Gurɓatar ƙasa, ƙazantar ƙasa, ko ƙazantar ƙasa a matsayin wani ɓangare na lalacewar ƙasa yana faruwa ne sakamakon kasancewar sinadarai na xenobiotic (wanda ɗan adam ya yi) ko wani canji a cikin yanayin ƙasa. Yawanci yana faruwa ne ta hanyar ayyukan masana'antu, sinadarai na aikin gona ko zubar da sharar da bai dace ba. Mafi yawan sinadaran da ke tattare da su sune man fetur hydrocarbons, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (kamar naphthalene da benzo (a) pyrene ), kaushi, magungunan kashe qwari, gubar, da sauran ƙananan karafa . An haɗu da gurɓatawa tare da ƙimar masana'antu da ƙarfin abubuwan sinadarai. Damuwa game da gurɓacewar ƙasa ya samo asali ne daga haɗarin lafiya, daga hulɗar kai tsaye tare da gurɓataccen ƙasa, tururi daga gurɓataccen ƙasa, ko kuma daga gurɓacewar ruwa na biyu a cikin ƙasa da ƙasa. [1] Taswirar wuraren gurɓataccen ƙasa da sakamakon tsaftacewa suna ɗaukar lokaci da ayyuka masu tsada, kuma suna buƙatar gwaninta a cikin ilimin geology, hydrology, sunadarai, ƙirar kwamfuta, da GIS a cikin gurɓataccen muhalli, da kuma godiya ga tarihin sunadarai na wasu masana'antu.

Hane-hane da ke nuna gurɓatar ƙasa a wani aikin iskar gas da ba a yi amfani da shi ba a Ingila.

A Arewacin kasar Amurka da Yammacin Turai an fi sanin girman gurɓataccen ƙasa, tare da yawancin ƙasashe a waɗannan yankuna suna da tsarin doka don ganowa da magance wannan matsalar muhalli. Kasashe masu tasowa ba su da ka'ida sosai duk da cewa wasu daga cikinsu sun sami ci gaban masana'antu.

DalilaiGyara

Ana iya samun haifar da gurɓacewar ƙasa ta abubuwan da ke biyowa (jerin da ba ya ƙarewa)

  • Microplastics
  • Mai ya zube
  • Ma'adinai da ayyukan da sauran manyan masana'antu
  • Zubewar haɗari na iya faruwa yayin ayyuka, da sauransu.
  • Lalacewar tankunan ajiya na ƙarƙashin ƙasa (ciki har da bututun da ake amfani da su don watsa abubuwan da ke ciki)
  • Ruwan acid
  • Noma mai zurfi
  • Agrochemicals, irin su magungunan kashe qwari, herbicides da takin mai magani
  • Petrochemicals
  • Hadarin masana'antu
  • Barazanar hanya
  • Magudanar da gurbataccen ruwan saman cikin ƙasa
  • Harsasai, sinadarai masu guba, da sauran abubuwan yaƙi
  • Sharar gida
    • Zubar da mai da mai
    • Sharar da makaman nukiliya
    • Fitar da sharar masana'antu kai tsaye zuwa ƙasa
    • Zubar da najasa
    • Kisan shara da zubar da shara ba bisa ka'ida ba
    • Kwal ash
    • Sharar gida
    • An gurɓace da duwatsu masu ɗauke da adadi mai yawa na abubuwa masu guba .
    • Pb ya gurɓata saboda shaye-shayen abin hawa, Cd, da Zn wanda lalacewan taya ya haifar.
    • Lalacewa ta hanyar ƙarfafa gurɓataccen iska ta hanyar ƙona albarkatun burbushin halittu.

Duk wani aiki da ke haifar da wasu nau'ikan lalacewar ƙasa ( zaizayar ƙasa , tattarawa, da dai sauransu) na iya ƙara tsananta tasirin gurɓataccen abu a kaikaice a cikin wannan gyaran ƙasa ya zama mai matuƙar wahala.

 
sarrafa e-sharar gida a Agbogbloshie, Ghana. Zubar da kayayyakin da aka kera da kuma sharar masana'antu ba daidai ba, yawanci yana nufin al'ummomin kudancin duniya su sarrafa kayayyaki. Musamman ma ba tare da kariyar da ta dace ba, karafa masu nauyi da sauran gurɓatattun abubuwa na iya shiga cikin ƙasa, kuma su haifar da gurɓataccen ruwa da gurɓataccen iska .

Ajiye tokar kwal a tarihi da ake amfani da shi don zama, kasuwanci, da dumama masana'antu, da kuma hanyoyin masana'antu kamar narka tama, sun kasance tushen gurɓata da yawa a wuraren da aka haɓaka masana'antu kafin kusan shekarata 1960. Coal a dabi'ance yana maida hankali da gubar da zinc yayin samuwarsa, da kuma sauran karafa masu nauyi zuwa karami. Lokacin da gawayi ya ƙone, yawancin waɗannan karafa suna taruwa a cikin toka (babban abin da ya rage shi ne mercury). Coal toka da slag na iya ƙunsar isasshiyar gubar don cancanta a matsayin " sharar da ke da haɗari", wanda aka ayyana a cikin Amurka kamar yadda ya ƙunshi fiye da 5 mg/l na gubar cirewa ta amfani da hanyar TCLP . Baya ga gubar, kwal ash yawanci yana ƙunshe da madaidaicin amma mahimman ma'auni na hydrocarbons na polynuclear aromatic (PAHs; misali, benzo (a) anthracene, benzo (b) fluoranthene, benzo (k) fluoranthene, benzo (a) pyrene, indeno (cd) pyrene, phenanthrene, anthracene, da sauransu). Waɗannan PAHs sanannu ne na ƙwayoyin cuta na ɗan adam kuma yawan adadin su a cikin ƙasa yawanci kusan 1 ne. mg/kg. Ana iya gane tokar kwal da slag ta kasancewar ƙwaya mara-fari a cikin ƙasa, ƙasa mai launin toka mai launin toka, ko (ƙwanƙarar kwal) mai kumfa, hatsi masu girman dutsen vesicular.

Magance sludge na najasa, wanda aka sani a masana'antu a matsayin biosolids, ya zama mai jayayya a matsayin " taki ". Da yake shi ne sakamakon maganin najasa, gabaɗaya ya ƙunshi ƙarin gurɓatattun abubuwa kamar ƙwayoyin cuta, kuma magungunan kashe qwari, da ƙarfe masu nauyi fiye da sauran ƙasa.

A cikin Tarayyar Turai, Dokar Kula da Sharar Ruwa ta Birane ta ba da damar fesa najasa a ƙasa. Ana sa ran adadin zai ninka zuwa tan 185,000 na busassun daskararru a cikin shekarata 2005. Wannan yana da kyawawan kaddarorin noma saboda babban abun ciki na nitrogen da phosphate . A cikin Shekarun 1990/1991, an fesa jika 13% akan 0.13% na ƙasar; duk da haka, ana sa ran wannan zai tashi sau 15 nan da shekarata 2005. [ bukatar sabuntawa ] Masu ba da shawara  ya ce akwai buƙatar sarrafa wannan don kada ƙwayoyin cuta masu cutarwa su shiga cikin darussan ruwa da kuma tabbatar da cewa babu tarin ƙarfe mai nauyi a saman ƙasa.

Maganin kashe kwari da ciyawaGyara

Maganin kashe qwari wani abu ne da ake amfani da shi don kashe kwaro. Maganin kashe qwari na iya zama sinadari, wakili na halitta (kamar ƙwayoyin cuta ko ƙwayoyin cuta), maganin rigakafi, maganin kashe kwayoyin cuta ko na'urar da ake amfani da ita ga kowace kwaro. Ƙwararrun sun haɗa da kwari, ƙwayoyin cuta na tsire-tsire, ciyawa, mollusks, tsuntsaye, dabbobi masu shayarwa, kifi, nematodes (roundworms) da ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta waɗanda ke yin gasa da mutane don abinci, lalata dukiya, yadawa ko kuma su ne cututtukan cututtuka ko haifar da damuwa. Ko da yake ma akwai fa'idodi ga amfani da magungunan kashe qwari, akwai kuma nakasu, kamar yuwuwar cutar da mutane da sauran halittu.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Ana amfani da maganin ciyawa don kashe ciyayi, musamman a kan titina da layin dogo. Sun yi kama da auxins kuma yawancin ƙwayoyin cuta na ƙasa suna iya lalata su. Koyaya, rukuni ɗaya da aka samo daga trinitrotoluene (2: 4 D da 2: 4: 5 T) suna da dioxin na ƙazanta, wanda yake da guba sosai kuma yana haifar da mutuwa ko da a cikin ƙananan ƙima. Wani maganin ciyawa shine Paraquat . Yana da guba sosai amma yana saurin raguwa a cikin ƙasa saboda aikin ƙwayoyin cuta kuma baya kashe namun ƙasa.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Ana amfani da maganin kashe kwari don kawar da kwari daga gonakin da ke lalata amfanin gona da aka shuka. Kwarin yana lalata ba kawai amfanin gona da ke tsaye ba har da wanda aka adana kuma a cikin wurare masu zafi an yi la'akari da cewa kashi ɗaya bisa uku na jimillar abin da ake nomawa ya ɓace yayin ajiyar abinci. Kamar yadda yake tare da fungicides, magungunan kashe qwari na farko da aka yi amfani da su a ƙarni na sha tara ba su da tushe misali. Paris Green da sauran mahadi na arsenic . An kuma yi amfani da nicotine tun daga ƙarshen karni na sha takwas.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Yanzu akwai manyan ƙungiyoyi biyu na maganin kwari na roba -

1. Organochlorines sun haɗa da DDT, Aldrin, Dieldrin da BHC. Suna da arha don samarwa, masu ƙarfi da tsayin daka. An yi amfani da DDT akan ma'auni mai girma daga shekarun 1930, tare da kololuwar tan 72,000 da aka yi amfani da su a shekarata 1970. Sannan amfani ya faɗi yayin da aka gane illolin muhalli masu cutarwa. An samo shi a duniya a cikin kifi da tsuntsaye kuma an gano shi a cikin dusar ƙanƙara a cikin Antarctic . Yana da ɗan narkewa a cikin ruwa amma yana narkewa sosai a cikin jini. Yana shafar tsarin juyayi da tsarin endocrin kuma yana haifar da kwai na tsuntsaye don rasa sinadarin calcium yana sa su zama masu saurin karyewa. Ana tunanin shine ke da alhakin raguwar adadin tsuntsayen ganima kamar ospreys da pergrine falcons a cikin shekarar 1950s - yanzu suna murmurewa.[ana buƙatar hujja] Haka kuma ƙara yawan maida hankali ta hanyar sarkar abinci, an san shi yana shiga ta hanyar membranes masu lalacewa, don haka kifaye suna samun ta cikin gills. Da yake yana da ƙarancin narkewar ruwa, yana ƙoƙarin tsayawa a saman ruwa, don haka kwayoyin da ke zaune a wurin sun fi shafa. DDT da aka samu a cikin kifin da ya zama wani ɓangare na jerin abinci na ɗan adam ya haifar da damuwa, amma matakan da aka samu a cikin hanta, koda da nama na kwakwalwa bai wuce 1 ppm ba kuma a cikin mai ya kai 10 ppm, wanda ke ƙasa da matakin da zai iya haifar da lahani. Koyaya, an dakatar da DDT a cikin Burtaniya da Amurka don dakatar da haɓakar sa a cikin sarkar abinci. Masana'antun Amurka sun ci gaba da sayar da DDT ga ƙasashe masu tasowa, waɗanda ba za su iya samun tsadar sinadarai masu tsada ba kuma waɗanda ba su da ƙaƙƙarfan ƙa'idodin da ke kula da amfani da magungunan kashe qwari.[ana buƙatar hujja] .

2. Organophosphates, misali parathion, methyl parathion da kuma sauran 40 sauran kwari suna samuwa a cikin ƙasa. Parathion yana da guba sosai, methyl-parathion ya yi ƙasa da haka kuma ana ɗaukar Malathion gabaɗaya lafiya saboda yana da ƙarancin guba kuma yana rushewa cikin sauri a cikin hanta mammalian. Wannan rukuni yana aiki ta hanyar hana watsawar jijiya na al'ada kamar yadda aka hana cholinesterase daga rushewa mai watsawa acetylcholine, wanda ke haifar da motsin tsoka mara sarrafawa.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Wakilan yakiGyara

Zubar da alburusai, da rashin kulawa wajen kera alburusai da gaggawar kerawa ke haifarwa, na iya gurɓata ƙasa na tsawon lokaci. Amman Babu wata shaida kaɗan da aka buga akan wannan nau'in gurɓataccen abu musamman saboda takunkumin da gwamnatocin ƙasashe da yawa suka sanya akan buga abubuwan da suka shafi ƙoƙarin yaƙi. Duk da haka, gas ɗin mustard da aka adana a lokacin yakin duniya na biyu ya gurɓata wasu wurare har tsawon shekaru 50 [2] da gwajin Anthrax a matsayin makamin kwayoyin halitta ya gurɓata dukan tsibirin Gruinard . [3]

Lafiyar dan AdamGyara

Hanyoyin fallasaGyara

Gurbatacciyar ƙasa ko gurɓatacciyar ƙasa tana shafar lafiyar ɗan adam kai tsaye ta hanyar tuntuɓar ƙasa kai tsaye ko ta shakar gurɓataccen ƙasa wanda ya yi tururi; Akwai yuwuwar barazana mafi girma ta hanyar kutsawa daga cikin gurɓacewar ƙasa a cikin magudanan ruwa na ƙasa da ake amfani da su don amfanin ɗan adam, wani lokaci a wuraren da ake ganin ba su da nisa daga duk wani tushen gurɓacewar ƙasa a sama. Wannan yana haifar da haɓakar cututtukan da ke da alaƙa da gurɓatawa .

Yawancin bayyanar da haɗari ne, kuma fallasa na iya faruwa ta hanyar:

  • Shigar ƙura ko ƙasa kai tsaye
  • Ci abinci ko kayan lambu da aka shuka a cikin ƙasa maras kyau ko tare da abincin da ke da alaƙa da gurɓataccen abu
  • Alamar fata tare da ƙura ko ƙasa
  • Tururi daga ƙasa
  • Shakar ƙura yayin aiki a cikin ƙasa ko yanayin iska

Duk da haka, wasu nazarin sun kiyasta cewa kashi 90% na fallasa su ta hanyar cin gurɓataccen abinci ne.

SakamakoGyara

Sakamakon lafiya daga kamuwa da gurɓacewar ƙasa ya bambanta sosai ya danganta da nau'in gurɓataccen abu, hanyar kai hari da raunin mutanen da aka fallasa. Bayyanar cututtuka na yau da kullum ga chromium, gubar da sauran karafa, man fetur, masu kaushi, da magungunan kashe qwari da Kuma magungunan herbicide da yawa na iya zama carcinogenic, na iya haifar da cututtuka na haihuwa, ko kuma zai iya haifar da wasu yanayin kiwon lafiya na yau da kullum. Abubuwan da ke faruwa a masana'antu ko na mutum, kamar nitrate da ammonia da ke da alaƙa da takin dabbobi daga ayyukan aikin gona, an kuma gano su a matsayin haɗarin lafiya a cikin ƙasa da ruwan ƙasa. [4]

Bayyanuwa na yau da kullun ga benzene a isassun yawa an san yana da alaƙa da haɓakar cutar sankarar bargo. An san Mercury da cyclodienes don haifar da mafi yawan abubuwan da ke faruwa na lalacewar koda da wasu cututtuka marasa jurewa. PCBs da cyclodienes suna da alaƙa da gubar hanta. Organophosphates da carbonates na iya haifar da sarkar martani da ke haifar da toshewar neuromuscular . Yawancin chlorinated kaushi yana haifar da canje-canjen hanta, canjin koda da damuwa na tsarin juyayi na tsakiya. Akwai nau'i-nau'i na ƙarin illolin kiwon lafiya kamar ciwon kai, tashin zuciya, gajiya, ciwon ido da kurjin fata don abubuwan da aka ambata a sama da sauran sinadarai. A isassun allurai, adadin gurɓataccen ƙasa na iya haifar da mutuwa ta hanyar saduwa ta kai tsaye, shaka ko sha da gurɓatacce a cikin ruwan ƙasa da aka gurbata ta ƙasa baki daya.

Gwamnatin Scotland ta umurci Cibiyar Nazarin Magungunan Ma'aikata ta gudanar da nazarin hanyoyin da za a tantance haɗarin lafiyar ɗan adam daga gurɓataccen ƙasa. Babban manufar aikin shine a samar da jagora wanda yakamata ya zama mai amfani ga Hukumomin Yankin Scotland wajen tantance ko shafuka suna wakiltar babbar yuwuwar cutarwa (SPOSH) ga lafiyar ɗan adam. Ana sa ran cewa fitowar aikin zai zama ɗan gajeren takarda da ke ba da jagora mai girma game da kimanta haɗarin lafiya tare da la'akari da jagorar da aka buga da kuma hanyoyin da aka gano a matsayin masu dacewa da taimako. Aikin zai bincika yadda aka samar da jagororin manufofi don ƙayyade yarda da haɗari ga lafiyar ɗan adam da kuma ba da shawarar hanyar da za a iya yin la'akari da abin da ke tattare da hadarin da ba a yarda da shi ba daidai da ka'idojin SPOSH kamar yadda aka bayyana a cikin doka da Jagorar a ciki Dokokin Scotland.

Tasirin muhalliGyara

Ba zato ba tsammani, gurɓataccen ƙasa na iya haifar da mummunan sakamako ga yanayin halittu. [5] Akwai sauye-sauyen sinadarai na ƙasa waɗanda zasu iya tasowa daga kasancewar sinadarai masu haɗari da yawa ko da a ƙarancin ƙarancin nau'in gurɓataccen yanayi. Duk Wadannan canje-canje na iya bayyanawa a cikin canjin canjin ƙwayoyin cuta na endemic microorganisms da arthropods mazauna a cikin yanayin ƙasa da aka ba. To Amman Sakamakon zai iya zama share wasu daga cikin sarkar abinci na farko, wanda hakan na iya haifar da babban sakamako ga mafarauta ko nau'in mabukaci. Ko da tasirin sinadarai kan ƙananan sifofin rayuwa kaɗan ne, ƙananan matakan pyramid na sarkar abinci na iya shigar da sinadarai na baƙon, wanda yawanci ya fi maida hankali ga kowane nau'in sarkar abinci. Yawancin waɗannan illolin yanzu an san su sosai, kamar tattara kayan DDT na dindindin ga masu amfani da jiragen ruwa, wanda ke haifar da rauni na bawo, ƙara yawan mace-macen kaji da yuwuwar bacewar nau'ikan.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Tasirin yana faruwa ga filayen noma waɗanda ke da wasu nau'ikan gurɓataccen ƙasa. Abubuwan gurɓatawa galibi suna canza canjin shuka, galibi suna haifar da raguwar amfanin gona. Wannan yana da tasiri na biyu akan kiyaye ƙasa, tunda albarkatun gona masu lalacewa ba za su iya kare ƙasan ƙasa daga zaizawar ƙasa ba . To Sai Dai Wasu daga cikin waɗannan gurɓatattun sinadarai suna da tsawon rabin rayuwa kuma a wasu lokuta ana samun wasu sinadarai masu tasowa daga ruɓar gurɓataccen ƙasa na farko.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Mahimman tasirin gurɓatawa ga ayyukan ƙasaGyara

Karafa masu nauyi sosai da sauran gurɓataccen ƙasa na iya yin illa ga aiki, nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan halittu da yawa na ƙasa, don haka suna barazanar ayyukan ƙasa kamar hawan keke na carbon da nitrogen. Koyaya, gurɓataccen ƙasa kuma na iya zama ƙasa da samuwa ta lokaci, kuma ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta da tsarin halittu zasu iya dacewa da yanayin da suka canza. Kaddarorin ƙasa kamar pH, abubuwan da ke cikin kwayoyin halitta da rubutu suna da mahimmanci sosai kuma suna canza motsi, haɓakar halittu da gubar gurɓataccen ƙasa. Adadin gurɓataccen abu ɗaya na iya zama mai guba a cikin ƙasa ɗaya to amma gaba ɗaya mara lahani a wata ƙasa. Wannan yana jaddada buƙatar tantance takamaiman kasada da matakan ƙasa.

Zaɓuɓɓukan tsaftacewaGyara

Masana kimiyyar muhalli ne ke nazarin tsaftacewa ko gyaran muhalli waɗanda ke amfani da ma'aunin sinadarai na ƙasa kuma suna amfani da samfuran kwamfuta ( GIS in Environmental Contamination ) to Amman Duk DA yake don nazarin jigilar kayayyaki [6] da makomar sinadarai na ƙasa. An ƙirƙiro fasahohi iri-iri don gyara ƙasa da gurɓataccen mai Akwai manyan dabaru da yawa don gyarawa:

  • Cire ƙasa kuma ɗauka zuwa wurin zubarwa daga shirye-shiryen hanyoyin don tuntuɓar yanayin muhalli ko ɗan adam. Wannan dabara kuma ta shafi ɗigon laka mai ɗauke da guba.
  • Iskar ƙasa a wurin da aka gurbata (tare da haɗarin haifar da gurɓataccen iska )
  • Gyaran zafin jiki ta hanyar gabatar da zafi don ɗaga yanayin zafi a ƙarƙashin ƙasa sosai don daidaita gurɓataccen sinadarai daga cikin ƙasa don hakar tururi. Fasaha sun haɗa da ISTD, wutar lantarki juriya dumama (ERH), da ET-DSP.
  • Bioremediation, hade da ƙwayoyin cuta narkewa na wasu kwayoyin halitta. Dabarun da aka yi amfani da su a cikin bioremediation sun haɗa da aikin gonakin ƙasa, biostimulation da bioaugmentating ƙasa biota tare da samun microflora na kasuwanci.
  • Cire ruwan ƙasa ko tururin ƙasa tare da tsarin lantarki mai aiki, tare da cire gurɓatattun abubuwan da aka cire daga baya.
  • Rashin gurɓataccen ƙasa (kamar ta hanyar rufewa ko shimfidawa a wuri).
  • Phytoremediation, ko amfani da tsire-tsire (kamar willow) don fitar da karafa masu nauyi.
  • Mycoremediation, ko amfani da naman gwari don daidaita gurɓatattun abubuwa da tara ƙarfe masu nauyi.
  • Gyaran gurɓataccen mai mai gurbataccen ruwa tare da ruɗewar iska mai ruɗewa . [7]
  • Surfactant leaching

Ta ƙasaGyara

Ma'auni daban-daban na ƙasa don tattara abubuwan gurɓatawa na musamman sun haɗa da Manufofin Gyaran Farko na Yankin EPA 9 (US PRGs), Yankin EPA na ƙasar Amurka 3 Risk Based Concentrations (US EPA RBCs) da Majalisar Kare Muhalli ta ƙasa na Jagoran Ostiraliya kan Matakan Bincike a cikin ƙasa da Ruwan karkashin kasa.

Jamhuriyar Jama'ar SinGyara

Babban ci gaban da Jamhuriyar Jama'ar kasar Sin ta samu tun daga shekarun 1970 ya haifar da tsadar farashi daga kasar sakamakon karuwar gurbatar yanayi. Ma'aikatar Muhalli da Muhalli ta yi imanin cewa barazana ce ga muhalli, ga lafiyar abinci da kuma noma mai dorewa. Wani samfurin kimiya ya nuna cewa, an gurbata muhallin mu miliyan 150 (kilomita murabba'in 100,000) na kasar Sin da aka noma, inda aka yi amfani da gurbataccen ruwa wajen ban ruwa fiye da murabba'in mu miliyan 32.5 (kilomita murabba'i 21,670) da kuma wani murabba'in mu miliyan 2 (kilomita 1,300). ko lalata ta da ƙaƙƙarfan sharar gida. Gabaɗaya, yankin ya kai kashi ɗaya bisa goma na ƙasar da ake nomawa a ƙasar Sin, kuma ya fi yawa a yankunan da suka sami ci gaban tattalin arziki. Kimanin tan miliyan har 12 na hatsi na gurɓatar da karafa mai nauyi a kowace shekara, yana haifar da asarar yuan biliyan 20 kai tsaye (dalar Amurka biliyan 2.57). [8]

Tarayyar TuraiGyara

Dangane da bayanan da aka samu daga ƙasashe membobin, a cikin Tarayyar Turai adadin da aka kiyasta yiwuwar gurɓataccen wuraren ya fi miliyan 2.5 da wuraren da aka gano gurɓatattun wuraren kusan 342 dubu. Sharar gida da masana'antu suna ba da gudummawa mafi yawa ga gurɓacewar ƙasa (38%), sai kuma fannin masana'antu/kasuwanci (34%). Man ma'adinai da ƙarfe masu nauyi sosai sune manyan gurɓatattun abubuwa waɗanda ke taimakawa kusan kashi 60% ga gurɓacewar ƙasa. Ta fuskar kasafin kudi, ana kiyasin kula da gurbacewar muhallin zai kai kusan Yuro biliyan 6 (€) duk shekara. [9]

Ƙasar IngilaGyara

Jagorar gamayya da aka saba amfani da ita a cikin Ƙasar Ingila sune Ƙimar Jagorar ƙasa da Sashen Muhalli, Abinci da Harkokin Karkara (DEFRA) da Hukumar Muhalli suka buga. Waɗannan dabi'u ne na nunawa waɗanda ke nuna ƙaramin matakin abin karɓa. Sama da wannan ba za a iya samun tabbaci dangane da gagarumin haɗarin cutar da lafiyar ɗan adam ba. An samo waɗannan ta amfani da Ƙaƙwalwar Ƙwararren Ƙwararren Ƙasa (CLEA UK). Wasu sigogin shigarwa kamar Kimar Ma'aunin Lafiya, shekaru da amfani da ƙasa ana ciyar da su cikin CLEA UK don samun fitowar mai yiwuwa.[ana buƙatar hujja] .

Jagorar da Kwamitin Sashe na Internation na Ƙaƙwalwar Ƙaƙwalwar Ƙasa (ICRCL) ya yi watsi da shi a hukumance ta DEFRA, don amfani da shi azaman takaddun shaida don sanin yiwuwar buƙatar gyara ko ƙarin daraja.

Samfurin CLEA da DEFRA da Hukumar Kula da Muhalli (EA) suka buga a cikin Maris 2002 ya tsara tsarin da ya dace don kimanta haɗarin lafiyar ɗan adam daga gurɓataccen ƙasa, kamar yadda Sashe na IIIA na Dokar Kare Muhalli ta 1990 ta buƙata. A matsayin wani ɓangare na wannan tsarin, a halin yanzu an samo manyan Jigon Jagoran Ƙasa na Ƙimar Ƙasa (SGVs) don gurɓatawa guda goma da za a yi amfani da su azaman "ƙimar sa baki"[ana buƙatar hujja] . Wadannan dabi'u bai kamata a dauki su azaman maƙasudin gyara ba amma ƙimar da ke sama da waɗanda ya kamata a yi la'akari da ƙarin ƙima; duba ka'idojin Dutch .

An samar da nau'ikan CLEA SGVs guda uku don amfanin ƙasa daban-daban guda uku, wato:

  • wurin zama (tare da kuma ba tare da ɗaukar shuka ba)
  • rabo
  • kasuwanci/masana'antu

Ana nufin SGVs su maye gurbin tsoffin ƙimar ICRCL. CLEA SGVs suna da alaƙa da tantance haɗarin na yau da kullun (dogon lokaci) ga lafiyar ɗan adam kuma ba sa amfani da kariya ga ma'aikatan ƙasa yayin gini, ko wasu yuwuwar masu karɓa kamar ruwan ƙasa, gine-gine, tsirrai ko sauran yanayin muhalli. CLEA SGVs ba su da amfani kai tsaye ga wani rukunin da aka rufe gaba ɗaya cikin tauri, saboda babu wata hanyar fallasa kai tsaye zuwa gurɓataccen ƙasa.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Har zuwa yau, an buga goma na farko na SGVs masu gurɓata guda hamsin da biyar, don masu zuwa: arsenic, cadmium, chromium, gubar, mercury inorganic, nickel, selenium ethyl benzene, phenol da toluene. An samar da Draft SGVs na benzene, naphthalene da xylene amma ana ci gaba da buga su. An buga bayanan Toxicological (Tox) ga kowane ɗayan waɗannan gurɓatattun abubuwa da kuma na benzo[a] pyrene, benzene, dioxins, furans da dioxin-kamar PCBs, naphthalene, vinyl chloride, 1,1,2,2 tetrachloroethane da 1, 1,1,2 tetrachloroethane, 1,1,1 trichloroethane, tetrachlorethene, carbon tetrachloride, 1,2-dichloroethane, trichloroethane da xylene. SGVs na ethyl benzene, phenol da toluene sun dogara ne akan abun ciki na kwayoyin halitta na ƙasa (SOM) (wanda za'a iya ƙididdige shi daga jimlar kwayoyin carbon (TOC) abun ciki). A matsayin allo na farko ana ɗaukar SGVs na 1% SOM sun dace.[ana buƙatar hujja]

KanadaGyara

As of February 2021, there are a total of 2,500 plus contaminated sites in Canada.[10] One infamous contaminated sited is located near a nickel-copper smelting site in Sudbury, Ontario. A study investigating the heavy metal pollution in the vicinity of the smelter reveals that elevated levels of nickel and copper were found in the soil; values going as high as 5,104ppm Ni, and 2,892 ppm Cu within a 1.1 km range of the smelter location. Other metals were also found in the soil; such metals include iron, cobalt, and silver. Furthermore, upon examining the different vegetation surrounding the smelter it was evident that they too had been affected; the results show that the plants contained nickel, copper and aluminium as a result of soil contamination.[11]Template:Further

IndiyaGyara

A cikin Maris shekarata 2009, batun gubar Uranium a Punjab ya ja hankalin manema labarai. An yi zargin cewa ta faru ne sakamakon tafkunan tokar kuda na tashoshin wutar lantarki, wadanda aka bayar da rahoton cewa suna haifar da lahani mai tsanani ga yara a yankunan na Faridkot da Bhatinda na Punjab . Rahotannin labarai sun yi iƙirarin cewa matakan uranium sun fi ninki 60 iyakar aminci. A cikin shekarata 2012, Gwamnatin Indiya ta tabbatar da [12] cewa ruwan ƙasa a cikin Malwa bel na Punjab yana da ƙarfe na uranium wanda ya kai kashi 50% sama da iyakokin da Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya (WHO) ta gindaya. Nazarin kimiyya, bisa sama da samfurori 1000 daga wuraren samfuri daban-daban, ba za su iya gano tushen tashi da toka ba da duk wata tushe daga masana'antar wutar lantarki ko masana'antu kamar yadda ake zargi da farko. Sannan Kuma Har ila yau binciken ya nuna cewa yawan sinadarin Uranium a cikin ruwan karkashin kasa na gundumar Malwa bai ninka adadin da WHO ta kayyade ba sau 60, amma kashi 50% ne kawai ke sama da iyakar WHO a wurare 3. Wannan mafi girman maida hankali da aka samu a cikin samfuran bai kai wanda aka samu a cikin ruwa na ƙasa a halin yanzu da ake amfani da shi don dalilai na ɗan adam a wasu wurare, kamar Finland . [13] Ana ci gaba da bincike don gano abubuwan halitta ko wasu hanyoyin samar da uranium.

Duba wasu abubuwanGyara

Hanyoyin haɗi na wajeGyara

ManazartaGyara

  1. Risk Assessment Guidance for Superfund, Human Health Evaluation Manual, Office of Emergency and Remedial Response, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington D.C. 20450
  2. – Six Mustard gas sites uncovered – The Independent
  3. Britain's Anthrax Island – BBC
  4. yosemite.epa.gov
  5. Michael Hogan, Leda Patmore, Gary Latshaw and Harry Seidman Computer modelng of pesticide transport in soil for five instrumented watersheds, prepared for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Southeast Water laboratory, Athens, Ga. by ESL Inc., Sunnyvale, California (1973)
  6. S.K. Gupta, C.T. Kincaid, P.R. Mayer, C.A. Newbill and C.R. Cole, "A multidimensional finite element code for the analysis of coupled fluid, energy and solute transport", Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory PNL-2939, EPA contract 68-03-3116 (1982)
  7. A. Agarwal, Y. Zhou, Y. Liu (2016) Remediation of oil contaminated sand with self-collapsing air microbubbles. Environmental Science and Pollution Research DOI: 10.1007/s11356-016-7601-5
  8. Facing up to "invisible pollution"
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ReferenceA
  10. contenu, English name of the content author / Nom en anglais de l'auteur du (1994-01-01). "English title / Titre en anglais". www.tbs-sct.gc.ca. Retrieved 2021-02-19.
  11. Hutchinson, T. C.; Whitby, L. M. (1974). "Heavy-metal Pollution in the Sudbury Mining and Smelting Region of Canada, I. Soil and Vegetation Contamination by Nickel, Copper, and Other Metals". Environmental Conservation (in Turanci). 1 (2): 123–132. doi:10.1017/S0376892900004240. ISSN 1469-4387.
  12. Uranium in Ground Water Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation, Government of India (2012)
  13. Atomic Energy Report – Malwa Punjab Uranium Q&A Lok Sabha, Government of India (2012)