Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (/ˈɛlɪnɔːr ˈroʊzəvɛlt/; October 11, 1884 – November 7, 1962) ta kasance yar;siyasar Amurka cee, yar diplomasisiya, yar gwagwarmayat. Ta zama First Lady of the United States daga watan Maris 4, 1933, zuwa Afrailu 12, 1945, lokacin shugabancin mijinta President Franklin D. Roosevelt's na shekaru a mulki, making her the longest-serving First Lady of the United States. Roosevelt served as United States Delegate to the United Nations General Assembly from 1945 to 1952.[6]

Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Eleanor Roosevelt
Eleanor Roosevelt portrait 1933.jpg
United Nations General Assembly (en) Fassara

Disamba 1945 -
First Lady of the United States (en) Fassara

4 ga Maris, 1933 - 12 ga Afirilu, 1945
ambassador (en) Fassara

Rayuwa
Cikakken suna Anna Eleanor Roosevelt
Haihuwa Manhattan (en) Fassara, 11 Oktoba 1884
ƙasa Tarayyar Amurka
Mazaunin New York
Washington, D.C.
Hyde Park (en) Fassara
Harshen uwa Turanci
Mutuwa Upper East Side (en) Fassara, 7 Nuwamba, 1962
Makwanci Home of Franklin D. Roosevelt National Historic Site (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa Sababi na ainihi (Tibi)
Yan'uwa
Mahaifi Elliott Roosevelt
Mahaifiya Anna Hall Roosevelt
Abokiyar zama Franklin Delano Roosevelt (en) Fassara  (17 ga Maris, 1905 -  12 ga Afirilu, 1945)
Yara
Siblings
Ƙabila Roosevelt family (en) Fassara
Karatu
Makaranta The New School (en) Fassara
Allenswood Boarding Academy (en) Fassara
(1899 - 1902)
Harsuna Turanci
Faransanci
Sana'a
Sana'a Mai wanzar da zaman lafiya, marubuci, autobiographer (en) Fassara, ɗan siyasa, feminist (en) Fassara, ɗan jarida, peace activist (en) Fassara da Mai kare ƴancin ɗan'adam
Wurin aiki Washington, D.C. da New York
Employers Brandeis University (en) Fassara
Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya
Kyaututtuka
Ayyanawa daga
Mamba Daughters of the American Revolution (en) Fassara
Alpha Kappa Alpha (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Episcopal Church (en) Fassara
Jam'iyar siyasa Democratic Party (en) Fassara
IMDb nm0740482
Eleanor Roosevelt Signature-.svg

President Harry S. Truman later called her the "First Lady of the World" in tribute to her human rights achievements.

Roosevelt memba ne na sanannen dan Amurka na Roosevelt da Livingston kuma dan wa na Shugaba Theodore Roosevelt . Tana da ƙuruciya da ba ta jin daɗi, saboda mutuwar mahaifan da ɗayan atar uwanta a ƙarami. A 15, ta halarci Allenwood Academy a London kuma shugaban kula da shugabar mata Marie Souvestre ya yi tasiri sosai. Komawa Amurka, ta auri dan uwanta na biyar da zarar an cire ta, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, a cikin 1905. Auren Roosevelts ya kasance da rikicewa daga farkon mahaifiyar Franklin, Sara, kuma bayan Eleanor ta gano alaƙar mijinta da Lucy Mercer a 1918, ta ƙuduri aniyar neman biyan buƙata a cikin jagorancin rayuwar kanta. Ta shawo kan Franklin ya ci gaba da kasancewa cikin siyasa bayan ya kamu da cutar sankara a 1921, wanda hakan ya ba shi damar amfani da ƙafafunsa, kuma ya fara gabatar da jawabai da bayyana a yayin kamfen a wurinsa. Bayan zaben Franklin a matsayin Gwamnan New York a 1928, kuma a duk sauran ragowar aikin Franklin a gwamnati, Roosevelt ya kan gabatar da karar jama'a a kai a kai, kuma a matsayinta na Uwargidan Shugaban kasa, yayin da mijinta ya yi aiki a matsayin Shugaban kasa, ta yi matukar sakewa da kuma sake fasalin matsayin na Uwargidan Shugaban kasa.

Duk da cewa mutuncinta na da mutunci a cikin shekarun baya, Roosevelt ita ce Uwargida Marubuciya mai rikitarwa a wannan lokacin da ta fito fili, musamman game da hakkin jama'a na ba-Amurkan Amurkawa. Ta kasance matar shugaban kasa ta farko da ta gudanar da taron manema labarai na yau da kullun, rubuta kantin jaridar yau da kullun, rubuta shafi na wata-wata, ta shirya wasannin mako-mako na rediyo, kuma ta yi jawabi a babban taron jam’iyya na kasa. A wasu 'yan lokutan, ta nuna rashin amincewa da manufofin mijinta.

Ta ƙaddamar da wata ƙungiyar gwaji a Arthurdale, West Virginia, ga iyalan masu aikin hakar ma'adinan da ba su da aikin yi, daga baya aka ɗauke su a matsayin wadanda su gazawar. Ta yi kira da a fadada matsayin mata a wuraren aiki, da hakkin ofan Afirka baƙi da andan Asalin Amurka, da haƙƙin refugeesan gudun hijirar Yakin Duniya na II. Bayan mutuwar mijinta a 1945, Roosevelt ta ci gaba da kasancewa cikin tsaka-tsaki cikin siyasa don sauran shekaru 17 na rayuwarta. Ta matsa wa Amurka da ta kasance tare da tallafawa Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kuma ta zama wakilinta na farko . Ta yi aiki a matsayin shugabar farko ta Hukumar Majalisar Dinkin Duniya kan kare hakkin dan adam da kuma sa ido kan daftarin Dokar Kare Hakkin Bil Adama ta Duniya .

Daga baya, ta jagoranci Hukumar Shugaban Fasaha ta John F. Kennedy akan Matsayin Mata . A lokacin da ta mutu, ana daukar Roosevelt a matsayin "daya daga cikin mata masu daraja a duniya"; Jaridar New York Times ta kirata "abin kusanci ga duniya" a cikin labarin.

A cikin 1999, tana matsayi na tara a cikin manyan goma daga jerin Jerin Gallup na Waukakan miabi'un Mutane da ke ofarni na 20 .

Rayuwar taGyara

Farkon rayuwaGyara

 
Roosevelt tun yana karamin yaro, 1887

Anna Eleanor Roosevelt an haife ta a ranar 11 ga Oktoba, 1884, a Manhattan, birnin New York , ga masu amfani da Anna Anna Rebecca Hall da Elliott Bulloch Roosevelt . Tun daga farkon shekarunta sun fi son a kira ta da sunan ta na tsakiya, Eleanor. Ta wurin mahaifinta, ita ɗan 'yar Shugaba Theodore Roosevelt ce . Ta hanyar mahaifiyarsa, ita 'yace ga 'yar wasan Tenis ce ta Valentine Gill "Vallie" Hall III da Edward Ludlow Hall . Mahaifiyarta sunanta lakabi da "Granny" saboda ta aikata wannan mummunan aiki tun suna yara. Anna kuma tana ɗan jin kunyar bayyanar 'yarta.

Roosevelt tana da ƙannenta biyu: Elliott Jr. da Hall . Tana da ɗan'uwan rabin, Elliott Roosevelt Mann, ta hanyar al'amar mahaifinta da Katy Mann, wani bawan da iyali ke aiki. [15] Roosevelt aka haifa a cikin wani duniya na babba dũkiya da gata, kamar yadda ta iyali shi ne wani ɓangare na New York high jama'a da ake kira "ta kumbura".

Mahaifiyarta ta mutu daga cutar sankara a ranar 7 ga Disamba, 1892, kuma Elliott Jr. ta mutu da wannan cutar a watan Mayu mai zuwa. [17] Mahaifinta, an giya tsare a wani sanitarium, ya mutu a kan Agusta 14, 1894, bayan tsalle daga wani taga a lokacin da wani Fit na delirium tremens . Ya tsira daga faduwar amma ya mutu sakamakon amare. [18] Roosevelt ta yarantaka asarar bar ta yiwuwa zuwa ciki cikin rayuwar ta. [18] Heran’uwa Hall ɗin daga baya ya sha wahala daga shan giya. [19] Kafin mahaifinta ya mutu, ya roƙe ta ta zama uwa ga Hall, kuma wata bukata ce da ta yi kyau har tsawon rayuwar Hall. Roosevelt ya yi wasa a zauren Hall, kuma lokacin da ya yi rajista a Makarantar Groton a 1907, sai ta bi shi a matsayin shugabana. Yayinda yake halartar Groton, ta rubuta shi kusan kullun, amma koyaushe yana jin taɓawa da laifi cewa Hall bai sami cikakkiyar ƙuruciya ba. Ta yi farin ciki da rawar da Hall ta yi a makarantar, kuma tana alfahari da nasarorin ilimi da yawa, wanda ya haɗa da digiri na biyu a aikin injiniya daga Harvard . [20]

 
Hoton makaranta na Roosevelt, 1898

Bayan mutuwar iyayenta, Roosevelt ta tashi ne a gidan kakarta, Mary Livingston Ludlow ta gidan Livingston a Tivoli, New York . [18] Tun tana yarinya, ta kasance cikin rashin tsaro da yunwar rashin so, kuma ta dauki kanta da "mummunar haihuwar". Koyaya, Roosevelt ya rubuta a shekaru 14 cewa abin da mutum ya samu na rayuwa bai dogara da kyau ta zahiri ba: "komai irin yadda mace zata kasance a fili idan gaskiya da aminci sun kasance akan fuskarta dukkansu zasu ja mata hankali."

Roosevelt an yi ta ɓoye cikin sirri kuma tare da ƙarfafawar innarta Anna "Bamie" Roosevelt, an tura ta zuwa makarantar Allenswood tun tana ɗan shekara 15, makarantar sakandare mai zaman kanta a Wimbledon, a wajen London, Ingila, inda ta sami ilimi daga 1899 zuwa 1902. Shugabar mata, Marie Souvestre, malami ce mai ƙwaƙƙwaran ilimi wacce ta nemi haɓaka tunani mai zaman kanta a cikin youngan mata. Souvestre ya ɗauki sha'awa ta musamman ga Roosevelt, wanda ta koyi magana da Faransanci sosai kuma ya sami amincewa da kai. Roosevelt da Souvestre sun ci gaba da kasancewa tare da rubutu har zuwa Maris 1905, lokacin da Souvestre ta mutu, kuma bayan wannan Roosevelt ta sanya hoton Souvestre a kan teburinta tare da kawo mata wasiƙun. Cousinan uwan farko na Roosevelt Christine Douglas Robinson, wanda lokacinsa na farko a Allenswood ya mamaye Roosevelt na ƙarshe, ya ce lokacin da ta isa makarantar, Roosevelt itae '' komai 'a makarantar. Ta ya ƙaunataccen da kowa da kowa. " [24] Roosevelt nufin ci gaba a Allenswood, amma ta kirawo gida da kakarta a 1902 da ta jiyar da zamantakewa halarta a karon .

Lokacin da ta cika shekara 17 a 1902, Roosevelt ta kammala karatun nata kuma ta koma Amurka; An gabatar da ita a wani wasan bangon debutante a otal din Waldorf-Astoria a ranar 14 ga Disamba. Daga baya aka ba ta ita '' fitowa jam'iyyar ''. Ta ce a karon farko a tattaunawar da ta yi a bainar jama'a, "Wannan abin takaici ne kawai. Wata ƙungiya ce mai kyau, amma, amma na kasance mai farin ciki, saboda yarinyar da ta fito tana baƙin ciki sosai idan ba ta san samari ba. Tabbas na dade a ketare har na daina hulɗa da dukkan 'yan matan da na sani a New York. Na yi bakin cikin wannan duka. ”

Aure da rayuwar iyaliGyara

 
Roosevelt a cikin suturar aurenta, 1905

A lokacin rani na 1902, Roosevelt ta ci karo da kakanin mahaifinta na biyar, Franklin Delano Roosevelt, a kan jirgin zuwa Tivoli, New York . Su biyun sun fara musayar sirri da soyayya, kuma sun yi aiki a ranar 22 ga Nuwamba, 1903. [28] Mahaifiyar Franklin, Sara Ann Delano, ta ƙi ƙungiyar kuma ta yi masa alƙawarin cewa ba za a sanar da wannan yarjejeniyar a hukumance ba har tsawon shekara guda. "Na san irin azabar da zan yi muku," ya rubuta wa mahaifiyarsa shawarar da ya yanke. Amma, ya kara da cewa, "Na san tunanina, na kuma san shi na dogon lokaci, kuma na san cewa ba zan taba tunanin wani abu ba." [29] Sara ta ɗauki ɗanta a cikin jirgin ruwa a Caribbean a cikin 1904, tana fatan cewa rabuwa zai gurbata soyayya, amma Franklin ya ƙuduri aniyar. [29] An shirya ranar daurin aure don karbar Shugaba Theodore Roosevelt, wanda aka shirya zai kasance a New York City don bikin St. Patrick's Day, kuma wanda ya yarda ya ba da amarya. [30]

Ma'auratan sun yi aure ne a ranar 17 ga Maris, 1905, a wani bikin da Endicott Peabody, shugaban ango a makarantar Groton ya shirya . cousinan uwanta Christine Douglas Robinson amarya ce. Theodore Roosevelt da ya halarci bikin shine labarai na shafin farko a jaridar New York Times da sauran jaridu. Lokacin da aka nemi ra'ayoyin sa game da kungiyar ta Roosevelt-Roosevelt, shugaban ya ce, "Abu ne mai kyau mutum ya sa sunan a cikin dangi." Ma'auratan sun kwashe farkon sati na farko na mako guda a Hyde Park, sannan suka fara aikin gadin gida a wani gida a New York. Wannan bazara da suka tafi a kan su m gudun amarci, a wata uku yawon shakatawa na kasashen Turai. [32]

Returning to the U.S., the newlyweds settled in a New York City house that was provided by Franklin's mother, as well as in a second residence at the family's estate overlooking the Hudson River in Hyde Park, New York. From the beginning, Roosevelt had a contentious relationship with her controlling mother-in-law. The townhouse that Sara gave to them was connected to her own residence by sliding doors, and Sara ran both households in the decade after the marriage. Early on, Roosevelt had a breakdown in which she explained to Franklin that "I did not like to live in a house which was not in any way mine, one that I had done nothing about and which did not represent the way I wanted to live", but little changed.[33] Sara also sought to control the raising of her grandchildren, and Roosevelt reflected later that "Franklin's children were more my mother-in-law's children than they were mine".[34] Roosevelt's eldest son James remembered Sara telling her grandchildren, "Your mother only bore you, I am more your mother than your mother is."[34]

 
Eleanor and Franklin with their first two children, 1908

Roosevelt da Franklin suna da yarashida:

  • Anna Eleanor Roosevelt (1906–1975)
  • James Roosevelt II (1907–1991)
  • Franklin Roosevelt (1909–1909)
  • Elliott Roosevelt (1910–1990)
  • Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr. (1914–1988)
  • John Aspinwall Roosevelt II (1916–1981)

Duk da cewa tayi ciki har sau shida, Roosevelt bata son yin jima'i da mijinta. Ta taɓa gaya wa ’yarta Anna cewa“ matsala ce da za a haihu ”. [35] Ta kuma dauki kanta cewa ba ta dace da matsayin uwa ba, daga baya ta rubuta, "Ba ta al'ada ce a gare ni don fahimtar ƙananan yara ko jin daɗin su ba". [34]

A watan Satumbar 1918, Roosevelt ta buya akwatunan jakadanta na Franklin lokacin da ta gano wata wasiƙar ƙauna zuwa gare shi daga sakatariyar zamantakewarta, Lucy Mercer. Ya kasance yana tunanin barin matarsa don Mercer. Koyaya, sakamakon matsin lamba daga mai ba shi shawara kan siyasa, Louis Howe, da kuma daga mahaifiyarsa, waɗanda suka yi barazanar rabuwa da Franklin idan ya bi ta hanyar kashe aure, ma'auratan sun yi aure. [36] Haɗinsu daga wannan lokacin daga wancan haɓakar siyasa ne. Rashin rikicewa, Roosevelt ya sake zama mai aiki a rayuwar jama'a, yana mai da hankali sosai ga aikin zamantakewarsa maimakon rawar da yake mata. [37]

A August 1921, the family was vacagidan at Campobello Island, New Brunswick, Canada, when Franklin was diagnosed with a paralytic illness, at the time believed to be polio. During the illness, through her nursing care, Roosevelt probably saved Franklin from death. His legs remained permanently paralyzed. When the extent of his disability became clear, Roosevelt fought a protracted battle with her mother-in-law over his future, persuading him to stay in politics despite Sara's urgings that he retire and become a country gentleman. Franklin's attending physician, Dr. William Keen, commended Roosevelt's devotion to the stricken Franklin during the time of his travail. "You have been a rare wife and have borne your heavy burden most bravely," he said, proclaiming her "one of my heroines".

This proved a turning point in Roosevelt and Sara's long-running struggle, and as Eleanor's public role grew, she increasingly broke from Sara's control.Template:SfnTemplate:Sfn Tensions between Sara and Roosevelt over her new political friends rose to the point that the family constructed a cottage at Val-Kill, in which Roosevelt and her guests lived when Franklin and the children were away from Hyde Park.Template:SfnTemplate:Sfn Roosevelt herself named the place Val-Kill, loosely translated as "waterfall-stream" from the Dutch language common to the original European settlers of the area. Franklin encouraged his wife to develop this property as a place where she could implement some of her ideas for work with winter jobs for rural workers and women. Each year, when Roosevelt held a picnic at Val-Kill for delinquent boys, her granddaughter Eleanor Roosevelt Seagraves assisted her. She was close to her grandmother throughout her life. Seagraves concentrated her career as an educator and librarian on keeping alive many of the causes Roosevelt began and supported.

In 1924, tayi neman zabe ma Democrat Alfred E. Smith in his successful re-election bid as governor of New York State against the Republican nominee and her first cousin Theodore Roosevelt Jr.Template:Sfn Theodore never forgave Roosevelt. Her aunt, Anna Roosevelt Cowles, publicly broke with her after the election. She wrote to her niece, "I just hate to have Eleanor let herself look as she does. Though never handsome, she always had to me a charming effect, but alas and lackaday! Since politics have become her choicest interest all her charm has disappeared..."Template:Sfn Roosevelt dismissed Bamie's criticisms by referring to her as an "aged woman".Template:Citation needed However, Bamie and Roosevelt eventually reconciled.

'Yar tsohuwar Theodore Alice ita ma ta fasa tare da Roosevelt a kan kamfen ɗin ta. Alice ita da kawarta sun yi sulhu bayan ɗan ƙarshen sun rubuta wa Alice wasiƙar ta’aziyya game da mutuwar ’yar Alice, Paulina Longworth.

Roosevelt da 'yarta Anna sun sami kansu cikin damuwa bayan da ta kama wasu ayyukan zamantakewa na mahaifiyarta a Fadar White House. Dangantaka ta kara tabarbarewa saboda Roosevelt yana matukar son ya tafi tare da mijinta zuwa Yalta a watan Fabrairun 1945 (watanni biyu kafin mutuwar FDR), amma ya dauki Anna a maimakon. Bayan 'yan shekaru bayan haka, su biyu sun sami damar yin sulhu da hadin gwiwa kan ayyuka da yawa. Anna ta kula da mahaifiyarta lokacin da take fama da rashin lafiya a shekara ta 1962.

Sean Roosevelt Elliott ya rubuta litattafai da yawa, gami da jerin abubuwan ban mamaki waɗanda mahaifiyarsa ce jami'in bincike. Koyaya, William Harrington ya bincika kuma ya rubuta waɗannan asirin kisan. Sun ci gaba har zuwa mutuwar Harrington a 2000, shekaru goma bayan mutuwar Elliott. Tare da James Brough, Elliot kuma ya rubuta wani littafi na sirri game da iyayensa wanda ake kira The Roosevelts of Hyde Park: Labarin Untold, wanda a ciki ya bayyana cikakkun bayanai game da rayuwar jima'i na iyayensa, gami da alaƙar mahaifinsa tare da farka Lucy Mercer da sakatare Marguerite ( "Missy") LeHand, [1] da kuma cikakkun bayanai masu hoto game da cutar da ta gurgunta mahaifinsa. An buga shi a 1973, tarihin rayuwar ya kuma ƙunshi mahimman bayanai game da takarar FDR don mataimakin shugaban ƙasa, hawan sa zuwa kan mulki na New York, da kuma kama ragamar shugabancin sa a 1932, musamman tare da taimakon Louis Howe. Lokacin da Elliott ya buga wannan littafin a cikin 1973, Franklin Delano Roosevelt Jr. ya jagoranci la'antar dangi game da shi; siban uwan Elliot sun ƙi littafin. Wani daga cikin 'yan uwan, James, ya buga My Iyali, mai Banbancin Ra'ayoyi (tare da Bill Libby, 1976), wanda aka rubuta a sashi don mayar da martani ga littafin Elliot. Misali ga An Untold Labari tare da James Brough, wanda aka buga a cikin 1975 kuma mai taken A Rendez tsananin Tare da Kaddara, ya ɗauki nauyin Roosevelt zuwa ƙarshen Yaƙin Duniya na II. Uwar R ..: Eleanor Roosevelt's Untold Labari, shima tare da Brough, an buga shi a 1977. Eleanor Roosevelt, tare da Loveauna: Tunawa da Centenary, ya fito ne a cikin 1984.

 
Roosevelt tare da karenta Fala a shekarar 1951

A cikin shekarun 1930, Roosevelt ya kasance yana da kusanci sosai da matattakalar jirgin sama Amelia Earhart . Lokaci guda, su biyun sun fice daga Fadar White House kuma sun tafi wata liyafar da ta shirya bikin. Bayan tashi da Earhart, Roosevelt ta sami izinin ɗalibai amma ba ta ci gaba da shirye-shiryenta na koyon tashi ba. Franklin bai dace da matarsa ba ta zama matukin jirgi. Koyaya, matan biyun sun yi ta tattaunawa koda yaushe a rayuwarsu. [2]

Roosevelt kuma tana da dangantaka ta kusa da Associated Press (AP) labaru Lorena Hickok, wanda ya rufe ta a lokacin da na karshe watanni na yakin neman zabe da kuma "fadi a wajenka, a soyayya tare da ita". [52] A wannan lokacin, Roosevelt ya rubuta wasiƙu 10-shafi 15 zuwa 15 ga "Hick", wanda ke shirin rubuta tarihin rayuwar Uwargidan Shugaban. [53] Harrufan sun hada da irin wannan soyayya kamar, "Ina so in sanya maku hannuwana in sumbace ku a kusurwar bakinku," [3] kuma, "Ba zan iya sumbantar ku ba, don haka ina sumbantar 'hotonku' ina kwana da safe! A bikin rantsarwar da Franklin ya yi a 1933, Roosevelt ta sa zoben safen safiya wanda Hickok ya yi mata. [4] FBI Darakta J. Edgar Hoover ya yi watsi da sassaucin ra'ayi na Roosevelt, matsayin sa game da 'yancin jama'a, da ita da kuma sukar da mijinta ke da ita game da dabarun sanya ido na Hoover, don haka Hoover ya kiyaye babban fayil akan Roosevelt, wanda masu shirya finafinan biopic J Edgar (2011) ya nuna hadewar tabbatar da wannan alakar, wacce Hoover yayi niyyar bata sunan Roosevelt. Hickok ya rikita shi a matsayin mai ba da rahoto, ba da daɗewa ba Hickok ya sake murabus daga matsayinta tare da AP don kusanci da Roosevelt, wanda ya amintar da ita ta yi aiki a matsayin mai bincika shirin New Deal . [58]

Akwai tattaunawa mai yawa game da ko Roosevelt ya yi jima'i da Hickok. Sananne ne a cikin kungiyar 'yan jaridu ta fadar White House a lokacin Hickok' yar madigo ce. Masana, ciki har da Lillian Faderman [4] da Hazel Rowley, [60] sun tabbatar da cewa akwai wani bangare na zahiri ga dangantakar, yayin da masanin ilimin halitta Hickok Doris Faber ya kafa hujja da cewa jumlolin marasa tushe sun yaudari masana tarihi. Doris Kearns Goodwin ta fada a cikin asusun bada lambobin yabo na Pulitzer na shekara ta 1994 - wanda Hick da Eleanor suka zarce sumbata da hular "ba za a iya tantance su da tabbas ba. [61] Roosevelt ya kasance abokai na kusa da wasu ma'aurata 'yan madigo, kamar Nancy Cook da Marion Dickerman, da Esther Lape da Elizabeth Fisher Karanta, suna ba da shawara cewa ta fahimci' yar madigo; Marie Souvestre, malamin koyar da yara na Roosevelt kuma yana da tasiri sosai a tunaninta daga baya, ita ma 'yar madigo ce. [60] Faber ya buga wasu labaran Roosevelt da Hickok a 1980, amma ya kammala cewa furucin soyayyastruck kawai shine "murkushe makarantar da ba a saba ba" kuma ya gargadi masana tarihi da kada su yaudare. [61] Mai Bincike Leila J. Rupp ta soki hujjar Faber, ta kira littafinta "nazarin shari'ar a tsakanin maza da mata" da kuma jayayya cewa ba a sani ba Faber "shafi bayan shafi na shaidu wanda ke bayyana ci gaban da bunkasar alakar soyayya tsakanin matan biyu". A 1992, malamin tarihin rayuwar Blanse Wiesen Cook, Roosevelt ya ba da hujjar cewa, dangantakar ta gaskiya ce, ta jawo hankalin} asa. Wata takarda ta 2011 da Russell Baker ya sake yin bitar wasu bayanai biyu na tarihin rayuwar Roosevelt a cikin New York Review of Littattafai ( Franklin da Eleanor: Wani Babban Aure, wanda Hazel Rowley, da Eleanor Roosevelt: Uwargidan Shugaban forman Canji, na Maurine H. Beasley) ta ce, "Wannan Haɗin Hickok ya kasance mai son rai yanzu da alama ya wuce gardama idan aka duba abin da aka sani game da haruffan da suka yi musayar. "

Dangantakar Roosevelt da Miller ta faru ne a daidai lokacin da mijinta yake da wata jita-jita ta dangantaka da sakataren sa, Marguerite "Missy" LeHand. Smith ya rubuta, "da mamaki, duka ER da Franklin sun yarda, sun karɓa, kuma sun ƙarfafa shirin ... Eleanor da Franklin mutane ne masu ƙaunar juna waɗanda ke kulawa da farin ciki da juna amma sun gaza iyawarsu don samar da abin." [70] Roosevelt da Miller ta dangantaka aka ce sun ci gaba har sai ta mutuwa a 1962. Suna zaton sun corresponded kullum, amma duk da haruffa da aka rasa. A cewar jita-jitar, an sayi haruffan kuma ba a san su ba, ko kuma an kulle ta yayin da ta mutu. [71]

Roosevelt ya kasance abokiyar aiki ta Carrie Chapman Catt tsawon lokaci kuma ya ba ta kyautar Chi Omega a Fadar White House a 1941.

Eleanor Roosevelt a bayyane ya nuna rashin amincewa ga Yahudawa masu arziki a cikin shekarar 1918, inda suka gaya wa surukarta cewa “partyan yahudawa [ya kasance] abin tsoro. . . . Ba na taba son jin kudi, kayan ado ko sabulu da aka sake ambata. " . Lokacin da ta zama ma'aikaci na makarantar Todhunter a New York City, an yarda da adadin yahudawa. Yawancin ɗaliban sun kasance Furotesta a cikin manya, sannan Roosevelt ya ce ruhun makarantar "zai bambanta idan da yawan yaran yahudawa." Ta ce matsalar ba wai kawai yawa ce ba amma inganci, tunda yahudawa “sun bambanta da kanmu” kuma har yanzu ba su isa ba. Kishiyarta ba ta ragu ba, musamman yadda abokantakarta da Bernard Baruch ke ƙaruwa. Bayan Yaƙin Duniya na II sai ta zama zakara a fagen Isra'ila, wanda ta yi alfahari da ita saboda ƙwarin gwiwarta ga ƙimomin New Deal. [5] [6]

Bayan farawa ta rashin lafiya Franklin a cikin 1921, Roosevelt ta fara kasancewa a matsayin miji na gajiyayyu mara miji, ta bayyanar da jama'a a madadinsa, wanda Louis Howe ke koyar dashi a hankali. [80] Ta kuma fara aiki tare da Kungiyar Kasuwancin Mata (WTUL), ta tara kuɗi don tallafawa ƙungiyar ƙungiyar: awanni 48 na aiki, mafi ƙarancin albashi, da kuma soke ƙwadago yara . A cikin 1920s, Roosevelt ya zama mai tasiri sosai a matsayin jagora a Jam'iyyar Democratic State New York yayin da Franklin tayi amfani da abokan huldar ta tsakanin matan Demokiradiya don karfafa matsayinsa tare da su, tare da samun babban burinsu na ciyar da jihar gaba. [80] A shekarar 1924, ta yi kamfen din Democrat Alfred E. Smith a cikin nasarar da ya samu na sake zabensa a matsayin gwamnan jihar New York kan dan takarar Republican da dan uwanta Theodore Roosevelt Jr. [47] Franklin sun yi magana game da "tir da kai" Theodore rikodin "a matsayin Mataimakin Sakatare Navy a lokacin cin zarafin Teapot Dome, kuma a cikin sa, Theodore ya ce game da shi," Yana da wata mummunar cuta! Ba ya suturar da sunan danginmu, "wanda ya fusata ta. Ta kare Theodore kan hanyar kamfen din jihar New York a cikin wata motar da ta dace da papier-mâché bonnet wacce aka yi kama da katon teapot wanda aka yi don fitar da tururi mai sauki (don tunawa da masu jefa kuri'a game da tunanin Theodore, amma daga baya ya rikide, haɗin kan abin kunya), kuma ya yi magana da jawabinta da na nata, suna kiran shi ba ya gaza. Daga baya za ta murkushe wadannan hanyoyin, ta yarda cewa suna kasa da mutuncin ta amma tana cewa "Jam'iyyar Demokradiyya ce ta lalata su". Theodore ya ci da kuri'u 105,000, kuma bai taba yafe mata ba. A shekarar 1928, Roosevelt ya inganta dan takarar Smith a takarar shugaban kasa da kuma nadin Franklin a matsayin dan takarar jam'iyyar Democrat na gwamnan New York, wanda zai gaje shi. Kodayake Smith bai yi takarar shugabancin kasa ba, amma Franklin ya ci nasara kuma Roosevelts ya koma cikin gidan gwamna a Albany, New York. [82] A lokacin mulkin Franklin a matsayin gwamna, Roosevelt ya yi balaguro a cikin jihar don yin jawabai da kuma duba cibiyoyin jihar a madadinsa, yana ba da labarin abin da ta gano a ƙarshen tafiya. [83]

A shekarar 1927, ta hada kai da abokanta Marion Dickerman da Nancy Cook wajen siyan makarantar ' Todhunter for Girls', makarantar da ta kammala, wanda kuma ya bayar da kwasa-kwasan karatun kwaleji, a birnin New York. A cikin makarantar, Roosevelt ya koyar da manyan darussan a cikin wallafe-wallafen Amurka da tarihin, yana ƙarfafa tunani mai zaman kansa, abubuwan da ke faruwa a yanzu, da kuma aiki tare da zamantakewa. Ta ci gaba da koyar da karatun kwana uku a mako yayin da FDR ke aiki a matsayin gwamna, amma an tilasta ta barin koyarwa bayan zabensa na shugaban kasa. [85]

Roosevelt making an appeal for the Red Cross, May 22, 1940

Roosevelt became First Lady of the United States when Franklin was inaugurated on March 4, 1933. Having known all of the twentieth century's previous First Ladies, she was seriously depressed at having to assume the role, which had traditionally been restricted to domesticity and hostessing.Template:Sfn Her immediate predecessor, Lou Henry Hoover, had ended her feminist activism on becoming First Lady, stating her intention to be only a "backdrop for Bertie."Template:Sfn Eleanor's distress at these precedents was severe enough that Hickok subtitled her biography of Roosevelt "Reluctant First Lady".Template:Sfn

In the first year of her husband's administration, Roosevelt was determined to match his presidential salary, and she earned $75,000 from her lectures and writing, most of which she gave to charity.Template:Sfn By 1941, she was receiving lecture fees of $1,000,Template:Sfn and was made an honorary member of Phi Beta Kappa at one of her lectures to celebrate her achievements.

Roosevelt maintained a heavy travel schedule in her twelve years in the White House, frequently making personal appearances at labor meetings to assure Depression-era workers that the White House was mindful of their plight. In one famous cartoon of the time from The New Yorker magazine (June 3, 1933), satirizing a visit she had made to a mine, an astonished coal miner, peering down a dark tunnel, says to a co-worker, "For gosh sakes, here comes Mrs. Roosevelt!"

ManazartaGyara

  1. The New York Times, obituary, October 28, 1990.
  2. Glines, C.V. "'Lady Lindy': The Remarkable Life of Amelia Earhart." Aviation History, July 1997. p. 47.
  3. Doris Faber, The Life of Lorena Hickok: E.R.'s Friend, New York: William Morrow, 1980, p. 111
  4. 4.0 4.1 Lillian Faderman Odd Girls and Twilight Lovers: A History of Lesbian Life in Twentieth-Century America, Penguin Books Ltd, 1991, p. 99
  5. Michelle Mart, "Eleanor Roosevelt, Liberalism, and Israel." Shofar (2006) 24#3: 58-89 Online.
  6. Monty N. Penkower, "Eleanor Roosevelt and the Plight of World Jewry" Jewish Social Studies (1987) 49#2:pp. 125-136 online