Canjin yanayi
Global Temperature Anomaly.svg
atmospheric phenomenon
subclass ofcanjin yanayi, external risk Gyara
opposite ofglobal cooling Gyara
WordLift URLhttp://data.thenextweb.com/tnw/entity/global_warming Gyara

Canjin yanayi ya hada da dumamar yanayi wanda hayakin dan Adam na iskar gas, da kuma sauye-sauye masu yawa a cikin yanayin yanayi.[1] Kodayake akwai lokutan canjin canjin yanayi da suka gabata, tun daga tsakiyar karni na 20, yawan tasirin tasirin dan Adam kan tsarin yanayi na duniya da kuma girman tasirin wannan tasirin ba a taba yin irin sa ba.[2]

Matsakaicin yanayin duniya daga 2010 zuwa 2019 idan aka kwatanta da matsakaicin matakin farko daga 1951 zuwa 1978 (Tushe: NASA)

Wannan aikin ɗan adam ya haifar da canjin yanayi ba wata ƙungiyar kimiyya ta ƙasa ko ta ƙasa ke jayayya ba.[3] Babban direba shine fitarwa na iskar gas, wanda sama da 90% shine carbon dioxide (CO2) da methane.[4] Kone burbushin mai don amfani da makamashi shine asalin tushen fitar da wannan hayaƙin, tare da ƙarin gudummawa daga harkar noma, sare bishiyoyi, da kuma matakan masana'antu.[5] Hawan zafin jiki yana haɓaka ko zafin rai ta hanyar bayanin yanayi, kamar asarar dusar ƙanƙara mai nuna hasken rana da murfin kankara, ƙarar tururin ruwa (iskar gas mai ɗari da kanta), da canje-canje zuwa ƙasa da tekun.

Abubuwan da aka lura daga NASA a kan matsakaiciyar 1850-1900 azaman asalin masana'antun farko. Babban direba don haɓaka yanayin duniya a zamanin masana'antu shine ayyukan ɗan adam, tare da ƙarfin halitta yana ƙara bambancin.[6]

Saboda yanayin samaniya yayi zafi fiye da na teku, hamada tana faɗaɗa kuma raƙuman zafi da wutar daji sun fi zama ruwan dare.[7] Hawan zafin sararin samaniya ya fi girma a cikin Arctic, inda ya ba da gudummawa ga narkewar dusar ƙanƙara, da kuma komawar kankara da kankara a teku.[8] Energyara yawan kuzarin yanayi da ƙimar kuzarin yanayi suna haifar da guguwa da tsananin yanayi, wanda ke lalata kayayyakin more rayuwa da aikin gona.[9] Karuwar yanayin zafi yana iyakance yawan ruwan teku da kuma illa ga hannayen jari a yawancin sassan duniya.[10] Abubuwan da ake tsammani yanzu da waɗanda ake tsammani daga rashin abinci mai gina jiki, tsananin zafi da cuta sun sa Kungiyar Lafiya ta Duniya ta bayyana canjin yanayi mafi haɗari ga lafiyar duniya a cikin ƙarni na 21.[11] Abubuwan da suka shafi muhalli sun haɗa da ƙarewa ko ƙaura daga yawancin jinsuna yayin da tsarin halittunsu ya canza, mafi akasari nan da nan cikin murjani, dutsen, da Arctic.[12] Ko da kuwa kokarin rage dumamar yanayi na gaba ya yi nasara, wasu tasirin za su ci gaba har tsawon karnoni, gami da hauhawar matakan teku, karuwar yanayin zafi na tekun, da kuma narkon ruwan daga tekun CO2.[13]

Yawancin waɗannan tasirin an riga an lura dasu a halin yanzu na zafin jiki, wanda yake kusan 1.1°C (2.0°F).[14] Kungiyar Gwamnati kan Canjin Yanayi (IPCC) ta ba da jerin rahotanni waɗanda ke nuna ƙimar girma a cikin waɗannan tasirin yayin da ɗumamar yanayi ke ci gaba zuwa 1.5°C (2.7°F) da kuma bayan.[15] A karkashin yarjejeniyar ta Paris, kasashe sun amince da ci gaba da dumamar yanayi "sosai a karkashin 2.0°C (3.6°F)" ta hanyar rage hayaki mai gurbata yanayi. Koyaya, a ƙarƙashin waɗannan alƙawura, ɗumamar yanayi zai kai kimanin 2.8°C (5.0°F) a ƙarshen karnin, kuma manufofin yanzu zasu haifar da kusan 3.0°C (5.4°F) na dumamar yanayi.[16] Iyakan ɗumamar yanayi zuwa 1.5°C (2.7°F) na buƙatar rabin fitar da hayaƙi a cikin 2030, sa'annan ya kai matakin kusan sifili ta 2050.[17]

Yunkurin ragewa ya hada da bincike, ci gaba, da kuma tura fasahohin masu amfani da makamashi mai kara kuzari, ingantaccen ingancin makamashi, manufofi na rage hayakin mai, burbushin lamura, da kuma adana gandun daji. Fasahar aikin injiniya na yanayi, mafi yawan fitowar hasken rana da kuma cire carbon dioxide, suna da iyakantattun abubuwa kuma suna ɗaukar manyan rashin tabbas. Ciungiyoyi da gwamnatoci kuma suna aiki don daidaitawa da tasirin ɗumamar yanayi na yanzu da kuma nan gaba ta hanyar ingantaccen kariya ta bakin teku, kyakkyawan kula da bala'i, da haɓaka albarkatun gona masu tsayayya.

Hawan yanayin da aka luraGyara

 
Sake sake gina yanayin zafin duniya a cikin karnin da ya gabata ta amfani da bayanan wakili daga zoben itacen, murjani, da kankara a cikin shuɗi.[18] Bayanan kulawa ya kasance daga 1880 zuwa 2019.[19]
 
Bayanin NASA[20] ya nuna cewa yanayin yanayin ƙasa ya karu da sauri fiye da yanayin teku.

Mahara da yawa da aka samar da kayan aikin kayan aiki sun nuna cewa tsarin yanayi yana dumama,[21] tare da shekarun 2009-2018 kasancewar 0.93 ± 0.07°C (1.67 ± 0.13 ° F) ya fi tsarin farko na masana'antu (1850-1900) zafi.[22] A halin yanzu, yanayin zafi yana tashi da kusan 0.2°C (0.36°F) a shekaru goma.[23] Tun daga shekarar 1950, adadin ranakun sanyi da dare sun ragu, kuma yawan kwanaki masu dumi da dare sun ƙaru.[24] Abubuwan tarihi na ɗumama da sanyaya, kamar yanayin zamanin da Little Ice Age, basu kasance daidai ba a duk yankuna kamar ɗumamar yanayin yanzu, amma ƙila sun kai yanayin zafi kamar na ƙarshen karni na 20 a cikin iyakokin yankuna.[25] Akwai lokuttan da suka gabata na dumamar yanayi, kamar su Paleocene – Eocene Thermal Maximum.[26] Koyaya, haɓakar da aka lura a cikin zafin jiki da CO2 kididdigar yana da sauri har ma abubuwan da suka faru a bayyane waɗanda suka faru a tarihin Duniya ba su kusan farashin yanzu.[27]

Rikodin wakili na yanayi ya nuna cewa bambancin yanayi yana daidaita farkon tasirin Juyin Masana'antu, don haka akwai ɗan ƙaramin ɗumamar yanayi tsakanin ƙarni na 18 da tsakiyar karni na 19.[28] Kungiyar goungiyar Gwamnati kan Canjin Yanayi (IPCC) ta karɓi lokacin ƙayyadaddun lokacin aiki zuwa 1850-1900 a matsayin kusancin yanayin zafin duniya na kafin masana'antu,[29] lokacin da rikodin ma'aunin zafi da sanyio ya fara ba da yanayin duniya.[30]

Duk da yake ma'aunin dumamar yanayi yana kusa da canjin yanayin zafin yanayi, ana auna waɗannan ma'aunin da nau'ikan sauran abubuwan lura.[31] An sami ƙaruwa a cikin yanayi da ƙarfi na hazo mai yawa, narkewar dusar ƙanƙara da kankara ta ƙasa, da ƙaruwar yanayin yanayi.[32] Fure da fauna suna yin halin da ya dace da ɗumama ɗumi; misali, tsire-tsire suna fure a farkon bazara.[33] Wani mahimmin alama shine sanyaya yanayi na sama, wanda ke nuna cewa iskar gas masu dumama yanayi suna kama zafi a kusa da doron ƙasa kuma suna hana shi watsawa zuwa sararin samaniya.[34]

Kodayake shekaru masu rikodin rikodin suna jawo hankalin manyan kafofin watsa labaru, shekarun mutum ba su da mahimmanci fiye da yanayin yanayin duniya mai tsawo.[35] Misali na gajeriyar matsala shine saurin karuwar yanayin zafin daga 1998 zuwa 2012, wanda aka yiwa lakabi da "dumamar yanayin duniya".[36] A duk tsawon wannan lokacin, ajiyar zafin ruwan teku ya ci gaba da tafiya a hankali zuwa sama, kuma a cikin shekaru masu zuwa, yanayin yanayin ƙasa ya yi sama sama. Za'a iya danganta saurin saurin ɗumamar yanayi da haɗuwa da sauyin yanayi, rage ayyukan hasken rana, da ƙara hasken hasken rana ta abubuwan da ke fitowa daga aman wuta.[37]

Bambancin yankiGyara

Dumamar yanayi na nufin matsakaita na duniya, tare da yawan ɗumamar yanayi ta bambanta da yanki. Abubuwan da ke sanya ɗumi-dumi ba su da 'yanci daga wuraren da hayaƙin haya ke gurɓata, saboda iskar gas ɗin ta daɗe sosai don yaɗuwa a duniya; Koyaya, baƙar adibas da aka saka a kan dusar ƙanƙara da kankara suna taimakawa dumamar yanayi.

Tun kafin lokacin masana'antu, matsakaiciyar yanayin duniya ya karu kusan ninki biyu kamar na yanayin duniya.[38] Hakan ya faru ne saboda girman karfin zafi na tekuna, kuma saboda tekuna suna rasa karin zafi ta hanyar danshin.[39] Fiye da kashi 90% na ƙarin makamashi a cikin tsarin yanayi a cikin shekaru 50 da suka gabata an adana su a cikin teku, suna dumama da shi.[40] Ragowar ƙarin makamashin ya narkar da kankara kuma ya dumi nahiyoyi da yanayi.[41] Hawan zafi a cikin teku yana haifar da fadada yanayin zafi wanda ya ba da gudummawa ga lura da haɓakar tekun.[42]

Yankin Arewa da pole na Arewa sun dumamau da sauri fiye da pole na Kudu da Kudancin Kudu. Yankin Arewacin duniya ba wai kawai yana da yanki mai yawa ba, har ma yana da yankin dusar kankara da kankara a teku, saboda yadda aka tsara dimbin mutanen da ke kewayen Tekun Arctic. Yayinda wadannan saman suke jujjuyawa daga nuna haske da yawa zuwa duhu bayan kankara ta narke, sai su fara daukar wutar da zafi. Hasashen Kudancin duniya sun riga sun sami ɗan kankara a lokacin bazara kafin ta fara ɗumi.[43] Yanayin Yankin Arctic ya karu kuma ana hasashen zai ci gaba da karuwa a wannan karnin sama da sau biyu na sauran kasashen duniya.[44] Narkewar kankara da katifun kankara a cikin Arctic ya lalata zirga-zirgar teku, gami da raunin Ruwan Tekun, yana haifar da karin dumamar yanayi a wasu yankuna.[45]

Direbobin motsa jiki na canjin yanayi na kwanan nanGyara

 
Adiarfafawa daga wasu masu ba da gudummawa ga canjin yanayi a cikin 2011, kamar yadda aka ruwaito a cikin rahoton ƙimar IPCC na biyar

Da kanta, tsarin yanayi yana fuskantar wasu zagaye daban-daban waɗanda zasu iya ɗaukar shekaru (kamar El Niño – Southern Oscillation) zuwa shekaru gommai ko ƙarni.[46] Sauran canje-canje ana haifar dasu ne ta hanyar rashin daidaiton kuzari wanda yake "waje" ga tsarin yanayi, amma ba koyaushe yake waje da Duniya ba.[47] Misalan abubuwan arfafa na waje sun haɗa da canje-canje a cikin yanayin sararin samaniya (misali ƙarar haɓakar iskar gas), hasken rana, fitowar dutsen dutse, da kuma bambancin da kewayar duniya da ke kewaye da Rana.[48]

Yanayin canjin yanayi shine kokarin nuna ilimin kimiyya wadanne hanyoyin suke da alhakin canje-canjen da aka lura a cikin yanayin duniya. Don ƙayyade halayen anthropogenic, sanannen canjin yanayin cikin gida da tilas da ƙirar waje na halitta ana buƙatar fitar da su. Saboda haka, babbar hanya ita ce yin amfani da samfurin kwamfuta ta tsarin sauyin yanayi don tantance "zanan yatsun hannu" na musamman don duk dalilan da ke iya haifar da shi. Ta hanyar kwatanta waɗannan zanan yatsun hannu tare da alamun da aka lura da kuma canjin canjin yanayi, da kuma tarihin da aka kiyaye na tilastawa, ana iya ƙayyade dalilan sauyin da aka lura.[49] Misali, tilasta yin amfani da hasken rana ba zai zama babban dalili ba saboda yatsan yatsa yana dumamawa a cikin yanayi duka, kuma ƙananan yanayi ne kawai ya warmed, wanda shine abin da ake tsammani daga iskar gas mai zafi (wanda ke kama tarkon zafin da yake fitowa daga sama).[50] Bayanin canjin yanayi na kwanan nan ya nuna cewa babban abin da ke haifar da hakan shine gas mai dumama yanayi, kuma na biyun sauyin amfani da ƙasa, da aerosol da ƙoshin lafiya.[51]

Iskar gasGyara

 
CO2 kididdiga a cikin shekaru 800,000 na ƙarshe kamar yadda aka auna daga dusar kankara (shuɗi / kore) kuma kai tsaye (baƙi)

Duniya na daukar hasken rana, sannan ta haskaka shi azaman zafi. Wasu daga cikin wannan hasken infrared yana sharar iskar gas mai guba a cikin sararin samaniya, kuma saboda sake fitar da shi ta kowane bangare wani ɓangare na zafin yana kamawa a cikin Duniya maimakon tserewa zuwa sararin samaniya.[52] Kafin Juyin Juya Halin Masana'antu, yawan iskar gas mai gurɓataccen yanayi ya sa iska kusa da farfajiya ta kasance kusan 33°C (59°F) dumi fiye da yadda zai kasance a rashi.[53] Ba tare da yanayin duniya ba, da matsakaita zafin duniya zai yi kasa da daskarewa na ruwa.[54] Duk da yake tururin ruwa (~50%) da gajimare (~25%) sune manyan masu ba da gudummawa ga tasirin koren yanayi, suna ƙaruwa azaman aiki na yanayin zafin jiki kuma saboda haka ana ɗaukar su ra'ayoyi. A gefe guda, yawan gas kamar CO2 (~20%), ozone da nitrous oxide basu da dogaro da yanayin zafin jiki, kuma saboda haka ake ɗaukar su da tilastawa waje.[55] Ozone yana aiki a matsayin iskar gas a cikin mafi ƙasƙantar layin sararin samaniya, yanayin sararin samaniya (sabanin yanayin ozone na stratospheric). Bugu da ƙari, ozone yana aiki sosai kuma yana hulɗa tare da sauran iskar gas da aerosols.[56]

Ayyukan mutane tun daga Juyin Juya Halin Masana'antu, galibi cirewa da ƙone man burbushin (kwal, mai, da iskar gas),[57] ya kara yawan iskar gas a cikin yanayi. Wadannan suna ƙaruwa a matakan gas kamar CO2, methane, tropospheric ozone, CFCs, da nitrous oxide sun haɓaka tilasta radiative. A cikin 2018, ƙididdigar CO2 kuma methane ya karu da kusan kashi 45% da 160%, bi da bi, tun shekara ta 1750.[58] A cikin 2013, karatun CO2 da aka ɗauka a shafin farko na duniya a Mauna Loa ya zarce 400 ppm a karo na farko (matakan pre-masana'antu na yau da kullun sun kasance ~270ppm).[59] Wadannan CO2 Matakan sun fi yadda suka kasance a kowane lokaci a cikin shekaru 800,000 da suka gabata, lokacin da aka tattara ingantattun bayanai don iska da aka makale a cikin dusar kankara.[60] Ananan shaidar ilimin ƙasa kai tsaye suna nuna cewa CO

Valuesimomi 2 ba su da yawa wannan tsawon miliyoyin shekaru.[61]

 
Aikin Carbon na Duniya ya nuna yadda ƙari zuwa CO2 tun daga 1880 an haifar da su ta hanyoyi daban-daban suna haɓaka ɗaya bayan ɗaya.

Haɗaɗɗen iskar gas na anthropogenic na duniya a cikin 2018, ban da waɗanda daga canjin amfani da ƙasa, sun yi daidai da tan biliyan 52 na CO2. Daga cikin waɗannan hayakin da aka fitar, kashi 72 cikin ɗari ya kasance CO2, 19% shine methane, 6% sunadarin nitrous, kuma 3% sunadarin gas ne. Haɗin CO2 da farko ya fito ne daga ƙona burbushin mai don samar da haske mai amfani da makamashi mai zafi don jigilar kayayyaki, ƙera masana'antu, dumama wutar lantarki.[62] Emarin fitar da CO2 ya fito ne daga sare dazuzzuka da kuma masana'antun masana'antu, waɗanda suka haɗa da CO2 da aka fitar ta halayen sunadarai don yin suminti, ƙarfe, aluminum, da takin zamani.[63] Haɗin methane yana zuwa ne daga dabbobi, taki, noman shinkafa, wuraren shara, ruwa mai ƙaya, hakar kwal, da kuma hakar mai da gas.[64] Haɗakar da ke cikin iska mai ƙoshin lafiya ta fito ne daga bazuwar ƙwayoyin ƙwayoyin cuta na ƙwayoyin cuta da takin gargajiya.[65]

NassoshiGyara

  1. Template:Harvnb; Template:Harvnb
  2. Template:Harvnb
  3. "Scientific Consensus: Earth's Climate is Warming". Climate Change: Vital Signs of the Planet. NASA JPL. Archived from the original on 28 March 2020.  Unknown parameter |access-date= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  4. Template:Harvnb
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  6. Template:Harvnb Figure 3.1 panel 2, Figure 3.3 panel 5.
  7. Template:Harvnb; Template:Harvnb
  8. Template:Harvnb
  9. Template:Harvnb
  10. Template:Harvnb
  11. Template:Harvnb
  12. EPA (19 January 2017). "Climate Impacts on Ecosystems". Archived from the original on 27 January 2018. "Mountain and arctic ecosystems and species are particularly sensitive to climate change... As ocean temperatures warm and the acidity of the ocean increases, bleaching and coral die-offs are likely to become more frequent."  Unknown parameter |access-date= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  13. Template:Harvnb
  14. "Climate Change: Global Temperature". 
  15. Template:Harvnb
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  17. Template:Harvnb; Template:Harvnb.
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  19. "Global Annual Mean Surface Air Temperature Change". NASA. Retrieved 23 February 2020. 
  20. "Global Annual Mean Surface Air Temperature Change". NASA. Retrieved 23 February 2020. 
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  23. Template:Harvnb.
  24. Template:Harvnb.
  25. Template:Harvnb; Template:Harvnb.
  26. Template:Harvnb
  27. Template:Harvnb.
  28. Template:Harvnb; Template:Harvnb.
  29. Template:Harvnb; Template:Harvnb.
  30. Template:Harvnb
  31. Template:Harvnb. Figure 2.5.
  32. Template:Harvnb; Template:Harvnb.
  33. Template:Harvnb, p. 99.
  34. "Global Warming". NASA JPL. "Satellite measurements show warming in the troposphere but cooling in the stratosphere. This vertical pattern is consistent with global warming due to increasing greenhouse gases, but inconsistent with warming from natural causes."  Unknown parameter |access-date= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
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  39. Template:Harvnb.
  40. "Climate Change: Ocean Heat Content". NOAA. 2018. Archived from the original on 12 February 2019.  Unknown parameter |access-date= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help)
  41. Template:Harvnb: "Ocean warming dominates the global energy change inventory. Warming of the ocean accounts for about 93% of the increase in the Earth's energy inventory between 1971 and 2010 (high confidence), with warming of the upper (0 to 700 m) ocean accounting for about 64% of the total.
  42. Template:Harvnb.
  43. Template:Harvnb.
  44. Template:Harvnb; Template:Harvnb.
  45. Template:Harvnb.
  46. Template:Harvnb; Template:Harvnb.
  47. Template:Harvnb.
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  51. Template:Harvnb.
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  53. Template:Harvnb: "To emit 240 W m−2, a surface would have to have a temperature of around −19 °C (−2 °F). This is much colder than the conditions that actually exist at the Earth's surface (the global mean surface temperature is about 14 °C).
  54. ACS. "What Is the Greenhouse Effect?". Archived from the original on 26 May 2019.  Unknown parameter |url-status= ignored (help); Unknown parameter |access-date= ignored (help)
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  56. Template:Harvnb.
  57. Template:Harvnb.
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  59. Template:Harvnb; Template:Harvnb.
  60. Template:Harvnb; Template:Harvnb.
  61. Template:Harvnb.
  62. Template:Harvnb.
  63. Template:Harvnb; Template:Harvnb; Template:Harvnb; "Redox, extraction of iron and transition metals". "Hot air (oxygen) reacts with the coke (carbon) to produce carbon dioxide and heat energy to heat up the furnace. Removing impurities: The calcium carbonate in the limestone thermally decomposes to form calcium oxide. calcium carbonate → calcium oxide + carbon dioxide" ; "The Aluminum Smelting Process". "Carbon dioxide gas is formed at the anode, as the carbon anode is consumed upon reaction of carbon with the oxygen ions from the alumina (Al2O3). Formation of carbon dioxide is unavoidable as long as carbon anodes are used, and it is of great concern because CO2 is a greenhouse gas" ; {{url=https://cen.acs.org/business/inorganic-chemicals/Making-aluminum-without-making-CO2/96/i21 | title=Making aluminum without making CO2 | quote=Aluminum has been made the same way since 1886, when the American chemist Charles Martin Hall and the Frenchman Paul Héroult almost simultaneously developed an electrolytic technique for reducing aluminum oxide in a bath of molten cryolite (hexafluoroaluminate). The process uses a carbon-rich anode that reacts with the generated oxygen to form CO2.}}; "Industrial ammonia production emits more CO2 than any other chemical-making reaction. Chemists want to change that". "Hydrogen used for the reaction comes from natural gas, coal, or oil through processes that release CO2. According to a 2013 joint report from the International Energy Agency, the International Council of Chemical Associations, and the Society for Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, CO2 emissions from hydrogen production account for more than half of those from the entire ammonia production process. In total, from hydrocarbon feedstocks to NH3 synthesis, every NH3 molecule generated releases one molecule of CO2 as a coproduct." 
  64. Template:Harvnb; Template:Harvnb.
  65. Template:Harvnb; Template:Harvnb; Template:Harvnb.