Fitar gurbataccen hayakin gas

Gas mai fitar da hayaki ko hayaki yana fitowa ne sakamakon konewar mai kamar iskar gas , man fetur (man fetur), man dizal, man fetur, gaurayawan biodiesel, ko kwal . Dangane da nau'in injin, ana fitar da shi zuwa sararin samaniya ta hanyar bututun shaye-shaye, bututun hayaƙi, ko bututun ƙarfe . Sau da yawa yana watsar da iska a cikin tsarin da ake kira sharar ruwa.

Wannan motar da ke amfani da dizal tana fitar da iskar gas mai wadata da baƙar fata a lokacin da ta fara injin ta.

Babban sashi ne na hayakin abin hawa (kuma daga injunan konewa na ciki a tsaye), wanda kuma yana iya haɗawa da busa-baki da ƙafewar mai da ba a yi amfani da Shi ba.

Fitar da ababen hawa na taimakawa wajen gurbacewar iska kuma wani babban sinadari ne wajen samar da hayaki a wasu manyan biranen kasar. Wani bincike na 2013 da MIT ya yi ya nuna cewa kimanin 53,000 na mutuwa da wuri a kowace shekara a Amurka kadai saboda hayakin abin hawa. A cewar wani bincike da aka yi daga wannan jami’a, hayakin motoci kadai ke haddasa mutuwar mutane 5,000 a duk shekara a kasar Birtaniya.

Abun cikiGyara

Mafi girman sashi na mafi yawan iskar gas shi ne nitrogen (N 2 ), tururin ruwa (H 2 O) (sai dai tare da man fetur mai tsabta), da carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) (sai dai man fetur ba tare da carbon); waɗannan ba masu guba ba ne ko masu lahani (ko da yake tururin ruwa da carbon dioxide iskar gas ne da ke haifar da canjin yanayi ). Wani ɗan ƙaramin yanki na iskar gas ɗin da ba a so, mara kyau, ko abubuwa masu guba, kamar carbon monoxide (CO) daga konewar da ba ta cika ba, hydrocarbons (wanda aka nuna daidai kamar C x H y, amma yawanci ana nuna shi azaman “HC” akan iskar gwaji-gwajin. ) daga man fetur da ba a ƙone ba, nitrogen oxides (NO x ) daga yanayin zafi mai yawa, da kuma kwayoyin halitta (mafi yawa soot ).

Fitar da zafin gasGyara

Zazzagewar iskar gas (EGT) yana da mahimmanci ga aiki na mai jujjuyawar injin konewa na ciki . Ana iya auna shi da ma'aunin zafin jiki na iskar gas . EGT kuma ma'auni ne na lafiyar injin a cikin injin turbin gas (duba ƙasa).

Injin sanyiGyara

 
Turi daga bututun mota mai sanyi

A cikin mintuna biyu (2) na farko bayan fara injin motar da ba a sarrafa ta tsawon sa'o'i da yawa ba, yawan hayakin na iya yin yawa sosai. Wannan yana faruwa saboda manyan dalilai guda biyu:

  • Abubuwan da ake buƙata na rabon iskar da man fetur a cikin injunan sanyi : Lokacin da injin sanyi ya fara, man ba ya yin vapor gabaɗaya, yana haifar da hayaki mafi girma na hydrocarbons da carbon monoxide, wanda ke raguwa kawai yayin da injin ya kai zafin aiki. An rage tsawon lokacin wannan lokacin farawa ta hanyar ci gaba a cikin kayan aiki da fasaha, gami da allurar mai sarrafa kwamfuta, gajeriyar tsawon lokacin sha, da zafin mai da / ko iskar da aka shigar.
  • Mai jujjuyawar catalytic mara inganci a ƙarƙashin yanayin sanyi : Masu juyawa na catalytic ba su da inganci sosai har sai sun dumama zuwa zafin aikins u. Wannan lokacin ya ragu sosai ta hanyar matsar da mai canzawa kusa da ma'aunin shaye-shaye har ma da sanya ƙaramin mai jujjuya mai saurin zafi kai tsaye a mashin ɗin. Ƙaramin mai jujjuyawar yana ɗaukar hayakin farawa, wanda ke ba da damar isasshen lokaci don babban mai jujjuyawar don yin zafi. Ana iya samun ƙarin haɓakawa ta hanyoyi da yawa, [1] gami da dumama wutar lantarki, baturi mai zafi, preheating na sinadarai, dumama harshen wuta da superinulation.

Takaitaccen bayanin fitar da fasinjaGyara

Hukumar Kare Muhalli ta Amurka ta ƙiyasta matsakaiciyar hayaƙin motar fasinja a cikin Amurka na Afrilu shekarata 2000
Bangaren Yawan fitarwa Gurbacewar yanayi na shekara-shekara
Hydrocarbons 2.80 grams/mil (1.75 g/km) 77.1 pounds (35.0 kg)
Carbon monoxide 20.9 grams/mil (13.06 g/km) 575 pounds (261 kg)
BA x 1.39 grams/mil (0.87 g/km) 38.2 pounds (17.3 kg)
Carbon dioxide - greenhouse gas 415 grams/mil (258 g/km) 11,450 pounds (5,190 kg)

Kwatanta da ƙa'idodin fitarwa na Turai EURO III kamar yadda aka yi amfani da shi a watan Oktoba shekarata 2000

A cikin 2000, Hukumar Kare Muhalli ta Amurka ta fara aiwatar da ƙarin ƙa'idodi masu tsauri don abubuwan hawa masu haske. An fara aiwatar da buƙatun tun da farko da motocin 2004 kuma ana buƙatar duk sabbin motoci da manyan motoci don cika ƙa'idodin da aka sabunta a ƙarshen shekarar 2007.

Motar Lantarki ta Amurka, Motar Kula da Haske, da Motar Fasinja Mai Matsakaici-Tsarin Ƙirar Fitar da Wuta na 2 (na Bin 5)
Bangaren Yawan fitarwa Gurbacewar yanayi na shekara-shekara
NMOG ( Magungunan kwayoyin halitta marasa ƙarfi) 0.075 grams/mil (0.046 g/km) 2.1 pounds (0.95 kg)
Carbon Monoxide 3.4 grams/mil (2.1 g/km) 94 pounds (43 kg)
BA X 0.05 grams/mil (0.0305 g/km) 1.4 pounds (0.64 kg)
Formaldehyde 0.015 grams/mil (0.0092 g/km) 0.41 pounds (0.19 kg)

Nau'ukanGyara

Injin konewa na cikiGyara

 
Shaye-shayen mota

Wutar lantarki da injunan DieselGyara

A cikin injunan kunna walƙiya ana kiran iskar gas da ke fitowa daga konewar mai da iskan iska. Haɗin ya bambanta daga man fetur zuwa injin dizal, amma yana kusa da waɗannan matakan:

Gas mai ƙonewa-injin



</br> Duk alkaluma sun yi kusanta
% na duka
Haɗin gwiwa Man fetur Diesel
nitrogen 71 67
carbon dioxide 14 12
tururin ruwa 13 11
oxygen 10
Abubuwan da aka gano[ana buƙatar hujja][ <span title="This claim needs references to reliable sources. (August 2013)">abubuwan da ake bukata</span> ] <0.6 ~ 0.3
nitrogen oxides <0.25 <0.15
carbon monoxide 1-2 <0.045
particulate al'amarin <0.045
hydrocarbons <0.25 <0.03
sulfur dioxide yiwu burbushi <0.03

Oxygen 10% na "dizal" mai yiyuwa ne idan injin yana aiki, misali a cikin injin gwaji. Ya ragu sosai idan injin yana aiki a ƙarƙashin kaya, kodayake injunan diesel koyaushe suna aiki tare da wuce gona da iri akan mai.[ana buƙatar hujja]Abubuwan da ke injunan mai ya bambanta daga ~ 15 ppm don ingin ingantaccen injin tare da allurar mai da mai canzawa zuwa kimanin 100,000 ppm (10%) don ingin carburetor mai ɗorewa, kamar yawanci ana samuwa akan ƙananan janareta da lambun. kayan aiki.

Nitromethane ƙariGyara

Gas da ke fitowa daga injin konewa na ciki wanda man ya ƙunshi [nitromethane] zai ƙunshi tururi [nitric acid] mai lalata, kuma idan an shaka yana haifar da motsin tsoka yana sa ba za a iya numfashi ba. Mutanen da za su iya kamuwa da shi ya kamata su sanya abin rufe fuska na gas.

Injin dizalGyara

Injin turbin gasGyara

  • A cikin injunan injin turbine na jirgin sama, "zazzaɓin iskar gas" (EGT) shine ma'auni na farko na lafiyar injin. Yawanci ana kwatanta EGT tare da alamar wutar lantarki ta farko da ake kira "injin matsin lamba" (EPR). Misali: a cikakken iko EPR za a sami matsakaicin izini EGT iyaka. Da zarar injin ya kai wani mataki a rayuwarsa inda ya kai wannan iyaka na EGT, injin din zai bukaci kulawa ta musamman domin gyara matsalar. Adadin EGT da ke ƙasa da iyakar EGT ana kiransa gefen EGT. Gefen EGT na injin zai kasance mafi girma lokacin da injin ya zama sabo, ko kuma an yi masa overhauled. Ga yawancin kamfanonin jiragen sama, ana kuma lura da wannan bayanin daga nesa ta sashen kula da jiragen sama ta hanyar ACARS .

Injin jet da injunan rokaGyara

 
Abin da ya yi kama da shaye-shaye daga injunan jet a haƙiƙanin ɓarna ne.

A cikin injunan jet da injunan roka, shaye-shaye daga nozzles wanda a wasu aikace-aikacen ke nuna lu'ulu'u masu girgiza .[ana buƙatar hujja]

Sauran nau'ikanGyara

Daga kona kwalGyara

  • Gas mai guba
  • Turar iskar gas daga konewar mai

Injin tururiGyara

A cikin kalmomin injin tururi shaye-shaye shi ne tururi wanda yanzu ya ragu sosai wanda ba zai iya yin aiki mai amfani ba.

Babban hayakin abin hawaGyara

BA xGyara

 
Smog a cikin birnin New York kamar yadda aka duba daga Cibiyar Ciniki ta Duniya a 1988

Mono- nitrogen oxides NO da NO 2 ( NOx ) (ko an samar da wannan hanya ko ta hanyar walƙiya ) suna amsawa tare da ammonia, danshi, da sauran mahadi don samar da tururi na nitric acid da abubuwan da suka danganci. Ƙananan barbashi na iya shiga zurfi cikin ƙwayar huhu mai mahimmanci kuma su lalata shi, haifar da mutuwa da wuri a cikin matsanancin yanayi. Shakar NO nau'in yana ƙara haɗarin kansar huhu da kansar launin fata. da shakar irin wannan barbashi na iya haifar ko dagula cututtuka na numfashi kamar su emphysema da mashako da cututtukan zuciya.

A cikin shekarata 2005 US EPA binciken mafi girman hayaƙin sun zo ne daga motocin da ke kan hanya, wanda na biyu mafi girma ya ba da gudummawar shi ne kayan aikin da ba na titi ba ne wadanda galibi gidajen mai da dizal ne.

Sakamakon nitric acid ana iya wanke shi cikin ƙasa, inda ya zama nitrate, wanda ke da amfani ga shuka shuka.

Mahalli maras tabbasGyara

 
Kayayyakin da ba na titi galibi gidajen mai da dizal ne.

Lokacin da oxides na nitrogen (NOx) da mahaɗaɗɗen kwayoyin halitta (VOCs) suka amsa a gaban hasken rana, an samar da matakin ozone na ƙasa, wani abu na farko a cikin smog . Rahoton EPA na Amurkan shekarata 2005 ya ba da motocin tituna a matsayin tushe na biyu mafi girma na VOCs a Amurka a kashi 26% da 19% daga kayan aikin da ba na hanya ba ne waɗanda galibi gidajen mai da dizal ne. Kashi 27% na fitar da VOC daga abubuwan kaushi ne waɗanda ake amfani da su a masana'antar fenti da fenti da sauran abubuwan amfani.

OzoneGyara

Ozone yana da amfani a sararin sama, amma a matakin ƙasa ozone yana fusata tsarin numfashi, yana haifar da tari, shaƙa, da rage ƙarfin huhu. Har ila yau, yana da mummunan tasiri a ko'ina cikin yanayin halittu. [2]

Carbon monoxide (CO)Gyara

 
MOPITT tauraron dan adam Hoton kwamfuta na carbon monoxide Maris 2010

Guba monoxide shi ne mafi yawan nau'in gubar iska mai saurin kisa a ƙasashe da yawa. Carbon monoxide ba shi da launi, mara wari kuma marar ɗanɗano, amma mai guba sosai. Ya haɗu da haemoglobin don samar da carboxyhemoglobin, wanda ke toshe jigilar iskar oxygen. A mafi yawan abubuwan da ke sama da 1000ppm ana ɗaukarsa nan da nan yana da haɗari kuma shine mafi haɗarin lafiya nan take daga injuna aiki a cikin sarari mara kyau. A cikin shekarata 2011, 52% na iskar carbon monoxide an ƙirƙira su ta hanyar motocin hannu a cikin Amurka

Gurbatacciyar iska (masu guba)Gyara

Tsawon lokaci (dogon lokaci) bayyanar benzene ( C <sub id="mwAWQ">6</sub> H <sub id="mwAWU">6</sub> ) yana lalata bargon kashi . Hakanan zai iya haifar da zubar da jini mai yawa da kuma rage karfin garkuwar jiki, yana kara yiwuwar kamuwa da cuta . Benzene yana haifar da cutar sankarar bargo kuma yana da alaƙa da wasu cututtukan daji na jini da pre-ciwon daji na jini.

Matsalolin musamman (PM 10 da PM 2.5 )Gyara

An yi nazari sosai kan illolin shakar iska a cikin mutane da dabbobi kuma sun haɗa da asma, ciwon huhu, al'amuran zuciya da jijiyoyin jini, mutuwa da wuri. Saboda girman ɓangarorin, za su iya shiga cikin mafi zurfin ɓangaren huhu. [3] Wani bincike na Burtaniya na shekarar 2011 ya kiyasta mutuwar mutane 90 a kowace shekara saboda motar fasinja PM. A cikin littafin 2006, Hukumar Kula da manyan tituna ta Amurka (FHWA) ta bayyana cewa a cikin shekarata 2002 kusan kashi 1 cikin 100 na duk PM 10 da kashi 2 cikin ɗari na duk hayaƙin PM 2.5 sun fito ne daga hayakin motocin da ke kan hanya (mafi yawa daga dizal . injuna ).

Carbon dioxide (CO 2 )Gyara

Carbon dioxide iskar gas ce. Fitar da motocin CO 2 wani ɓangare ne na gudummawar ɗan adam don haɓaka yawan CO 2 a cikin yanayi wanda bisa ga yawancin al'ummomin kimiyya ke haifar da canjin yanayi . [4] Ana ƙididdige motocin motoci don samar da kusan kashi 20% na hayaƙin CO 2 na Tarayyar Turai da mutum ya yi, tare da motocin fasinja suna ba da gudummawar kusan kashi 12%. Matsayin fitar da hayaki na Turai yana iyakance fitar da CO 2 sabbin motocin fasinja da motocin haske. Matsakaicin adadin sabbin motocin CO 2 na Tarayyar Turai ya ragu da kashi 5.4% a cikin shekara zuwa kwata na farko na shekarar 2010, zuwa 145.6 g/km .

Turin ruwaGyara

Shaye-shayen abin hawa ya ƙunshi tururin ruwa da yawa .

Farfadowar ruwaGyara

An gudanar da bincike kan hanyoyin da sojoji a cikin hamada za su iya kwato ruwan sha daga iskar hayakin motocinsu.

Rage gurbatar yanayiGyara

Matsayin fitar da iska yana mai da hankali kan rage gurɓataccen gurɓataccen iskar gas ɗin da ke fitar da hayaki daga ababen hawa da kuma tarin iskar gas na masana'antu da sauran wuraren shayewar iska a manyan wuraren masana'antu daban-daban kamar matatun mai, masana'antar sarrafa iskar gas, masana'antar mai da masana'antar samar da sinadarai . . [5] Duk da haka, ana kiran waɗannan sau da yawa a matsayin iskar hayaƙi . Masu juyawa a cikin motoci suna da niyya don lalata gurɓataccen iskar gas ta amfani da mai kara kuzari. Masu gogewa a cikin jiragen ruwa sun yi niyya don cire sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) na iskar hayakin ruwa. Dokokin game da hayakin sulfur dioxide na ruwa suna daɗa ƙarfi, duk da haka kaɗan ne kawai na wurare na musamman a duniya aka tsara don ƙarancin amfani da man dizal sulfur kawai, domin kawo saukin gurɓatar yanayi.

Ɗaya daga cikin fa'idodin da ake da'awa ga injunan fasahar tururi na ci gaba shine cewa suna samar da ƙananan gurɓatattun abubuwa masu guba (misali oxides na nitrogen) fiye da injinan man dizal masu ƙarfi iri ɗaya.[ana buƙatar hujja] mafi girman adadin carbon dioxide amma ƙasa da carbon monoxide saboda ingantaccen konewa.

Karatun lafiyaGyara

Masu bincike daga Jami'ar California, Makarantar Kiwon Lafiyar Jama'a ta Los Angeles sun ce sakamakon farko na binciken kididdiga na yara da aka jera a cikin rajistar cutar daji ta California da aka haifa tsakanin shekarun 1998 da 2007 sun gano cewa gurɓacewar zirga-zirgar ababen hawa na iya haɗuwa da haɓakar 5% zuwa 15%. yiyuwar wasu ciwon daji. Wani bincike da Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya ta gudanar ya gano cewa hayakin diesel na haifar da karuwar cutar kansar huhu.

Tasirin gidaGyara

Hukumar Kula da Albarkatun Jiragen Sama ta California ta gano a cikin binciken cewa kimanin 50% ko fiye na gurɓataccen iska ( smog ) a Kudancin California yana faruwa ne saboda hayakin mota.[ana buƙatar hujja] ke fitowa daga injunan konewa na iya yin girma musamman a kusa da tsaka-tsakin sigina saboda raguwa da hanzari. Samfuran kwamfuta sau da yawa suna rasa irin wannan dalla-dalla.

Duba sauran abunuwaGyara

ManazartaGyara

Hanyoyin haɗi na wajeGyara

  1. Pulkrabek W.W. (2004) Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engine. Pearson Prentice Hall, new Jersey
  2. "Kwafin ajiya". Archived from the original on 2014-10-24. Retrieved 2022-03-09.
  3. Region 4: Laboratory and Field Operations — PM 2.5 (2008).PM 2.5 Objectives and History. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
  4. IPCC, 2013: Summary for Policymakers. In: Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.). Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA.
  5. US EPA Publication AP 42, Fifth Edition, Compilation of Air Pollutant Emission Factors