Yaƙin Duniya na I
Yaƙin Duniya na I da turanci World War I (ana kintse sunan WWI ko WW1), kuma ana ƙiran shi da First World War da turanci wato Yaƙin Duniya na Farko kuma Great War wato Babban Yaƙi, wani yaƙin Duniya ne da ya faro daga nahiyar Turai wanda aka fara tun daga 28 ga watan Juli na 1914 har zuwa 11 ga watan Nuwanban 1918. Wanda ayanzu ake dangata shi da suna "the war to end all wars" wato Yaƙin da zai tsaida Yaƙoƙi, ya kai ga hada fiye da miliyan 70 million na ma'aikatan soja, da miliyan 60 na Turawa, wanda yasa yazama ɗaya daga cikin babban yaƙi ɗaya daga cikin yaƙin da aka rasa rayuka da dama a tarihi, an ƙiyasta kusan mutane miliyan 9 Mayaƙa aka rasa da miliyan 7 na farin hula wadanda suka mutu sanadiyar yaƙin, wanda ya haifar da kisan kiyashi da kuma cutar da kuma rasa rayukan Mutane miliyan 50 zuwa 100 a duniya baki ɗaya.
world war (en) |
historical period (en)
|Bangare na||late modern period (en)|
|Kwanan watan kalanda||28 ga Yuli, 1914 – 11 Nuwamba, 1918|
Gabas ta tsakiya
Asiya, Turai, Afirka, Yammacin Asiya, Pacific Ocean, Sin, Tekun Indiya da Tekun Atalanta
|Sanadi||assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand (en)|
|Yana haddasa||Paris Peace Conference (en)|
|Adadin waɗanda suka rasu||17,000,000|
|Skirmish at Joncherey (en)|
|German invasion of Belgium (en)|
|German occupation of Luxembourg in World War I (en)|
|Battle of Liège (en)|
|Battle of the Frontiers (en)|
|Battle of Mulhouse (en)|
|Togoland Campaign (en)|
|Has part(s) (en)|
Battle of San Matteo (en) |
African theatre of World War I (en)
Asian and Pacific theatre of World War I (en)
Middle Eastern theatre of World War I (en)
Paris Peace Conference (en)
European theatre of World War I (en)
naval warfare of World War I (en)
A 28 ga Yuni 1914, Gavrilo Princip, wani ɗan ƙasar Yugoslavia, ya kashr Archduke Franz Ferdinand wanda shine magajin Archduke Franz Ferdinand a garin Sarajevo, hakan ya haifar da rikkicin watan Yuli. akan mayar da martani, a 23 Yuli Wanda amsar da ƙasar Serbia ta bayar bai gamsar da Austriya ba, yasa suka shiga yaƙi tsakanin su.
Haɗakar ƙawance ya faɗaɗa rikicin akan wani ɗan tattaunawa tsakanin mutum biyu a Balkans zuwa ga babban rikici da ya game yawancin nahiyar Turai. A July 1914, great powers dake Turai sun rabu zuwa haɗaka daban-daban: akwai Triple Entente—wanda ta haɗa da France, Russia da Britain aciki— da kuma Triple Alliance na Germany, Austria-Hungary da kuma Italy (wanda Triple Alliance sun kasance masu kariya ne, sun bar ƙasar Italiya ta fita daga yaƙin a shekara ta 1914). Rasha ta kasa abunda yakama ce ta na kare Serbia da, bayan Austria-Hungary shelled the babban birnin Serbiya Belgrade a 28th, an yarda da haɗaka. Babban haɗakar da Rasha tayi ta bayyana shi ne a yammacin 30 July; a 31st, Austria-Hungary da Germany suma suka yi haka, sai ita kuma Germany ta nema Rasha data rushe haɗakarta acikin awanni goma sha biyu (12 hours). batan Russia taƙi bi, sai Germany ta ƙaddamar da yaƙi a farkon (1) watan Augusta domin taimakon Austria-Hungary, a tareda Austria-Hungary following suit on 6th; sai ƙasar Faransa ta umurce cikakkiyar haɗaka domin taimakawa Russia a 2 August.
Dabarun ƙasar Jamus na gabza yaƙi akan Faransa da Rasha shine ta tattara sojoji a yamma waɗanda zasu yi galaba akan France cikin makonni huɗu, sannan kuma ta aika da sojojin Gabas dan gabzawa da Rasha kafin ta gama shiryawa; wanan dabarar ce akasa was suna Schlieffen Plan. A 2 ga watan August, Germany ta nemi hanya da zata riƙa wucewa ta kasar Belgium, itace muhimmin samun nasara akan Faransa. bayan kin hakan, sai domin Jamus ta farwa kasar Belgium da safiyar 3 Augusta kuma suka kaddamar da yaki a Faransa a wannan rana; the Belgian government invoked the 1839 Treaty of London and in compliance with its obligations under this, Britain declared war on Germany on 4 August. On 12 August, Britain and France also declared war on Austria-Hungary; on the 23rd, Japan sided with the Entente, seizing German possessions in China and the Pacific. In November 1914, the Ottoman Empire entered the war on the side of the Alliance, opening fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and the Sinai Peninsula. The war was fought in and drew upon each powers' colonial empires as well, spreading the conflict to Africa and across the globe. The Entente and its allies would eventually become known as the Allied Powers, while the grouping of Austria-Hungary, Germany and their allies would become known as the Central Powers.
The German advance into France was halted at the Battle of the Marne and by the end of 1914, the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, marked by a long series of trench lines that changed little until 1917 (the Eastern Front, by contrast, was marked by much greater exchanges of territory). In 1915, Italy joined the Allied Powers and opened a front in the Alps. The Kingdom of Bulgaria joined the Central Powers in 1915 and the Kingdom of Greece joined the Allies in 1917, expanding the war in the Balkans. The United States initially remained neutral, though it was an important supplier of war material to the Allies. However, after the sinking of American merchant ships by German submarines, and the revelation that the Germans were trying to incite Mexico to make war on the United States, the U.S. declared war on Germany on 6 April 1917. Trained American forces would not begin arriving at the front in large numbers until mid-1918, but ultimately the American Expeditionary Force would reach some two million troops.
Though Serbia was defeated in 1915, and Romania joined the Allied Powers in 1916 only to be defeated in 1917, none of the great powers were knocked out of the war until 1918. The 1917 February Revolution in Russia replaced the Tsarist autocracy with the Provisional Government, but continuing discontent at the cost of the war led to the October Revolution, the creation of the Soviet Socialist Republic, and the signing of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk by the new government in March 1918, ending Russia's involvement in the war. This allowed the transfer of large numbers of German troops from the East to the Western Front, resulting in the German March 1918 Offensive. This offensive was initially successful, but the Allies rallied and drove the Germans back in their Hundred Days Offensive. Bulgaria was the first Central Power to sign an armistice—the Armistice of Salonica on 29 September 1918. On 30 October, the Ottoman Empire capitulated, signing the Armistice of Mudros. On 4 November, the Austro-Hungarian empire agreed to the Armistice of Villa Giusti. With its allies defeated, revolution at home, and the military no longer willing to fight, Kaiser Wilhelm abdicated on 9 November and Germany signed an armistice on 11 November 1918.
World War I was a significant turning point in the political, cultural, economic, and social climate of the world. The war and its immediate aftermath sparked numerous revolutions and uprisings. The Big Four (Britain, France, the United States, and Italy) imposed their terms on the defeated powers in a series of treaties agreed at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference, the most well known being the German peace treaty—the Treaty of Versailles. Ultimately, as a result of the war the Austro-Hungarian, German, Ottoman, and Russian Empires ceased to exist, with numerous new states created from their remains. However, despite the conclusive Allied victory (and the creation of the League of Nations during the Peace Conference, intended to prevent future wars), a Second World War would follow just over twenty years later.
- ↑ "The war to end all wars". BBC News. 10 November 1998.
- ↑ Williams, Rachel (2014). Dual Threat: The Spanish Influenza and World War I. University of Tennessee Thesis: Trace: Tennessee Research and Creative Exchange. pp. 4–10. Retrieved 10 September 2018.
- ↑ harvnb |Taylor |1998 |pp=80–93}}
- ↑ Charles Seymour (1916). The Diplomatic Background of the War. Yale University Press. pp. 35, 147.
- ↑ Lieven, Dominic (2016). Towards the Flame: Empire, War and the End of Tsarist Russia. Penguin. p. 326. ISBN 978-0141399744.
- ↑ Martel, Gordon (2014). The Month that Changed the World: July 1914 and WWI (Kindle ed.). 6286: OUP.CS1 maint: location (link)
- ↑ "Le Président de la République, R. [Raymond] Poincaré et al., 'A La Nation Française'" (PDF). Journal Officiel de la République Française: 7053–7054. 2 August 1914. Retrieved 26 August 2018.
- ↑ Zuber, Terence (2011). Inventing the Schlieffen Plan: German War Planning 1871–1914 (2014 ed.). OUP. pp. 46–49. ISBN 978-0198718055.
- ↑ Note Given 2 August 1914, at 19 hours, by M. de Below Saleske [Klaus von Below-Saleske], Minister of Germany, to M. Davignon, Minister of Foreign Affairs] (1914). Documents Diplomatiques 1914: La Guerre Européenne Diplomatic Documents 1914: The European War (PDF). Ministère des Affaires Étrangères (Ministry of Foreign Affairs). p. 201. Retrieved 26 August 2018.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- ↑ Edward M. Coffman, The War to End All Wars: The American Military Experience in World War I (1998)
- ↑ Sheffield, Gary (2002). Forgotten Victory. Review. p. 251. ISBN 978-0747271574.
- ↑ Cite error: Invalid
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- ↑ Gerwath, Robert (2016). The Vanquished: Why the First World War Failed to End, 1917–1923 (Kindle ed.). 3323–3342: Penguin. ISBN 978-0141976372.CS1 maint: location (link)