Template:Pollution sidebar Wurin zubar da ƙasa, wanda kuma aka sani da tip, juji, zubar da shara, juji, ko filin juji, wuri ne na zubar da kayan sharar gida . Landfill shine mafi tsufa kuma mafi yawan nau'in zubar da shara, kodayake tsarin binne sharar tare da kullun, tsaka-tsaki da murfin ƙarshe kawai ya fara ne a cikin shekarata 1940s. A da, an bar tarkace a cikin tudu ko kuma a jefar da shi cikin rami; a ilmin kimiya na kayan tarihi ana kiran wannan a matsayin midden .

Gidan kwandon shara a Poland

Ana amfani da wasu wuraren zubar da shara don dalilai na sarrafa sharar, kamar ajiya na ɗan lokaci, ƙarfafawa da canja wuri, ko don matakai daban-daban na sarrafa kayan sharar, kamar rarrabuwa, magani, ko sake amfani da su. Sai dai idan ba a daidaita su ba, za a iya fuskantar girgizar ƙasa mai tsanani ko kuma ruwan ƙasa a lokacin girgizar ƙasa . Da zarar an cika wurin da ke kan wurin zubar da shara za a iya dawo da shi don wasu amfani kamar su taki.

AyyukaGyara

 
Ɗaya daga cikin wuraren zubar da ƙasa da yawa da Dryden, Ontario, Kanada ke amfani da shi

Masu gudanar da guraben aikin gona masu inganci don sharar da ba su da haɗari sun cika ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun bayanai ta hanyar amfani da dabaru zuwa: [1]

  1. tsare sharar gida zuwa ƙaramin yanki gwargwadon yiwuwa
  2. ƙanƙantar datti don rage girma

Hakanan zasu iya rufe sharar gida (yawanci yau da kullun) tare da yadudduka na ƙasa ko wasu nau'ikan kayan kamar guntun itace da ƙananan barbashi.

A yayin gudanar da aikin shara, ma'auni ko gada na iya auna motocin tattara sharar idan sun iso kuma ma'aikata na iya duba kaya don sharar da ba ta dace da ka'idojin yarda da sharar ba. Bayan haka, motocin da ke tattara shara suna amfani da hanyar sadarwar da ake da su a kan hanyarsu ta zuwa fuska ko aiki, inda suke sauke abubuwan da ke ciki. Bayan an ajiye lodi, compactors ko bulldozers na iya yadawa da tattara sharar a fuskar aiki. Kafin barin iyakoki na zubar da shara, motocin tattara shara na iya wucewa ta wurin tsabtace ƙafafu. Idan ya cancanta, sai su koma kan gadar awo don sake yin awo ba tare da kayansu ba. Tsarin awo na iya haɗa kididdiga akan yawan sharar da ke shigowa yau da kullun, wanda ma'ajin bayanai za su iya riƙe don adana rikodi. Baya ga manyan motoci, wasu wuraren zubar da ruwa na iya samun kayan aikin da za su yi amfani da kwantenan layin dogo. Amfani da "rail-haul" yana ba da izinin zama wuraren ajiyar ƙasa a wurare masu nisa, ba tare da matsalolin da ke tattare da tafiye-tafiyen manyan motoci da yawa ba Ko rashin tsarin su.

Yawanci, a cikin fuskar aiki, ƙaƙƙarfan sharar ana rufe shi da ƙasa ko madadin kayan yau da kullun. Madadin kayan da ke rufe sharar sun haɗa da guntuwar itace ko wasu "sharar kore", da yawa da aka fesa akan samfuran kumfa, sinadarai "kafaffen" bio-solids, da barguna na wucin gadi. Ana iya ɗaga bargo a wuri da daddare sannan a cire washegari kafin a yi sharar gida. Wurin da aka mamaye yau da kullun ta ƙaƙƙarfan sharar gida da abin rufewa ana kiransa tantanin halitta na yau da kullun. Ƙunƙarar sharar gida yana da mahimmanci don tsawaita rayuwar ma'aunin. Abubuwan da suka haɗa da damfara sharar, kauri-layin sharar da adadin wucewar da compactor akan sharar yana shafar yawan sharar.

Zagayowar rayuwar tsabtace sharaGyara

Kalmar firar ƙasa yawanci gajarta ce don ƙasƙan ƙasa na birni ko tsabtace shara. An fara gabatar da waɗannan wuraren a farkon ƙarni na 20, amma sun sami amfani sosai a cikin shekarun 1960s da 1970s, a ƙoƙarin kawar da buɗaɗɗen juji da sauran ayyukan “marasa tsafta”. Wurin tsaftar shara kayan aikin injiniya ne wanda ke rarraba da kuma killace sharar gida. Ana nufin wuraren tsabtace ƙasa a matsayin masu sarrafa halittu ( bioreactors ) wanda ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta za su rushe hadadden sharar gida zuwa mafi sauƙi, ƙananan mahadi masu guba a kan lokaci. Dole ne a tsara waɗannan injiniyoyi da sarrafa su bisa ga ƙa'idodi da ƙa'idodi (Duba injiniyan muhalli ).

Yawancin lokaci, bazuwar aerobic shine mataki na farko da ake rushe sharar gida a cikin wani wuri. Wadannan suna biye da matakai hudu na lalata anaerobic. Yawancin lokaci, ƙaƙƙarfan abu mai ƙarfi a cikin lokaci mai ƙarfi yana ruɓe da sauri yayin da manyan ƙwayoyin halitta suna raguwa zuwa ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta. Wadannan ƙananan kwayoyin halitta sun fara narkewa kuma suna motsawa zuwa yanayin ruwa, sannan kuma hydrolysis na wadannan kwayoyin halitta, da kuma hydrolyzed mahadi sa'an nan yin canji da kuma volatilization kamar carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) da methane (CH 4 ), tare da sauran sharar gida. sauran a cikin m da ruwa matakai da ake bi.

A lokacin farkon matakai, ƙananan ƙarar kayan abu ya kai ga leachate, kamar yadda kwayoyin halitta masu lalacewa na sharar gida ke raguwa cikin sauri. A halin yanzu, buƙatar iskar oxygen ɗin sinadarai na leachate yana ƙaruwa tare da ƙara yawan mahaɗar abubuwan da ba za a iya jurewa ba idan aka kwatanta da mafi yawan abubuwan da ke cikin leachate ɗin. Nasarar jujjuyawar da kuma daidaita sharar ta dogara ne akan yadda yawan ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta ke aiki a cikin syntrophy, watau hulɗar jama'a daban-daban don samar da bukatun juna na abinci.:

Zagayowar rayuwar wurin zubar da shara na birni tana da matakai daban-daban guda biyar: [2]

Daidaitawar farko (Mataki na I)Gyara

Yayin da aka sanya sharar a cikin rumbun ƙasa, wuraren da ba kowa ba sun ƙunshi babban adadin oxygen na kwayoyin halitta ( O2 ). Tare da ƙarawa da ƙaƙƙarfan sharar gida, abun cikin O 2 na ɓangarorin ɓoyayyun halittu na ƙasa yana raguwa a hankali. Yawan ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta suna girma, ana samun yawa yana ƙaruwa. Aerobic biodegradation ya mamaye, watau farkon mai karɓar lantarki shine O 2 .

Canji (Mataki na II)Gyara

O 2 yana raguwa da sauri ta yawan ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta. Ragewar O 2 yana haifar da ƙarancin motsa jiki da ƙarin yanayin anaerobic a cikin yadudduka. Masu karɓa na farko na lantarki a lokacin canji sune nitrates da sulfates tun lokacin da O 2 ke gudun hijira ta CO 2 a cikin iskar gas.

Samuwar Acid (Mataki na III)Gyara

Hydrolysis na juzu'in da ba za a iya cirewa daga cikin dattin datti yana farawa a lokacin samar da acid, wanda ke haifar da saurin tattara fatty acids (VFAs) a cikin lechate. Ƙara yawan abun ciki na acid Organic yana rage leachate pH daga kusan 7.5 zuwa 5.6. A lokacin wannan lokaci, madaidaitan mahadi kamar VFAs suna ba da gudummawar buƙatun iskar oxygen (COD). Dogon sarka mai canzawa Organic acid (VOAs) ana canza su zuwa acetic acid (C 2 H 4 O 2 ), CO 2, da hydrogen gas (H 2 ). Yawan adadin VFAs yana haɓaka buƙatun iskar oxygen na biochemical (BOD) da na Muryar Amurka, wanda ke fara samar da H 2 ta ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin cuta, wanda ke haɓaka haɓakar ƙwayoyin cuta na H 2 -oxidizing. Tsarin ƙarni na H 2 yana da ɗan gajeren lokaci domin ya cika a ƙarshen lokacin samar da acid. Haɓakawa a cikin biomass na ƙwayoyin cuta na acidogenic yana ƙara yawan lalata kayan sharar gida da cin abinci mai gina jiki. Ƙarfe, waɗanda gabaɗaya sun fi narkewar ruwa a ƙananan pH, na iya zama mafi wayar hannu a wannan lokacin, wanda zai haifar da ƙara yawan ƙarfe a cikin leachate.

Methane fermentation (Mataki na IV)Gyara

Hanyoyin samar da acid na tsaka-tsaki (misali, acetic, propionic, da butyric acid) an canza su zuwa CH 4 da CO 2 ta ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin cuta na methanogenic. Kamar yadda methanogens ke daidaita VFAs, ruwan pH na ƙasa yana komawa zuwa tsaka tsaki. Ƙarfin kwayoyin halittar leachate, wanda aka bayyana azaman buƙatar iskar oxygen, yana raguwa cikin sauri tare da haɓaka samar da iskar gas na CH 4 da CO 2 . Wannan shine mafi tsayin lokaci na bazuwar ta.

Ƙarshe balaga da daidaitawa (Mataki na V)Gyara

Adadin ayyukan microbiological yana raguwa yayin lokacin ƙarshe na ɓarnawar sharar gida yayin da wadatar kayan abinci ke iyakance halayen sinadarai, misali kamar yadda phosphorus bioavailable ke ƙara ƙaranci. Samar da CH 4 ya kusan ɓacewa gaba ɗaya, tare da O 2 da nau'in oxidized sannu a hankali suna sake bayyana a cikin rijiyoyin iskar gas yayin da O 2 ke ratsa ƙasa daga troposphere. Wannan yana canza yuwuwar rage oxidation-rage (ORP) a cikin leachate zuwa hanyoyin oxidative. Abubuwan da suka rage na kwayoyin halitta na iya ƙara canzawa zuwa lokacin iskar gas, kuma yayin da ake takin kwayoyin halitta; watau kwayoyin halitta suna juyar da su zuwa mahadi-kamar humic .

Tasirin zamantakewa da muhalliGyara

 
Aikin gona a Hawaii. Lura cewa yankin da ake cikawa “cell” guda ɗaya ne, ingantaccen ma’anarsa kuma akwai layin kariya na ƙasa (wanda aka fallasa a hagu) don hana kamuwa da leaf ɗin da ke ƙaura zuwa ƙasa ta hanyar samuwar ƙasa.

Wuraren zubar da shara suna da yuwuwar haifar da al'amura da dama. Rushewar ababen more rayuwa, kamar lalacewar hanyoyin shiga da manyan motoci, na iya faruwa. Gurbacewar hanyoyin gida da magudanan ruwa daga tayoyin kan ababen hawa lokacin da suke barin wurin da ake zubar da shara na iya zama muhimmi kuma ana iya rage su ta hanyar tsarin wanke hannu . Gurɓatar muhalli na gida, kamar gurɓataccen ruwan ƙasa ko magudanar ruwa ko gurɓatar ƙasa na iya faruwa, haka nan.

LechateGyara

Lokacin da hazo ya faɗi a buɗaɗɗen wuraren ajiyar ƙasa, ruwa yana ratsawa cikin datti kuma ya zama gurɓata da abin da aka dakatar da narkar da shi, yana haifar da leach. Idan ba'a ƙunshi wannan ba zai iya gurɓata ruwan ƙasa. Duk wuraren da ake zubar da shara na zamani suna amfani da haɗe-haɗe na layukan da ba su da ƙarfi a cikin kauri na mita da yawa, wuraren tsayayyen yanayin ƙasa da tsarin tattarawa don ƙunshe da kama wannan leak ɗin. Sannan ana iya magance ta a kwashe. Da zarar wurin da ake zubar da shara ya cika, an rufe shi don hana hazo ruwa da sabon samuwar ruwa. Duk da haka, masu layi dole ne su kasance suna da tsawon rai, ya kasance shekaru ɗari da yawa ko fiye. Daga ƙarshe, duk wani injin da ke cikin ƙasa zai iya zubowa, [3] don haka dole ne a gwada ƙasan da ke kusa da wuraren da ake zubar da ƙasa don kare ƙazanta daga gurɓata ruwan ƙasa.

Rushewar iskar gasGyara

Abinci mai ruɓewa da sauran sharar jiki masu ruɓe suna haifar da iskar gas, musamman CO 2 da CH 4 daga bazuwar iska da anaerobic, bi da bi. Duka matakai biyu suna faruwa a lokaci guda a sassa daban-daban na wurin zubar da ƙasa. Bugu da ƙari ga samuwa O 2, ƙananan abubuwan da ke cikin iskar gas za su bambanta, dangane da shekarun zubar da ƙasa, nau'in sharar gida, abun ciki na danshi da sauran dalilai. Misali, matsakaicin adadin iskar gas da aka samar ana iya misalta sauƙaƙan amsawar diethyl oxalate wanda ke haifar da waɗannan halayen lokaci guda: [4]

4 C 6 H 10 O 4 + 6 H 2 O → 13 CH 4 + 11 CO 2

A matsakaita, kusan rabin adadin yawan adadin iskar gas shine CH 4 kuma ɗan ƙasa da rabi shine CO 2 . Har ila yau, iskar gas ta ƙunshi kusan kimanin 5% nitrogen molecular (N 2 ), ƙasa da 1% hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S), da ƙananan ƙananan ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin da ba methane ba (NMOC), game da 2700 ppmv . [4]

 
Sharar gida a Athens, Girka

Gas ɗin da ke cike da ƙasa na iya fitowa daga wurin da ake zubar da ƙasa zuwa cikin iska da ƙasa da ke kewaye. Methane iskar gas ce mai zafi, kuma yana ƙonewa kuma mai yuwuwar fashewa a wasu abubuwa, wanda ya sa ya zama cikakke don ƙonewa don samar da wutar lantarki mai tsafta. Tun da lalata kwayoyin halitta da sharar abinci kawai suna sakin carbon da aka kama daga sararin samaniya ta hanyar photosynthesis, babu wani sabon carbon da ke shiga cikin zagayowar carbon kuma yanayin yanayi na CO 2 bai shafi ba. Carbon dioxide yana kama zafi a cikin yanayi, yana ba da gudummawa ga canjin yanayi . A cikin wuraren da aka sarrafa da kyau, ana tattara iskar gas kuma ana ƙonewa ko kuma a dawo dasu don amfanin iskar gas .

VectorsGyara

Wuraren zubar DA shara mara kyau na iya zama damuwa saboda ƙwayoyin cuta kamar beraye da kuda waɗanda ke yada cututtuka masu yaduwa. Ana iya rage faruwar irin waɗannan ƙwayoyin cuta ta hanyar amfani da murfin yau da kullun .

Sauran abubuwan da ke damun suGyara

 
Kungiyar giwayen daji suna mu'amala da rumbun shara a Sri Lanka

Wasu batutuwa masu yuwuwa sun haɗa da rushewar namun daji saboda zama da lalacewar lafiyar dabbobi ta hanyar cinye sharar gida daga wuraren da ake zubar da ƙasa, ƙura, wari, gurɓataccen hayaniya, da rage ƙimar kadarorin gida da wasu abubuwan ƙyale-kyale

iskar gasGyara

Ana samar da iskar gas a wuraren da ake zubar da ƙasa saboda narkewar anaerobic da ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta. A cikin wurin da aka sarrafa da kyau ana tattara wannan gas ɗin kuma ana amfani da shi. Amfaninsa ya bambanta daga sauƙi mai sauƙi zuwa amfani da iskar gas da samar da wutar lantarki . Sa ido kan iskar gas yana faɗakar da ma'aikata game da kasancewar tarin iskar gas zuwa matakin cutarwa. A wasu ƙasashe, farfaɗowar iskar gas yana da yawa; a {asar Amirka, alal misali, fiye da kimanin 850 wuraren sharar gida suna da tsarin dawo da iskar gas.

 
Fuskar iskar iskar gas ta samar ta hanyar zubar da ruwa a gundumar Lake, Ohio

Ayyukan yankiGyara

 
Wurin zubar ruwa a Perth, Yammacin Ostiraliya
 
Kudu maso Gabas New Territories Landfill, Hong Kong

KanadaGyara

Hukumomin lardi na lardi da dokar kare muhalli ne ke sarrafa wuraren da ake cika shara a Kanada. [5] Tsofaffin wuraren aiki suna faɗuwa ƙarƙashin ƙa'idodin yanzu kuma ana kula da su don leaching . [6] Wasu tsoffin wuraren an canza su zuwa filin shakatawa da more rayuwa.

Tarayyar TuraiGyara

A cikin Tarayyar Turai, kowane jihohi dole ne su samar da doka don biyan buƙatu da wajibai na Umarnin Filla Fil na Turai .

Yawancin ƙasashe membobin EU suna da dokoki da ke hanawa ko hana zubar da sharar gida ta hanyar zubar da shara.

IndiyaGyara

Filayen ƙasa a halin yanzu shine babbar hanyar zubar da shara na birni a Indiya. Indiya kuma tana da filin jibge-gegen mafi girma na Asiya a Deonar, Mumbai. Ko da yake al'amura akai-akai suna tasowa saboda haɓakar haɓakar sharar ƙasa da rashin kulawa daga hukumomi. Ana yawan ganin gobarar sama da ƙasa a matsugunan ƙasar Indiya a cikin ƴan shekarun da suka gabata.

Ƙasar IngilaGyara

Ayyukan sharar ƙasa a Burtaniya dole ne su canza a cikin 'yan shekarun nan don saduwa da ƙalubalen Umarnin Filayen shara na Turai . Yanzu Birtaniya na sanya harajin share fage akan sharar da za a iya cirewa wanda ake sakawa a wuraren da ake zubar da shara. Baya ga wannan an samar da Tsarin Kasuwancin Bayar da Fil ga ƙananan hukumomi don yin ciniki da ƙayyadaddun ƙasƙanci a Ingila. Wani tsari na daban yana aiki a Wales inda hukumomi ba za su iya 'yin ciniki' a tsakaninsu ba, amma suna da alawus da aka sani da Tsarin Allowance Landfill. Wato albashi Kenan.

AmurkaGyara

Hukumar kula da muhalli ta kowace jiha ce ke sarrafa wuraren da ake zubar da shara a Amurka, wanda ke kafa mafi ƙanƙanta ƙa'idodi; duk da haka, babu ɗayan waɗannan ƙa'idodin da zai iya faɗuwa ƙasa da waɗanda Hukumar Kare Muhalli ta Amurka (EPA) ta gindaya. [7]

Ba da izinin zubar da shara gaba ɗaya yana ɗaukar tsakanin shekaru biyar zuwa bakwai, yana kashe miliyoyin daloli kuma yana buƙatar tsayayyen wurin zama, injiniyanci da nazarin muhalli da zanga-zangar don tabbatar da gamsuwa da abubuwan da suka shafi muhalli da aminci.

Nau'ukanGyara

  • Sharar gida ta gari : sharar gida da kayan da ba su da haɗari. Haɗe da wannan nau'in ƙasƙan ƙasa akwai Bioreactor Landfill wanda ke lalata kayan halitta musamman.
  • Sharar gida: don sharar kasuwanci da masana'antu. Sauran wuraren da ke da alaƙa sun haɗa da Gine-ginen Gine-gine da Rushewar tarkace da Ragowar Filayen Konewar Kwal.
  • Sharar gida mai haɗari ko sharar PCB : Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) matsuguni waɗanda Dokar Kula da Abubuwan Guba ta 1976 (TSCA) ke kulawa a cikin Amurka.

Batutuwan ƙwayoyin cutaGyara

Matsayin al'umman ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta na iya ƙayyade ingancinsa na narkewa.

An gano kwayoyin cutar da ke narkewar robobi a wuraren da ake zubar da shara.

Maidowa kayanGyara

Mutum na iya ɗaukar wuraren zubar da ƙasa a matsayin madaidaicin tushen kayan aiki da kuzari . A cikin ƙasashen duniya na uku, masu sharar gida sukan yi ɓarna ga kayan da har yanzu ba a iya amfani da su. A cikin mahallin kasuwanci, kamfanoni kuma sun gano wuraren zubar da ƙasa, da yawa  sun fara girbi kayan aiki da makamashi. Sanannun misalan sun haɗa da wuraren dawo da iskar gas. Sauran wuraren kasuwanci sun haɗa da inneratorers waɗanda ke da ginanniyar dawo da kayan aiki. Wannan kayan dawowa yana yiwuwa ta hanyar amfani da masu tacewa ( electro filter, aiki-carbon da potassium filter, quench, HCl-washer, SO 2 -washer, kasa ash -grating, da dai sauransu. ).

MadadinGyara

Bugu da ƙari, dabarun rage sharar gida da sake amfani da su, akwai hanyoyi daban-daban don zubar da ƙasa, ciki har da sharar gida-zuwa makamashi, narkewar anaerobic, takin gargajiya, maganin ilimin halitta, pyrolysis da plasma arc gasification . Dangane da tattalin arziƙin gida da abubuwan ƙarfafawa, waɗannan za a iya sanya su mafi kyawun kuɗi fiye da wuraren zubar da ƙasa Ko muhalli.

ƘuntatawaGyara

Kasashe da suka hada da Jamus, Ostiriya, Sweden, Denmark, Belgium, Netherlands, da Switzerland, sun hana zubar da sharar da ba a kula da su ba a wuraren da ake zubar da shara.[ana buƙatar hujja]A cikin wasu ɓangarorin haɗari ne kawai, toka mai tashi daga ƙonawa ko ingantaccen kayan aikin injinan jiyya na ƙwayoyin cuta ana iya adana su.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Duba wasu abubuwanGyara

ManazartaGyara

  1. https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/content/documents/dsd/dsd_aofw_ni/ni_pdfs/NationalReports/finland/WASTE.pdf
  2. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (2007) Landfill bioreactor performance: second interim report: outer loop recycling & disposal facility - Louisville, Kentucky, EPA/600/R-07/060
  3. US EPA, "Solid Waste Disposal Facility Criteria; Proposed Rule", Federal Register 53(168):33314–33422, 40 CFR Parts 257 and 258, US EPA, Washington, D.C., August 30 (1988a).
  4. 4.0 4.1 Themelis, Nickolas J., and Priscilla A. Ulloa. "Methane generation in landfills." Renewable Energy 32.7 (2007), 1243–1257
  5. Landfill Inventory Management Ontario – How Ontario regulates Landfills – Ministry of the Environment
  6. Aging Landfills: Ontario's Forgotten Polluters – Eco Issues
  7. Horinko, Marianne, Cathryn Courtin. "Waste Management: A Half Century of Progress." EPA Alumni Association. March 2016.

Ci gaba da karatuGyara

  • Daniel A. Vallero, Kimiyyar Halittar Muhalli: Hanyar Tsarin Halitta . Bugu na 2. Lantarki na Ilimi, Amsterdam, Netherlands da Boston MA, Littafin Buga  ; eBook  shekarata. 2015.

Hanyoyin haɗi na wajeGyara