE from U.S. EPA website
  2. Declaration of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, 1972
  3. State of the Environment, Issue: Air Quality (Australian Government website page)
  4. Silent Spring, R Carlson, 1962
  5. Alarm sounds on US population boom. August 31, 2006. The Boston Globe.
  6. "China overtakes US as world's biggest Template:CO2 emitter". Guardian.co.uk. June 19, 2007.
  7. "Ranking of the world's countries by 2008 per capita fossil-fuel CO2 emission rates. Archived 2011-09-27 at the Wayback Machine". CDIAC. 2008.
  8. Carbon dioxide emissions chart (graph on Mongabay website page based on Energy Information Administration's tabulated data)
  9. "As China Roars, Pollution Reaches Deadly Extremes". The New York Times. August 26, 2007.
  10. Chinese Air Pollution Deadliest in World, Report Says. National Geographic News. July 9, 2007.
  11. The staggering economic cost of air pollution By Chelsea Harvey, Washington Post, January 29, 2016
  12. Freshwater Pollution Costs US At Least $4.3 Billion A Year, Science Daily, November 17, 2008
  13. The human cost of China's untold soil pollution problem, The Guardian, Monday 30 June 2014 11.53 EDT
  14. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :0