Mutuwa wani alamari ne na dindindin, wanda ba'a iya maido shi baya a lokacin da rayuwa ta tsaya (ƙare) ga duk wata halitta wadanda ke rayuwa. Ana amfani da Kalmar mutuwar kwakwalwa a matsayin ma'anar mutuwa a hukunce. Gawar mamaci kan fara rubewa jim kadan bayan mutuwa.[1] Mutuwa abu ne da babu makawa, tsari ne na rayuwar duniya wanda daga qarshe yake faruwa ga dukkan wani abu mai rai.[2] 

Ana amfani da kwanyar mutum ta duniya gabaɗaya a matsayin alamar mutuwa.
Mutum- mutumin Mutuwa, wanda aka siffanta shi da kwarangwal na mutane wanda ke sanye da shroud yana ɗauke da mayaudara, daga Cathedral of Trier a Trier, Jamus
Mutuwa tana jiran furanninsa, a Kuoleman Puutarha, Hugo Simberg (1906)

Mutuwa ta jibanci duk wani abu mai rai, gaba ɗaya tun daga ƙwayoyin halitta, da sassan jiki, raunin kwayoyin halitta. Wani abu da ba'a ɗauka a matsayin abu mai rai ba, kamar ƙwayar cuta, ana iya lalata ta amma ba a ce ta mutu ba.

Ya zuwa farkon karni na 21, sama da mutane 150,000 ke mutuwa a kowace rana a duniya.

Yawancin al'adu da addinai suna da fahimtar rayuwa bayan mutuwa, kuma suna riƙe da ra'ayin cewa akwai hukunci da lada don kyawawan ayyuka ko hukuncin zunubi don munana.

Fahimtar silaGyara

 
Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya ta kiyasta yawan mace-mace a cikin mutum miliyan daya a shekarar 2012 

Matsalolin ma'anaGyara

 
Furewa, kwanyar kai da hourglass suna tsaye don rayuwa, mutuwa da lokaci a cikin wannan zane na ƙarni na 17 da Philippe de Champaigne ya yi
 
Faransanci - karnin hauren giwa na ƙarni na 16/17, Monk da Mutuwa, yana mai tunatar da mace-mace da tabbacin mutuwa ( Walters Art Museum )

Fahimtar silar mutuwa mabuɗin fahimtar ɗan adam ne game da abin da ya faru kafin ya mutu. Akwai hanyoyin kimiyya da daban daban na gano sanadin mutuwa.[3] Bugu da kari, bullowar magungunan tsawaita rayuwa da ƙa'idodi gano dalilan mutuwa daban daban daga mahangar likitanci da shari'a, sun sanya wahala wajen ƙirƙirar ma'anonin silar mutuwa guda ɗaya.

Daya daga cikin kalubalen bayyana ma'anar mutuwa shine rarrabe ma'anarta da rayuwa. A wasu lokutan, mutuwa kamar tana nufin lokacin da rayuwa ta ƙare. Tabbatar da lokacin da mutuwa ta faru na da wuya, saboda daina ayyukan rayuwa galibi ba abu ɗaya bane a tsarin sassan jiki. Sabili da haka, irin wannan ƙuduri, yana buƙatar zana ainihin iyakokin fahimta tsakanin rayuwa da mutuwa. Wannan yana da wahala, saboda kasancewar akwai yar yarjejeniya kan yadda za'a ayyana rayuwa

Sannan ana iya nuna ma’nar mutuwa ta hanyar ayyana rayuwa dangane da hankali/hayyaci. Lokacin da hankali ko hayyaci ya gushe, za a iya cewa an mutu. Daya daga cikin kuskuren wannan ma'anar shine cewa akwai halittu da yawa waɗanda suke raye amma mai yiwuwa hankalinsu ya gushe (misali, halittu masu kwayoyin halitta kwara ɗaya tak). Wata matsalar ita ce ta bayyana ainihin ma'anar hankali wanda ke da ma'anoni daban-daban da masana kimiyyar zamani, masana halayyar dan adam da masana falsafa suka bayar. Bugu da ƙari, da yawa addini hadisai, ciki har da Ibrahim da kuma Dharmic hadisai, rike cewa mutuwa ba (ko iya ba) kunsa karshen sani. A wasu al'adu, mutuwa ta fi tsari sau ɗaya. Yana nuna jinkirin sauyawa daga yanayin ruhaniya zuwa wani.[4]

Sauran ma'anoni dangane da mutuwa suna mai da hankali ne akan halin daina wani abu ko karshen wani abu.   Musamman, mutuwa tana faruwa yayin da rayayyen abu ya gamu da dakatarwar kowane aiki. Kamar yadda ya shafi rayuwar mutum, mutuwa abu ce da ba za a iya juyawa ba inda wani ya rasa kasancewar su mutum.

A tarihance, yunƙurin ayyana ainihin lokacin da ɗan adam ya mutu ba su da wata ma'ana ko kuma lokaci. An bayyana mutuwa sau ɗaya azaman dakatar da bugun zuciya ( kamun zuciya ) da numfashi, amma ci gaban CPR da saurin ruɓewa sun sanya wannan ma'anar ba ta isa ba saboda ana iya sake numfashi da bugun zuciya a wasu lokuta. Wannan nau'in mutuwa inda yaduwar jini da kamawar numfashi an san shi da ma'anar zagayawa na mutuwa (DCDD). Magoya bayan DCDD sun yi amannar cewa wannan ma'anar tana da ma'ana saboda mutumin da ke da asarar dindindin na aikin jini da na numfashi ya kamata a ɗauka cewa ya mutu. Masu sukar wannan ma'anar sun bayyana cewa yayin dakatar da waɗannan ayyukan na iya zama na dindindin, ba yana nufin halin ba zai yiwu ba, domin idan aka yi amfani da CPR, ana iya farfaɗo da mutumin. Don haka, hujjojin don da kuma adawa da DCDD sun tafka har zuwa batun ma'anar ainihin kalmomin "madawwami" da "ba za a iya sauyawa ba," wanda ya ƙara rikitar da ƙalubalen ayyana mutuwa. Bugu da ƙari, abubuwan da suke da alaƙa da mutuwa a da can baya daina kashe rayuka a kowane yanayi; ba tare da zuciya ko huhu mai aiki ba, rayuwa wani lokaci ana iya dorewa tare da haɗin na'urorin tallafi na rayuwa, dashen sassan jiki da kuma abubuwan bugun zuciya na wucin gadi.[5]

A yau, inda ake buƙatar ma'anar lokacin mutuwa, likitoci da masu binciken gawa yawanci suna komawa zuwa "mutuwar kwakwalwa" ko "mutuwar ƙirar halitta" don ayyana mutum cewa ya mutu; mutane ana daukar su matattu lokacin da aikin lantarki a kwakwalwar su ya daina. An ɗauka cewa ƙarshen aikin lantarki yana nuna ƙarshen sani . Dakatar da hankali dole ne ya kasance na dindindin, kuma ba mai jinkiri ba, kamar yadda yake faruwa yayin wasu matakan bacci, kuma musamman coma . Game da bacci, EEGs na iya faɗan bambanci

Jinsin na "mutuwar kwakwalwa" wasu masana suna ganin matsala ce. Misali, Dr. Franklin Miller, babban malamin jami'a a Sashin Bioethics, Cibiyoyin Kiwon Lafiya na Kasa, ya lura cewa: "A ƙarshen shekarun 1990 .. ƙididdigar mutuwar kwakwalwa da mutuwar ɗan adam ya gamu da ƙalubalantar masana, bisa akan hujjoji game da tsarin aikin nazarin halittu wanda marasa lafiya suka nuna daidai suna da ciwon wannan yanayin waɗanda aka kiyaye su akan iska na injina na wasu lokuta. Wadannan marassa lafiyar sun kiyaye ikon ci gaba da zagayawa da numfashi, sarrafa zafin jiki, fitowar almubazzaranci, warkar da raunuka, yakar cutuka kuma, mafi yawan gaske, yiwa 'yan tayi ciki (dangane da mata masu "ƙwaƙwalwar da ta mutu").[6]

Yayinda "mutuwar kwakwalwa" wasu malamai ke kallonta a matsayin matsala, tabbas akwai masu goyon bayanta wadanda suka yi imani da cewa wannan ma'anar mutuwa ita ce mafi dacewa ga bambance rayuwa da mutuwa. Dalilin bayan goyan baya ga wannan ma'anar shine mutuwar kwakwalwa tana da wasu ƙa'idodi waɗanda za a dogara da su kuma za'a iya sake fitarwa. Hakanan, kwakwalwa tana da mahimmanci wajen tantance asalinmu ko kuma mu mutane ne. Ya kamata a rarrabe cewa "mutuwar kwakwalwa" ba za a iya daidaita ta da wanda ke cikin yanayin ciyayi ko suma ba, a cikin cewa yanayin da ya gabata ya bayyana yanayin da yafi karfin warkewa.[7]

Waɗannan mutane suna riƙe da cewa neo-cortex na ƙwaƙwalwa kawai ke da muhimmanci don sanin wani lokacin suna jayayya cewa aikin lantarki ne kawai ya kamata a yi la’akari da shi yayin bayyana mutuwa. Daga qarshe zai yuwu cewa ma'aunin mutuwa zai zama dawwamamme kuma ba za'a iya sakewarsa aikin aiki na fahimi ba, kamar yadda aka nuna mutuwar mutuwar kwakwalwar . Duk wani fata na dawo da tunani da halin mutum ya tafi kenan idan aka bashi fasahar yanzu ta zamani da kuma hangowa. A halin yanzu, a mafi yawan wurare ma'anan ma'anar mutu'a - daina dakatar da aikin lantarki a cikin kwakwalwa baki daya, sabanin kawai a cikin neo-cortex - an karɓe shi (alal misali Dokar Tabbataccen Yanayin Mutuwa a Amurka). A cikin 2005, shari'ar Terri Schiavo ta kawo batun mutuwar ƙwaƙwalwa da wadatar ɗan adam a gaban siyasar Amurka .

Ko da ta hanyar ma'aunin kwakwalwa duka, ƙaddarar mutuwar kwakwalwa na iya zama mai rikitarwa. EEGs na iya gano ɓataccen motsi na lantarki, yayin da wasu kwayoyi, hypoglycemia, hypoxia, ko hypothermia na iya dannewa ko ma dakatar da aikin kwakwalwa na ɗan lokaci. Saboda wannan ne asibitoci suna da ladabi don ƙayyade mutuwar ƙwaƙwalwar da ke tattare da EEGs a cikin ratayoyi da yawa a cikin ƙayyadaddun yanayi.

A da, ɗaukar wannan ma'anar cikakkiyar ƙwaƙwalwar ita ce ƙarshen Kwamitin Shugaban forasa don Nazarin Matsalolin icalabi'a a Magunguna da Bincike na Bioabi'a da Beabi'a a 1980. Sun yanke shawarar cewa wannan hanyar don bayyana mutuwa ta wadatar wajen isa ga ma'anar bai ɗaya a ƙasar. An gabatar da dalilai masu yawa don tallafawa wannan ma'anar da suka haɗa da: daidaitattun ƙa'idodin shari'a don kafa mutuwa; amfani da albarkatun cikin iyali don tallafawa rayuwar wucin gadi; da kafa doka don daidaita mutuwar kwakwalwalokacin da mutuwa don ci gaba da ba da gudummawar sassan jiki.

Ba’a ga batun tallafawa ko jayayya game da mutuwar kwakwalwa, akwai wata matsala ta daban a cikin wannan ma'anar rarrabuwa: bambancin aikace-aikacenta a aikin likita. A cikin 1995, Cibiyar Nazarin Ilimin Neurology ta Amurka (AAN), ta kafa wasu sharuɗɗa waɗanda suka zama ƙa'idar likita don bincikar mutuwar ƙwayoyin cuta. A wancan lokacin, dole ne a gamsar da sifofi na asibiti guda uku domin a tantance "ƙarewar da ba za a iya sakewa ba" na jimlar ƙwaƙwalwa da suka hada da: coma tare da bayyananniyar ilimin halayyar ɗan adam, dakatar da numfashi, da kuma rashin karfin kwakwalwa. Wannan sabunta ka'idojin an sake sabunta shi kwanan nan a cikin 2010, amma har yanzu akwai bambancin ra'ayi tsakanin asibitoci da fannoni na likita.[8]

Matsalar ayyana mutuwa yana da mahimmanci musamman kamar yadda ya shafi dokar mai bayarwa ta mutu, wanda za'a iya fahimtarsa ɗayan fassarorin masu zuwa ne na ƙa'idar: dole ne a sami sanarwar mutuwar mutum a hukumance kafin fara sayan ɓangarori ko kuma siyan kayan gaɓa ba zai iya haifar da mutuwar mai bayarwa ba. Babban rikice-rikice ya kewaye ma'anar mutuwa da mutuwar mai bayarwa. Masu fafutukar kafa dokar sun yi imanin cewa dokar ta halatta wajen kare masu ba da gudummawa yayin da kuma suke adawa da duk wata halayya ko doka da ke hana sashin kayan aiki. Masu sukar lamiri, a daya bangaren, sun yi amannar cewa dokar ba ta kula da bukatun masu ba da gudummawa kuma dokar ba ta inganta bayar da sassan jiki yadda ya kamata.[9]

Alamomin mutuwaGyara

Alamomin mutuwa ko alamu masu karfi da ke nuna cewa dabba mai jini-jini ba ta da rai lokacin, sun hada da:

  • Kama numfashi (babu numfashi )
  • Kama Cardiac (ba bugun zuciya )
  • Mutuwar kwakwalwa (babu aikin jijiyoyi)

Matakan da zasu biyo bayan mutuwa sun hada da:

  • Pallor mortis, paleness wanda ke faruwa a cikin mintuna 15-120 bayan an mutu
  • Algor mortis, raguwar yanayin zafin jiki bayan mutuwa. Wannan gabaɗaya kwata-kwata raguwa har sai yayi daidai da yanayin zafin yanayi
  • Rigor mortis, gabobin gawar sun zama masu tsauri (Latin rigor ) kuma suna da wahalar motsi ko sarrafa su
  • Livor mortis, saitin jini a cikin ƙananan (dogaro) ɓangaren jiki
  • Dogaro, alamun farko na ruɓewa
  • Bazuwar, raguwa cikin siffofin abu mafi sauki, tare da karfi, wari mara dadi.
  • Skeletonization, ƙarshen bazuwar, inda duk kayan laushi suka bazu, suka bar kwarangwal kawai.
  • Kasuwa, adana halittar kasusuwan kasusuwan da aka samu tsawon lokaci

DokaGyara

Mutuwar mutum tana da sakamako na shari'a wanda zai iya bambanta dangane da yanayim tsarin mulki daban-daban. Ana bayar da takardar shaidar mutuwa a yawancin yankuna, ko dai daga likita ko kuma ta ofishin gudanarwa bayan gabatar da sanarwar mutuwar likita.

Ba a Tantanceshi da kyau baGyara

 
Zanen Antoine Wiertz na wani mutum da aka binne da rai

Akwai nassoshi danagane da tabbatar da mutuwan mutane ana ayyana matattu da likitoci sa'an nan "dawo rayuwa", wani lokacin kwanaki baya a nasu akwatin gawa, ko a lokacin da hanyoyin ne game da fara. Tun daga tsakiyar karni na 18 zuwa gaba, an sami wani tashin hankali game da tsoron jama'a na kuskuren binne su da rai, da kuma muhawara da yawa game da rashin tabbas na alamun mutuwa. An gabatar da shawarwari daban-daban don gwada alamun rai kafin binnewa, tun daga zuba ruwan tsami da barkono a cikin bakin gawar zuwa sanya jan zafin masu tsaka a ƙafa ko cikin dubura . Da yake rubutu a 1895, likita JC Ouseley ya yi iƙirarin cewa kusan mutane 2,700 ne ake binnewa ba tare da lokaci ba a kowace shekara a Ingila da Wales, duk da cewa wasu sun kiyasta adadin ya kusan 800.

Dangane dai yanayin girgizar wutar lantarki, sake farfado da zuciya (CPR) na awa ɗaya ko fiye zai iya ba da damar jijiyoyi su dimauce, su bar wanda ya mutu da alama ya rayu. Mutanen da aka samu a sume a ƙarƙashin ruwan sanyi suna iya rayuwa idan fuskokinsu suna ci gaba da yin sanyi har sai sun isa ɗakin gaggawa . Wannan "amsar ruwa", wanda aikin motsa jiki da bukatun oxygen suke kadan, wani abu ne da mutane suke rabawa tare da dabbobi masu suna wanda ake kira mahaifa mai nutsuwa.[10]

Yayinda fasahohin likitanci ke gaba, ra'ayoyi game da lokacin da mutuwa ta auku na iya zama dole a sake yin la'akari da ikon dawo da mutum zuwa ga rayuwa bayan tsawon lokaci na bayyane na mutuwa (kamar yadda ya faru lokacin da CPR da defibrillation suka nuna cewa dakatar da bugun zuciya bai isa ba kamar Mai yanke hukunci game da mutuwa). Rashin aikin kwakwalwar lantarki bazai isa ya dauki wani ya mutu a kimiyance ba. Sabili da haka, an ba da shawarar batun mutuwar-bayani game da ilimin a matsayin mafi kyawun hanyar bayyana lokacin da mutuwar gaskiya ta faru, kodayake manufar ba ta da wasu aikace-aikace kaɗan a wajen fannin kyanikiya.[11]

There have been some scientific attempts to bring dead organisms back to life, but with limited success. In science fiction scenarios where such technology is readily available, real death is distinguished from reversible death.

Dalilan MutuwaGyara

Babban abunda yafi kashe mutane a kasashen waje sune cututtuka da ke yaduwa . a Kasashen dake tasowa kuwa cututtkan zucia da Stroke da cancer da cttuka da kiba da sekaru ke kawowa sunfi kashen mutane ..Avunda afi Kase mutame a kasashen da suka ci gaba shine tsfa, A kowane mutum 150,000 da suka mutu a kullum a iya, kusan kasi biyu dda raibi suna mutuwa ne saboda tsufas. In industrialized nations, the proportion is much higher, approaching 90%.[12] With improved medical capability, dying has become a condition to be managed. Home deaths, once commonplace, are now rare in the developed world.

 
American children smoking in 1910. Tobacco smoking caused an estimated 100 million deaths in the 20th century.

A cikin kasashe masu tasowa, yanayin rashin tsafta da rashin damar amfani da fasahar likitanci ta zamani ya sanya mutuwa daga cututtuka masu yaduwa ya zama ruwan dare fiye da kasashen da suka ci gaba . Oneaya daga cikin irin wannan cutar ita ce tarin fuka, cuta ce ta kwayan cuta wacce ta kashe mutane 1.8M a shekarar 2015. Zazzabin cizon sauro na haifar da kusan mutane 400-900M na zazzaɓi da mutuwar 1-3M a kowace shekara. Adadin mutanen da suka mutu kanjamau a Afirka na iya kaiwa 90-100M zuwa 2025.

Acewar Jean Ziegler (United Nations Special Reporter on the Right to Food, 2000 – Mar 2008), mutuwa sabofa rasinQ kuZari a kwase kashi 58% a shekara ta 2006 ya kuma kara da cewa acikin mutum miliyan 62 da suke mutuwa daga kowanne irin fye da milyan36 suna mtuwa ne daa tyunwa da kuma cutukato malnutrition accounted for 58% of the total mortality rate in 2006. Ziegler says worldwide approximately 62M people died from all causes and of those deaths more than 36M died of hunger or diseases due to deficiencies in micronutrients.[12]

Shan taba sigari ya kashe mutum 100 mutane miliyan a duniya a karni na 20 kuma zasu iya kashe 1 biliyan biliyan a duniya a cikin karni na 21, wani rahoton Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya ya yi gargadin.

Mafi yawancin kasasen da suka cigaba rayuwa na qara tsawo a idan akwai abinci e kyau da kwanciyar hankali da motsia .

 
Le Suicidé by Édouard Manet depicts a man who has recently committed suicide via a firearm

Selye yace wata sa'in ba'a sanin takamaiman dalilin mtuwa He demonstrated that stress decreases adaptability of an organism and proposed to describe the adaptability as a special resource, adaptation energy. The animal dies when this resource is exhausted. Selye assumed that the adaptability is a finite supply, presented at birth. Later on,n. In recent works, adaptation energy is considered as an internal coordinate on the "dominant path" in the model of adaptation. It is demonstrated that oscillations of well-being appear when the reserve of adaptability is almost exhausted.akia

In 2012, kashe-kai dakai ya overtoo ya quce hatsarin mota a sanadiyyar mutuwar utane a Amurka, se shan guba, faduwa, da kisan kai. Causes of death are different in different parts of the world. In high-income and middle income countries nearly half up to more than two thirds of all people live beyond the age of 70 and predominantly die of chronic diseases. In low-income countries, where less than one in five of all people reach the age of 70, and more than a third of all deaths are among children under 15, people.[13] prdiseases.

Gwajin gawaGyara

 
An nuna hoton autopsy a cikin Darasin Anatomy na Dokta Nicolaes Tulp, na Rembrandt

Ana autopsy wato gwajin gawa, kuma an sanshi a matsayin gwajen jikin mamaci, shi ne wani likita hanya da ta ƙunshi cikakken jarrabawa na wani mutum gawar domin gano dalilin da iri na mutum mutuwa da kuma kimanta wani cuta ko rauni da cewa zai iya zama ba. Yawancin lokaci ana yin sa ne daga ƙwararren likitan likita wanda ake kira masanin ilimin cututtuka .

Ana yin autopsies ko don doka ko sanin dalilai na lafiya. Ana gudanar da bincike kan gawa yayin da musabbabin mutuwar na iya zama batun laifi, yayin da ake gudanar da bincike na asibiti ko kuma na ilimi don gano dalilin mutuwar kuma ana amfani da shi a cikin yanayin mutuwar da ba a sani ba ko rashin tabbas, ko don dalilai na bincike. Za'a iya kara rarraba autopsies a cikin yanayin inda gwajin waje ya wadatar, da kuma waɗanda aka rarraba jiki kuma ana yin gwajin ciki. Ana iya buƙatar izini daga dangi na kusa don yin bincike na ciki a wasu yanayi. Da zarar an kammala tantancewar cikin jiki gabaɗaya za a sake sake jiki ta hanyar dinke shi tare. Autopsy yana da mahimmanci a cikin yanayin likita kuma ƙila ya ba da haske kan kurakurai kuma ya taimaka inganta ayyukan.[14]

Necropsy, wanda ba koyaushe ake daukar ma'anan kalmar magani ba, kuma kalma ce da aka yi amfani dashi a baya don bayyana gwajin gawa bayan mutuwa. A zamanin yau, ana danganta wannan kalmar da gawawwakin dabbobi.[15][15]

Yawan tsufaGyara

 
Matattu Camelthorn itacen cikin Sossusvlei

Shekaru na tsufa na nufin yanayi lokacin da mutum zai iya tsira daga dukkan masifu, amma daga ƙarshe ya mutu saboda abubuwan da suka shafi tsufa. Kwayoyin dabbobi da na tsire-tsire suna haihuwa kuma suna aiki a duk tsawon lokacin kasancewar yanayin, amma tsarin tsufa yana samu ne daga lalacewar ayyukan salula da lalata ayyukan yau da kullun. Kwarewar kwayoyin halitta don saurin lalacewa da macewar rayuwa yana nufin cewa a dabi'ance ana yankewa kwayoyin rai hukuncin dorewa da asarar lokaci na karfin rayuwa, koda kuwa duk da ci gaba da tasirin rayuwa da iya aiki. Misali a kasar Burtaniya, kashi tara cikin goma na yawan mace-macen da ake samu a kowace rana ya danganta da tsufa, yayin da a fadin duniya yake dauke da kashi biyu bisa uku na mutuwar mutane 150,000 da ke faruwa a kullum (Hayflick & Moody, 2003) .

Mafi yawan dabbobin da suka tsira daga haɗarin waje don gudanar da rayuwarsu suna mutuwa savboda tsufa, wanda aka sani da ilimin rayuwa kamar " tsufa " Wasu kwayoyin halitta suna fuskantar karancin tsufa, harma suna nuna rashin rayuwa na rayuwa . Wadannan sun hada da jellyfish Turritopsis dohrnii, da hydra, da kuma mai tsarawa . Abubuwan da ba na al'ada ba na mutuwa sun haɗa da kashe kansa da farauta . Daga dukkan dalilai, kusan mutane 150,000 ke mutuwa a duniya kowace rana. Daga cikin wadannan, kashi biyu bisa uku suna mutuwa kai tsaye ko a fakaice saboda tsufa, amma a kasashe masu ci gaban masana'antu - kamar Amurka, Ingila da Jamus - adadin ya kusan zuwa 90% (watau kusan tara cikin goma na dukkan mace-mace suna da dangantaka da tsufa).[16]

Yanzu ana ganin mutuw kamar tsari, fiye da abin da ya faru: yanayin da a da ake ɗauka mai alamun mutuwa a yanzu ana iya canza shi. Inda a yayin aiwatar da layin rarrabawa tsakanin rayuwa da mutuwa ya dogara da abubuwan da suka wuce gaban kasancewar ko rashi alamun mahimmanci . Gabaɗaya, mutuwar asibiti ba lallai ba ce kuma ba ta isa ga yanke hukuncin mutuwar doka ba . Mai haƙuri da zuciya mai aiki da huhu wanda aka ƙaddara ya mutu ya mutu ana iya bayyana shi a mace ba tare da mutuwa ba. Kamar yadda ilimin kimiyya da magani ke ci gaba, kirkirar ma'anonin likitanci na mutuwa ya zama da wahala.

Ajiyar GawaGyara

 
Technicians prepare a body for cryopreservation in 1985.

Cryonics (daga Greek κρύος 'kryos-' meaning 'icy cold') anayi na sanyi da ake ajye gawa don ta dade ba tare da ta lalace ba don bincike.[17]

Ajiyar gawar e mutane ko dabbobi yana da bambamcin da na zamani..The stated rationale for cryonics is that people who .

Wasu daga cikin rubce rubucen kimiyya sun hoyi bayan gwajin gawas. Masana lafa su muna cewa gwaijin gawa a matsayiin kwarewa.

Maido da sheshhekaGyara

"Daya daga cikin sababbin bincike sun nuna cewa idan zciya ta kai tsawon minti biyar ba tare da isakan oxygen ba ake mutuwa[18] saboda haka sun nuna cewa rage yawan iska na kara wanzuwar iska da ruwa da jini a jiki na karawa jiki ikon shakan iska.

Jinkirin mutuwaGyara

Jinkirin mutuwa na nufin karin tsawon rayuwa akan ainufin shekarun mutuwa or iya tsawon shekarun rayuwa musamman a mutane ta hanya jinkirta tsufa. Tsawon rayuwa na da hadi da yanayin rayuwa hatsarin da shekaru da cututtuka kamna cancer da sauransu. Za'a iya samunjikirin mutuwa ta hanyar abici mai kyau , motsa ini da udun duk wanu abu da zae iya ctarwa kamar shan taba. Akasarin tsawon rayuwa kuwa ya danganta d shekrun tsufa a owacce al'umma dangane da kwayoyin halitta. A yanzu, hanyan jinkirta mutuwa shine ta hanya tsaida ci/shan Calorie ko ta hanya rage illar tsufa ta hanya canza gurbatattun gabobi kamar jijiyoyida suransu.

A kasar Amurka kuri'u sun nuna cewa babu banbanci a tsakanin masu addini da marasa addinai, ko maza ko mata, ko talaka da mai kudi a wjen son jinkirin mutuwa, bayan haka mutanen Afrka sunfi kwa son jinkirin mutuwa.

Masu bincike sun nuna cewa jinkirin mutuwa na samuwa ta sanadiyar wasu abubuwa da ake kira "biomedical gerontologists". Sunyi kokari faimtar tsarin tsfa and cifgaban.binciken tsawaita rayuwa ta hanyan samun cikakken lapia da ingata kurucia.

WuriGyara

 
Kyösti Kallio (in the middle), the fourth President of the Republic of Finland, had a fatal heart attack a few seconds after this photograph was taken by Hugo Sundström on December 19, 1940 at Helsinki railway station in Helsinki, Finland.

Kafin 1930 mutane da yawa suna mutuwa a gidaensu ne ksa da iyalansu da kuma makwatansu da masu kiwon lapiya. A tsakiar karni na 20, rabinkutaen Amrka suna mutuwa a asibitoci ne. A farkom karnina 21 kuwa kashi 20-25% kawai kekutuwa a wani wurin dda ba wurin kiwon lafiya ba.A Canin wajen mutuwa daa gidaje zuwa wuraren kiwon lafya ake kira Invisible Death". wanda hakan ya faru a lokuta dabn.

Ra'ayoyiGyara

Mutane da yawa basu son labarin mutuwansu. Tsoron mutuwa na sana wasu su tamadi kudi ko barin wasiya kan arzikisu ko su ema taimako waje mas. Kiwaon lafiya don kada su mutu.

Mutane na da bambancin ra'yi akan mutwa

Philosopher Galen Strawson ya rubta cewa mutwa da mutane da yawa suka fi so sine mutuwar fuji'a, mara zafi ko rasa wani sashen. A wanann yanayin myum anamutuwa ba tareda ya sani kuma a tare da yaji tsoro ba

Mutane da AladuGyara

 
The regent duke Charles (later king Charles IX of Sweden) insulting the corpse of Klaus Fleming. Albert Edelfelt, 1878.
 
Dead bodies can be mummified either naturally, as this one from Guanajuato, or by intention, as those in ancient Egypt.

A zamantakewar mutane, yanayin mutuwa da sanin mutane cewa zas mutu ya dade matsayi abun damuwa a al'umma a addiace da gargajiance da hikauance. Wannan ya hada da imani akan cewa za'a tasi bayan mutuwa ko kuma baza'a tashi ba Mutuwa (secular humanism)

Zaman mutuwa bayan mamaci a rasu ya hada da koke-koke, jana'iza da kuma tunawa da mamacin. Ana sanya gawar mamaci a cikin makara o akwatin gawa se akai shi a binne a makabarta danane da al'ada. A turance anayi masa addua da Rest in Peace " wato ka huta cikin Aminci, a hausance ana cewa Allah jikan mamaci.

Mutuwa wani alamari ne daban a kowacce al'ada da mutane; al'adun. Sun bambamta tsakanin wurare a duniya. Yawanci ya hada da kulawa da harkokin£ Da iyalensa da kuma abunda ya barir [19]

Akwai shariar da kunshi kowacce irin mutuwa ta maganan muhallin da rabbon gadon abunda mamaci ya bari.

 
Gravestones in Kyoto, Japan

hukuncin kisa na daya daga Capital punishment cikin sanadin mutuwa. A shariance ana ba wanda aka yankewa kisa lokaci don ya gana da yanuwansa da kuma ubaniinsa. Ana kisan ta hanyoyi daban daban kamar hangin, allura , wutar klantarki sauransu.

Mutwa a fanin yaki da hari ya hada da jana'izan bakidaya, da tunawa da mamatan soji. Sai kuma mutuwae kunar bakin wake suna da banbancin jana'iza a alqaryu.

 
All is Vanity by Charles Allan Gilbert is an example of a memento mori, intended to represent how life and death are intertwined

kisan kai da kai har wayau sn kasance abubwa lura ttun tuni. Kuma duka suna da banbancin fahimta a sassa na duniya dabandaban, a Japan a msali, daukan rai da kai daraja ce a yaren Seppuku wanda abu kauna ne

A kasar Brazil, ana kirga mamatas sannan a rubuta ma'aji na gwamnatin Kasan .

Magana akan yadda ake daukan rai ya banbanta a wurare daban dabn, da al'adu. lking .

TunaniGyara

Akwai ra'ayoyi daban daban akan abunda ke faruwa da mutum bayan ya mutu. Imani cewa mutum na rasa tunanimsa bayan ya mutu shi ake kira da 9 eternal oblivion.

A biologiGyara

 
Tsutsotsi na duniya misali ne mai kyau na ɓarnatar da mazaunan ƙasa.

Bayan mutuwa, ragowar wata kwayar halitta zaata zama wani ɓangare ta sake zagayowar biogeochemical, a lokacin da dabba zai iya cinye ta ta mai farauta ko mai satar abubuwa . Organic abu iya sa'an nan za a kara bazu zuwa detritivores, kwayoyin wanda maimaita detritus, ya dawo da shi zuwa ga yanayi domin sake amfani a cikin abinci sarkar, inda wadannan sunadarai zai iya ƙarshe ƙarasa ana cinye kuma assimilated cikin sel wani rai gabar. Misalan abubuwan banƙyama sun haɗa da tsutsotsi na ƙasa, katako da ƙwarin dung .

kanan halitu suma sunataka rawa wajen rubewar jikin mamaci.

ZabaGyara

Ka'idar juyin halitta ta zamani tana ganin mutuwa a matsayin wani muhimmin bangare na tsarin zabin yanayi. Ana la'akari da cewa ƙwayoyin da basu dace da yanayi su ba zasu iya mutuwa kasancewar basu da produceda offspringan da suka haifa, ta haka zasu rage gudummawar da suke bayarwa ga kwayar halittar . Kwayar halittar su ta ƙarshe an haife su daga cikin jama'a, wanda ke haifar da mafi munin lalacewa kuma, mafi mahimmanci, samar da aikin mai yiwuwa, wanda ake kira ƙwarewa . Yawan saurin haihuwa yana taka muhimmiyar rawa wajan tabbatar da rayuwa mai rai: kwayar halittar da ta mutu tana saurayi amma ta bar zuriya da yawa, bisa ga ka'idojin Darwiniyanci, mafi dacewa fiye da kwayar halittar da ta dade tana barin guda daya.

BacewaGyara

 
Dodo, tsuntsu wanda ya zama sanannen abu a cikin harshen Ingilishi don karewar wani jinsi

Bacewa a nan na nufn karewar kalan -halita baki daa a doro kasa.

Cigaba a fannin tsufa da mutuwaGyara

Bimcike ciknbayanin cigaba a fannin tsufa

Halittu masu haiuwa su kadai (kaman bakteriya, protist)

Ra'ayin addinaiGyara

Addinin BuddhiGyara

A addinin Buddhist .

Mutuwa na cikin abu mafi Mahi

KiristanciGyara

Addinin HinduGyara

 
Hoton da ke nuna imanin Hindu game da sake haifuwa .

A cikin rubutun Hindu, an bayyana mutuwa na matsayin ruhin ruhu madawwami (mai hankali) yana fita daga jikin kayan ɗan lokaci na yanzu. Ruhi yana fita daga wannan jikin lokacin da jiki ba zai iya riƙe kai (rai) mai hankali ba, wanda zai iya zama saboda dalilai na tunani ko na zahiri, ko mafi daidai, rashin iya aiki da sha'awar mutum. A lokacin daukar ciki, rai yana shiga cikin sabon jiki mai jituwa bisa ragowar karma da yanayin tunanin mutum (tunanin karshe) a lokacin mutuwa.

Galibi wannan sauyin yakan sa mutum ya manta da duk wata tunanin rayuwar da ta gabata. Saboda babu abin da ya mutu da gaske kuma ciikin ɗan lokaci yana canzawa, a cikin rayuwar duniya da lahira, mutuwa kawai na nufin mantawa da abubuwan da mutum ya gabata ne (asalin abin da ya gabatu).

An bayyana wanzuwar abu mai cike da baƙin ciki wanda ya samo asali daga haihuwa, cuta, tsufa, mutuwa, hankali, yanayi, da sauransu Don cin nasarar zagayowar mutuwa da sake haihuwa kuma ya cancanci ɗayan nau'ikan 'yanci, dole ne mutum ya fara cin nasara da sha'awar abin duniya kuma ya sami kansa . Yanayin rayuwar mutum ya fi dacewa da wannan tafiya ta ruhaniya, musamman tare da taimakon sadhu (mutane masu gane kansu), sastra (littattafan ruhaniya da aka saukar), da kuma guru (masanan da suka fahimci kansu na ruhaniya), an ba duka ukun suna cikin yarjejeniya.

IslamGyara

JudaiziyyaGyara

 
Wata kyandirin yahrzeit da aka kunna don tunawa da ƙaunataccen ranar tunawa da mutuwar

Akwai imani iri-iri game da rayuwa bayan addinin Yahudanci, amma babu ɗayansu da ya saɓa da fifikon rayuwa akan mutuwa. Wannan wani bangare ne saboda mutuwa tana sanya dakatar da yuwuwar cika kowane umarni . [20]

Harsuna game da mutuwaGyara

 
Nazarin kwarangwal, c. 1510, daga Leonardo da Vinci

Kalmar mutuwa (death) ta fito ne daga Tsohon Turanci dēaþ, wanda kuma hakan ya fito ne daga Proto-Germanic * dauþuz (wanda aka sake gina shi ta hanyar nazarin yanayi ). Wannan fito ne daga tushen Proto-Indo-Turai * kuma ma'anar "tsari, aiki, yanayin mutuwa".

Tunani da alamomin mutuwa, da nau'ikan nau'ikan abincin da ake amfani da su wajen tattaunawa a tarurruka na jama'a, sun haifar da maganganu da yawa na kimiyya, shari'a, da zamantakewar da za a yarda da su ko kuma maganganu na mutuwa. Lokacin da mutum ya mutu, ana kuma cewa sun shuɗe, sun wuce, sun ƙare, ko sun tafi, a tsakanin sauran al'ummomin da aka yarda da su, takamaiman addini, lafazi, da rashi mutunci.

A matsayin sharar da aka yi wa mutumin da ya mutu, ya zama gama gari a yi amfani da sigar "yaudara", kamar yadda ake yi wa mamacin ; wani nau'in suna yana lalacewa .

Rashin rai, da mutumin da ya mutu ne sai wata gawa, cadaver, a jiki, wani sa na saura, da kuma lokacin da dukan jiki ya rotted tafi, wani kwarangwal . The sharuddan mũshe da kuma gawa kuma za a iya amfani, ko wadannan more sau da yawa connote ragowar wadanda ba mutum dabbobi. A toka barin toa bayan ani ƙonawa wani lokaci ana kira su da neologism cremains.

Kara dubawaGyara

ManazartaGyara

 

Kara NazariGyara

  • Best, Ben. "Causes of Death". BenBest.com. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
  • Marques, Susana Moreira & Sanches, Julia (Translator) (13 October 2015). Now and At the Hour of Our Death. And Other Stories. ISBN 978-1-908276-62-9.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
  • Rosenberg, David Rosenberg (17 August 2014). "How One Photographer Overcame His Fear of Death by Photographing It (Walter Schels' Life Before Death)". Slate.
  • Sachs, Jessica Snyder (2001). Corpse: Nature, Forensics, and the Struggle to Pinpoint Time of Death (270 pages). Perseus Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7382-0336-2.
  • Schels, Walter (Photographer) & Lakotta, Beate (Interviewer). "Before and After Death". LensCulture.com. Archived from the original on 11 October 2014. Retrieved 19 September 2016.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Interviews with people dying in hospices, and portraits of them before, and shortly after, death.
  • "The Odds of dying from various injuries or accidents". National Safety Council. United States. 2001.
  • U.S. Census & AntiqueBooks.net (Scanned by). "Causes of Death 1916". Archived from the original on 18 September 2004. Retrieved 19 September 2016.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link) How the medical profession categorized causes of death
  • Wald, George. "The Origin of Death". ElijahWald.com. A biologist explains life and death in different kinds of organisms, in relation to evolution.

ManazartaGyara

Magabata
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Stages of human development Magaji
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  1. "death". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House. Retrieved 27 February 2021.
  2. carbonQ1". reptools.rutgers.edu. Archived from the original on 24 March 2018. Retrieved 08 June 2021
  3. Samir Hossain Mohammad; Gilbert Peter (2010). "Concepts of Death: A key to our adjustment". Illness, Crisis and Loss. 18
  4. "Metcalf, Peter; Huntington, Richard (1991). Celebrations of Death: The Anthropology of Mortuary Ritual. New York: Cambridge Press
  5. Bernat, James L. (2018). "Conceptual Issues in DCDD Donor Death Determination". Hastings Center Report. 48 (S4): S26–S28. doi:10.1002/hast.948. ISSN 1552-146X. PMID 30584853
  6. Miller, F.G. (October 2009). "Death and organ donation: back to the future". Journal of Medical Ethics. 35 (10): 616–620. doi:10.1136/jme.2009.030627. PMID 19793942.
  7. Magnus, David C.; Wilfond, Benjamin S.; Caplan, Arthur L. (6 March 2014). "Accepting Brain Death". New England Journal of Medicine. 370 (10): 891–894. doi:10.1056/NEJMp1400930. ISSN 0028-4793. PMID 24499177
  8. Bernat, James L. (March 2013). "Controversies in defining and determining death in critical care". Nature Reviews Neurology. 9 (3): 164–173. doi:10.1038/nrneurol.2013.12. ISSN 1759-4766. PMID 23419370. S2CID 12296259.
  9. Bernat, James L. (2018). "Conceptual Issues in DCDD Donor Death Determination". Hastings Center Report. 48 (S4): S26–S28. doi:10.1002/hast.948. ISSN 1552-146X. PMID 30584853.
  10. Limmer, Dan; O'Keefe, Michael F.; Bergeron, J. David; Grant, Harvey; Murray, Bob; Dickinson, Ed (21 December 2006). Brady Emergency Care AHA(10th Updated ed.). Prentice Hall. ISBN 978-0-13-159390-9.
  11. "Blood Swapping Reanimates Dead Dogs". Fox News. 28 June 2005. Archived from the original on 14 October 2016. Retrieved 08 June 2021.
  12. 12.0 12.1 Aubrey D.N.J, de Grey (2007). "Life Span Extension Research and Public Debate: Societal Considerations" (PDF). Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology. 1 (1, Article 5). CiteSeerX 10.1.1.395.745. doi:10.2202/1941-6008.1011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 October 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2009. roughly 150,000 deaths that occur each day across the globe
  13. "The top 10 causes of death". WHO. 2012. Archived from the original on 4 November 2012. Retrieved 08 June 2021.
  14. Aubrey D.N.J, de Grey (2007). "Life Span Extension Research and Public Debate: Societal Considerations" (PDF). Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology. 1 (1, Article 5). CiteSeerX 10.1.1.395.745. doi:10.2202/1941-6008.1011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 October 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2009. roughly 150,000 deaths that occur each day across the globe
  15. 15.0 15.1 Artishevsky, Alexander (2010). Life Death Whatever. Createspace. ISBN 978-1-4495-9420
  16. Aubrey D.N.J, de Grey (2007). "Life Span Extension Research and Public Debate: Societal Considerations" (PDF). Studies in Ethics, Law, and Technology. 1 (1, Article 5). CiteSeerX 10.1.1.395.745. doi:10.2202/1941-6008.1011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 October 2016. Retrieved 20 March 2009. roughly 150,000 deaths that occur each day across the globe
  17. McKie, Robin (13 July 2002). "Cold facts about cryonics". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 December2013. Cryonics, which began in the Fifties, is the freezing – usually in liquid nitrogen – of human beings who have been legally declared dead. The aim of this process is to keep such individuals in a state of refrigerated limbo so that it may become possible in the future to resuscitate them, cure them of the condition that killed them, and then restore them to functioning life in an era when medical science has triumphed over the activities of the Banana Reaper
  18. Nuland, Sherwin B. (1993). How We Die: Reflections on Life's Final Chapter. Turtleback Books. ISBN 978-1-4176-4352-3.
  19. Mullin 1999[page needed]
  20. Soloveitchik, Joseph B. Halakhic Man. Qtd. in Israel