Fillanci, Fulatanci, Fula[2], Ankuma sanshi da Fulani[2] ko Fulah[3][4][5] Fulfulde, Pulaar, Pular, harshe ne da ake yin amfani da shi a sama da kasashe 20 na yammaci da gabashin Afrika. Akwai harsuna takwarorinsa [masu kama] sune Serer da Wolof. Al'umar Fulani ke yinsa, mafi yawanci Fulani sun fi yawa a kasashen Najeriya, Nijar, Kamaru, Senegal, Burkina faso,Mali da dai sauransu. Haka kuma da yawan wasu kabilun da ba fulatanci ne asalin harshensu ba sukan ji harshen daga baya.

Fillanci
Fulfulde — 𞤆𞤵𞤤𞤢𞤪
'Yan asalin magana
24,000,000 (2007)
Baƙaƙen boko, Arabic script (en) Fassara da Rubutun Adlam
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-1 ff
ISO 639-2 ful
ISO 639-3 ful
Glottolog fula1264[1]

Sunayen gyara sashe

  • Fulani
  • Fulɓe
  • Harsunan Najeriya Ana amfani da sunaye da yawa ga harshen, kamar yadda ake yi wa mutanen Fula . Suna kiran harshensu Pulaar ko Pular a yarukan yamma da Fulfulde a yarukan tsakiya da gabas. Fula, Fulah da Fulatanci a Turanci sun fito ne daga Manding (esp. Mandinka, amma kuma Malinke da Bamana) da Hausa, bi da bi; Peul a cikin Faransanci, kuma lokaci-lokaci ana samunsa a cikin adabi cikin Ingilishi, ya fito ne daga Wolof.

Ilimin Halitta gyara sashe

Fula ya dogara ne akan tushen verbonominal, daga inda aka samo kalmomin fi'ili, suna, da masu gyarawa. Yana amfani da suffixes (wani lokaci ba daidai ba ana kiransa infixes, kamar yadda suka zo tsakanin tushen da ƙarshen inflectional) don canza ma'ana. Waɗannan suffixes galibi suna yin amfani da dalilai iri ɗaya a cikin Fula waɗanda prepositions ke yi a cikin Ingilishi

rabe raben na suna gyara sashe

Harshen Fulfulde ko Fulfulde yana da ƙaƙƙarfan tsarin ajin suna, tare da azuzuwan suna 24 zuwa 26 na gama gari a cikin yarukan Fulfulde. [6] Azuzuka na azuzuwan a cikin Fula ba su da rarrabuwa tare da wasu azuzuwan suna da halayen membobin, wasu kuma suna nuna alamar wani yanki na membobin aji. [7] Misali, azuzuwan na stringy, dogayen abubuwa, wani kuma na manyan abubuwa, wani na ruwaye, ajin suna don kakkarfar abubuwa, masu tsauri, wani na halayen mutum ko na dan Adam da sauransu. Jinsi ba shi da wata rawa a tsarin ajin suna na Fula. kuma ana yin alamar jinsi da sifofi maimakon alamomin aji. [8] Azuzuwan suna ana yiwa alamar suffixes akan sunaye. Waɗannan suffixes iri ɗaya ne da sunan ajin, kodayake galibi ana yin su ne da tsarin tsarin sauti, galibin faɗuwar baƙar magana ta farko. [9]

Teburin da ke ƙasa yana kwatanta sunan ajin, ƙayyadaddun ƙayyadaddun ma'anar da ke da alaƙa da membobin ajin, da misalin suna tare da alamar aji. Za'a iya siffanta azuzuwan 1 da 2 azaman azuzuwan sirri, azuzuwan 3-6 azaman azuzuwan raguwa, azuzuwan 7-8 azaman azuzuwan haɓakawa, da kuma azuzuwan 9-25 azaman azuzuwan tsaka tsaki. An kafa ta ne a bisa bayanin Kaceccereere Fulfulde da McIntosh ya yi a 1984, wanda marubucin ya bayyana da cewa “matukar iri ɗaya ne” kamar yadda David Arnott ya yi 1970 na bayanin suna na yaren Gombe na Fula. Don haka, wasu misalai daga Arnott suma sun sanar da wannan tebur. [10]

Manazarta gyara sashe

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Fillanci". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Laurie Bauer, 2007, The Linguistics Student’s Handbook, Edinburgh
  3. "Fulah". Ethnologue (19 ed.). 2016.
  4. "Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: ful". ISO 639-2 Registration Authority - Library of Congress. Retrieved 2017-07-04. Name: Fulah
  5. "Documentation for ISO 639 identifier: ful". ISO 639-3 Registration Authority - SIL International. Retrieved 2017-07-04. Name: Fulah
  6. (Arnett 1975: 5).
  7. (Paradis 1992: 25).
  8. (Arnett 1975: 74).
  9. (McIntosh 1984:45-46).
  10. (Arnott 1975: 5)