Harshen Hausa

Harshen Cadi ne wanda Hausawa ke magana da shi

Harshen Hausa na ɗaya daga cikin rukunin Harsunan Chadic, kuma a ƙungiyar Harsunan Chadic kan, wanda ke cikin iyalin harshen Afroasia.

Harshen Hausa
Hausa
'Yan asalin magana
harshen asali: 43,900,000 (2019)
Baƙaƙen boko da Baƙaƙen larabci
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-1 ha
ISO 639-2 hau
ISO 639-3 hau
Glottolog haus1257[1]
Wani mutum da yake magana da hannu

Harshen Hausa ɗaya ne daga cikin harsunan Najeriya. Shi ne yare mafii girma a ƙasar Najeriya. Masu magana da harshen Hausa a Najeriya sun kai kashi hamsin da biyar (55%) na al'ummar ƙasar.[2][3] Harshen Hausa yana yaďuwa ne ta hanyar ƴan-kasuwa. Ƴan kasuwar da suke tafiya daga ƙasar Hausa zuwa wasu ƙasashe da Nufin yin kasuwanci, hakan ya ƙara daukaka harshen Hausa da Hausawa a fadin duniya. Idan aka ce Hausa ana nufin duk wani abu da yake da alaƙa da Hausawa ko kuma ƙasashensu, da harshen su.[4] Hausawa nada asali a Kasar Najeriya da kasar Habasha wato (Ethiopia), wanda ya yaɗu a duk fadin duniya. Ana kuma kiran masu amfani da harshen da suna Hausawa, ƙasar Hausa tana da tarihi mai yawa, tun kafin zuwan Turawa da Larabarawa kasar Hausa, Hausawa suna da sarakuna da sutturu da sana'oi masu tarin yawa.Misalan sarakuna sarkin musulmi, sarkin Kano, Sarkin Zazzau, Sarkin Katsina, Sarkin Daura, Sarkin Gombe da sauran su. Misalan sutura babbar riga, kwado da linzami, yar shara da sauran su. Misalan sana’oi fawa, noma, kiwo, saka, farauta, kira da sauran su.

Akwai yardar cewa yaren Hausa ya samo asali ne daga Bayajidda wanda Balarabe ne, ya zo kasar Hausa a garin Daura domin kasuwanci.

Amma Kuma wannan magana ta tarihin Bayajidda akwai maganganu a kanta.

Boko gyara sashe

A a B b Ɓ ɓ C c D d Ɗ ɗ E e F f G g H h I i J j K k Ƙ ƙ L l
/a/ /b/ ɓ /tʃ/ /d/ ɗ /e/ ɸ /ɡ/ /h/ /i/ /(d)ʒ/ /k/ /kʼ/ /l/
M m N n O o R r (R̃ r̃) S s Sh sh T t Ts ts U u W w Y y (Ƴ ƴ) Z z ʼ
/m/ /n/ /o/ ɽ r /s/ /ʃ/ /t/ /(t)sʼ/ /u/ /w/ /j/ /ʔʲ/ /z/

kalmomin aro gyara sashe

Hausa yare ne da ya samu raino daga yaruka guda biyu na duniya, a fari larabawa suka fara shigowa kasar Hausa . Sai turawa kuma daga baya; hakan ya sanya wasu daga cikin kalmomin da hausawa ke amfani da su sun samo asali ne daga larabci (wato ajami) ko kuma turanci (wato boko). misali; albasa - wacce ta samo asali daga kalmar larabci albasl. ko kuma kalmar bula wacce ta samo asali daga turanci ko boko wato blue.[2]

misalin wasu daga cikin kalmomin aro sun haɗa da; gyara sashe

wasu kalmomin da aka aro daga turanci
s/n Turanci Hausa
1. blue bula
2. plan pilan
3. spring sifirin
4. clear kiliya
5. grease girisi
6. rod rodi
7. bandage bandeji
8. court kotu
9. bail beli
10. bank banki
12.
wasu daga cikin kalmomin da aka aro daga larabci
s/n Larabci Hausa
1. adab adabi
2. zaman zamani
3. dalil dalili
4. sanad sanadi
5. balid balid
6. ziná zina
7. shirk shirka
8. sarq sata
9. haram haramun
10. wajib wajibi
11.

Ƙa'idojin Rubutu gyara sashe

Hausa na bin tsarin rubutun larabci wato ajami daga farko, amma daga baya sun koma amfani da tsarin rubutun zamani wato boko.

Tsarin rubutun boko: gyara sashe

Rubutun Zamani wato boko yana da harrufan Latin wanda Ķungiyar turawa suka kirkiro a shekarun 1930.[2]

A a B b Ɓ ɓ C c D d Ɗ ɗ E e F f G g H h I i J j K k Ƙ ƙ L l
/a/ /b/ /ɓ/ /tʃ/ /d/ /ɗ/ /e/ /ǿ/ /ɡ/ /h/ /i/ /(d)ʒ/ /k/ /kʼ/ /l/
M m N n O o R r (R̃ r̃) S s Sh sh T t Ts ts U u W w Y y (Ƴ ƴ) Z z
/m/ /n/ /o/ /ɽ/ /r/ /s/ /ʃ/ /t/ /(t)sʼ/ /u/ /w/ /j/ /ʔʲ/ /z/ /ʔ/

Ana amfani da harafin ƴ (y mai lanƙwasa a dama) a Ƙasar Nijer Kawai, ana rubuta shi a ʼy a Najeriya.

Ba'a bambamce tsawon sauti ko amo a cikin rubutu, misali a daga - daagaa - daga duka ana rubuta su a kalmar daga sai dai a bambamtasu wajen fada.

Tsarin Rubutun Ajami gyara sashe

A da can baya, an rubuta yaren Hausa da ajami watau haruffan larabci tun a karni na 17. Rubutu na farko da aka fara yi da ajami shi ne wallafi na Riwayar Nabi Musa by Abdullahi Suka a karni na 17. kaman ko wane harshe larabci na da ka'idojin rubutunsa inda ake amfani da wasula a kan bakake wadanda akan iya karatun larabci ko babu wasula kuma an fi amfani da wasula a cikin Al-Qurani.[5]


In the following table, short and long e are shown along with the Arabic letter for t (ت).

Latin IPA Arabic ajami
a /a/   ء
a /a:/   ݴ
b /b/   ب
ɓ /ɓ/   ٻ (ba'a amfani dashi a larabci)
c /tʃ/   ث
d /d/   د
ɗ /ɗ/   ط (akanyi amfani dashi a wajen ts)
e /e/   ݑ (ba'a amfani dashi a larabci)
e /e:/   ݑ(ba'a amfani dashi a larabci)
f
/ɸ/
 ف
g /g/  

غ

h /h/   ه
i /i/   ئ
i /i:/   ئ
j /(d)ʒ/   ج
k /k/   ك
ƙ /kʼ/   (akanyi amfani da ك ), ق
l /l/   ل
m /m/   م
n /n/   ن
o /o/   ـُ  (yana kama da harafin u)
o /oː/   ـُو‎  (yana kama da harafin u)
r /r/, /ɽ/   ر
s /s/   س
sh /ʃ/   ش
t /t/   ت
ts /(t)sʼ/  ط (yana nuna ɗ), ڟ (ba'a amfani dashi a larabci)
u /u/
u /u:/   ـُو  (same as o)
w /w/   و
y /y/   ی
z /z/   ز     ذ
ʼ /'/   ع

Other systems gyara sashe

Duba kuma gyara sashe

Manazarta gyara sashe

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). "Harshen Hausa". Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 Wolff, H. Ekkehard. "Hausa language". Encyclopedia Britannica (in Turanci). Retrieved 2020-10-14. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; name ":0" defined multiple times with different content
  3. "Spread of the Hausa Language". Worldmapper (in Turanci). Retrieved 2020-10-14.
  4. chayes. "The Hausa Language". Website des Institutes für Asien- und Afrikawissenschaften der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin (in Turanci). Retrieved 2022-02-15.
  5. ''Verde, Tom (October 2011). "From Africa, in Ajami". Saudi Aramco World. Archived from the original on 2014-11-30. Retrieved 2021-057-12.

Hanyoyin Hadin Waje gyara sashe