Akan (/ə k æ n /) ne Harshen Tsakiyar Tano kuma babba harshe na Akan mutane na Ghana, magana a kan da yawa daga kudancin rabin na Ghana. Kimanin kashi 80% na jama'ar ƙasar na iya magana da Akan, kuma kusan kashi 44% na 'yan ƙasar Ghana masu magana ne na asali. Ana kuma magana da shi a sassan Cote d'Ivoire.

Yaren Akan
akan — Akan
'Yan asalin magana
8,314,600 (2004)
Baƙaƙen boko
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-1 ak
ISO 639-2 aka
ISO 639-3 aka
Glottolog da akan1250 akan1251 da akan1250[1]
Yaren Akan
Default
  • Yaren Akan
Lamban rijistar harshe
ISO 639-3

Yaruka hudu da aka ɓullo da yadda wallafe-wallafen matsayin da jinsin orthographies: Fante, Bono, Asante, kuma Akuapem, tare da aka sani da Twi. wanda, duk da cewa ana iya fahimtar juna,[2] ba a iya samunsu a rubuce ba ga masu magana da wasu ƙa'idodi har sai lokacin da Kwamitin Akan Yaren Akan Ilimin Tarihin Akan (AOC) ya sami ci gaba na ɗabi'ar Akan a 1978, bisa akasari akan Akuapem Twi. Ana amfani da wannan rubutun a matsayin matsakaiciyar koyarwa a makarantar firamare ta masu magana da wasu yarukan Central Tano da yawa, kamar Akyem, Anyi, Sehwi, Fante, Ahanta, da kuma yaren Guang . Kwamitin Akantoci na Akan yayi aiki akan ƙirƙirar daidaitaccen rubutun rubutun.

Tare da cinikin bayi na tekun Atlantika, an gabatar da harshen ga yankin Caribbean da Kudancin Amurka, musamman a Suriname, wanda Ndyuka ke magana da shi, da kuma Jamaica, wanda Maroons na Jamaica ke magana, wanda kuma ake kira Coromantee. Al'adar zuriyar bayi da suka tsere a cikin yankin Suriname da Maroons a Jamaica har yanzu suna riƙe da tasirin wannan harshe, gami da al'adar sanya sunan Akan na raɗa yara bayan ranar makon da aka haife su, misali Akwasi/Kwasi don yaro ko Akosua ga yarinyar da aka haifa a ranar Lahadi. A cikin Jamaicaa da Suriname, labaran Anansi gizo-gizo har yanzu sanannun mutane ne.[2].

TarihiGyara

A tarihi, Akans da ke zaune a Ghana sun yi ƙaura a cikin raƙuman ruwa masu zuwa tsakanin ƙarni na 11 da 18. Wasu kuma suna zaune a gabashin Ivory Coast da wasu sassan Togo. Sun yi ƙaura daga arewa don mamaye daji da yankunan bakin teku a kudu a cikin karni na 13. Akans suna da ƙa'idar tarihin baka mai ƙarfi na zamanin da suka gabata kuma sanannun su a cikin tarihin duniya don kayan tarihi na katako, ƙarfe da terracotta. Ana bayyana ra'ayoyinsu na al'adu cikin labarai da karin magana da kuma zane kamar alamomin da aka yi amfani da su a sassaƙa da kan sutura. Yanayin al'adu da tarihi na Akans a Ghana ya sanya shi yanki na bincike don fannoni daban daban kamar tatsuniya, nazarin adabi, ilimin harshe, ilimin ɗan adam da tarihi.

FasahaGyara

Yarukan Akan suna ƙunshe da faɗuwa iri-iri, jituwa tsakanin wasula, da gyaran murya.

BakandamiyaGyara

Kafin wasula na gaba, duk baƙon Asante yana da ma'ana (ko labio-na iya magana ), kuma wuraren tsayawa suna da ɗan fa'ida. Allophones na /n/ suna da rikitarwa. A teburin da ke ƙasa, an bayyana allofan da keɓaɓɓun maganganu waɗanda ke ƙunshe da ƙananan maganganun sautin magana, a cikin mahallin wasalin /i/. Waɗannan sautunan suna faruwa kafin sauran wasula, kamar /a/, kodayake a mafi yawan lokuta ba kasafai ake samun su ba.

A Asante, /ɡu/ wasali ana furtawa /ɡʷ/, amma a Akuapem ya rage /ɡu/. Ana furta /nh/ [ŋŋ̊].

Ana iya jin kalma ta ƙarshe /k/ a matsayin tsayayyar magana [ʔ]. Hakanan akwai sakewa na /h/ da na /j w/ as [h̃] da [j̃ w̃], lokacin faruwa a gaban wasulan hanci.

teburi bayani a kasa ne a cikin tsari / phonemic /, [ karin lafazi ], Template:Angle bracket Lura cewa rubutun Template:Angle bracket; a litattafan, Template:Angle bracket = /ɡ/ iya bambanta daga /dw/ tare da wani diacritic: d̩w Haka kuma, velar Template:Angle bracket ŋw na iya zama a rubuce n̩w Orthographic Template:Angle bracket YAKE palatalized [ɲᶣĩ]

Labial Alveolar Dorsal Larfafawa
Hanci bayyananne m Template:Angle bracket /n / [ ŋ, ɲ, ɲĩ] / n / / [ŋːʷ, ɲᶣĩ]
geminated / n / / [ŋː, ɲːĩ] / n / / [ɲːᶣĩ] Template:Angle bracket
Tsaya rashin murya /p / [pʰ] Template:Angle bracket /t / [tʰ, t ç i] Template:Angle bracket /k / [kʰ, tɕʰi ~ cçʰi] / k / [tɕᶣi]
bayyana b Template:Angle bracket d Template:Angle bracket /g / [ dʒ, dʑi ~ ɟʝi] Template:Angle bracket / ɡʷ / [dʑᶣi]
Fricative H Template:Angle bracket s Template:Angle bracket /h / [çi] / h / / [çᶣi]
Sauran / r / [ ɾ, r, ɽ ] Template:Angle bracket /j / [j] Template:Angle bracket /w / [ɥi] Template:Angle bracket

WasulaGyara

Yarukan Akan suna da wasula goma sha huɗu zuwa goma sha biyar: wasula masu huɗu zuwa biyar ( harshe mai ci gaba, ko + ATR), wasula "lax" guda biyar ( tushen harshe da aka janye, ko -ATR), waɗanda wadatattu ne amma ba su wakilta gaba ɗaya rubutun wasali bakwai, da wasulan hanci guda biyar, waɗanda ba sa wakiltar su kwata-kwata. Dukkanin goma sha huɗu sun bambanta a cikin haruffan Gold Coast na zamanin mulkin mallaka. Bambancin ATR a cikin rubutun a ana samun sa ne kawai a cikin wasu ƙananan fannoni na Fante, amma ba a cikin tsarin adabi ba; a cikin Asante da Akuapem akwai nau'ikan allophone na /a/, amma ATR ma babu. Wasalai biyu da aka rubuta e ( /e̘/ da /i/ ) da o ( /o̘/ da /u/ ) galibi ba a rarrabe su da yadda ake furta su.

Orthog. + ATR -ATR
i /i̘/ [i̘]
e /e̘/ [e̘] /i/ [ɪ~e]
ɛ /e/ [ɛ]
a [æ~ɐ~ə] /a/ [a]
ɔ /o/ [ɔ]
o /o̘/ [o̘] /u/ [ʊ~o]
u /u̘/ [u̘]

Jituwa ATRGyara

Wasulan Akan suna amfani da wani tsari na daidaita wasala da tushen harshe.

  1. Wasulan -ATR waɗanda wasikun + ATR waɗanda ba na tsakiya ba suke bi / i̘ a̘ u̘ / zama + ATR. Wannan gabaɗaya ana nuna shi a cikin rubutun gargajiya: Wato, rubutun kota e ɛ a ɔ o zama ieaou. Koyaya, ba a sake bayyanarsa a cikin batun magana ko karin magana, yana ba su daidaitaccen tsarin rubutu. Wannan dokar ta fifita ta gaba.
  2. Bayan wasula ba-high ba / eao /, + ATR tsakiyar wasula / e̘ o̘ / zama -ATR manyan wasula / iu /. Wannan ba kyalli a cikin orthography, duka biyu sets na vowels an rattaba kalma Template:Angbr kuma a cikin yaruka da yawa da wannan mulki ba nema, domin wadannan vowels sun garwaya.

SautunaGyara

Akan yana da sautunan sauti guda uku, babba (/ H /), tsakiyar (/ M /), da ƙananan (/ L /). Sylaramar farkon haruffa na iya zama babba ko lowasa kawai.

Sautin tireshiGyara

Yanayin sauti na sautunan guda uku ya dogara da yanayin su, galibi ana saukar da shi bayan wasu sautunan, yana samar da ci gaba mai raguwa wanda aka fi sani da terracing tone .

/ H / sautunan suna da sauti iri ɗaya kamar na baya / H / ko / M / sautin a cikin jimla guda ɗaya, yayin da / M / sautunan suna da ƙaramin sauti. Wato, jerin / HH / da / MH / suna da farar ƙasa, yayin da jerin / HM / da / MM / suke da fadowa. / H / an saukar ( ƙasa ) bayan / L /.

/ L / shine sautin tsoho, wanda ke fitowa a cikin yanayi kamar fiara ƙarin prefixes. Kullum yana ƙasan zangon zangon mai magana, banda a cikin jerin / HLH /, a cikin wannan yanayin an ɗaga cikin farar amma har yanzu ana saukar da ƙarshe / H /. Don haka / HMH / da / HLH / ana furta su tare da ra'ayoyi daban-daban amma suna kama da juna.

Bayan sigar “shahararr” ta farkon magana, galibi sautin farko na farko, akwai matakan hawa ƙasa. Ana yawan jaddada wannan sigar.

Dangantaka da wasu yarukan Tano ta TsakiyaGyara

Akan ci gaba ne na yare wanda ya haɗa da Twi, Fante, da Wasa. Ethnologue, wanda rabe-rabensa ya ta'allaka ne akan nazarin fahimtar juna da kamanceceniya daga kalmomi masu yawa, rarraba ire-iren Akan a matsayin yaruka na babban harshen Akan, wanda yake na dangin Cental Tano. Glottolog yayi ainihin bincike iri daya, banda cewa ana ci gaba da karin yaren Akan "Akanic".

Dangane da aikin da PK Agbedor, Fante, Twi (Bono, Asante da Akuapem) suka yi, Sefwi, Wassa, Asen, Akwamu, da Kwahu sun kasance cikin lusungiyoyi na Cluster 1 na maganganun ƙasar ta Ghana, wanda aka bayyana a cikin Ethnologue ta matakin fahimtar juna.[2] Lusungiya 1 mafi kyau ana iya kiranta r-Akan, wanda ba shi da / l / a matsayin sautin murya, yayin da l-Akan yana nufin ƙungiyar gungu ta Akan da ta ƙunshi Nzema, Baoulé, Anyin da sauran yarukan da ake magana akasarinsu a cikin Ivory Coast, waɗanda ke da / l / a wurin / r /.[ana buƙatar hujja]

 
Taswirar yankuna da yare na Ghana. Yankunan Akan (koren haske) sun faɗi yamma kusan rabi zuwa cikin Ivory Coast.

AdabiGyara

Harshen Akan yana da wadatattun adabi a cikin karin magana, tatsuniyoyi, da wasan kwaikwayo na gargajiya, da kuma sabon adabi a cikin wasan kwaikwayo, gajerun labarai, da litattafai. [3] An fara rubuta wannan adabin a rubuce a ƙarshen 1800s. [4] Daga baya, Joseph Hanson Kwabena Nketia ya tattara wasu karin magana da tatsuniyoyi, wadanda suka hada da Jana'izar Jana'izar mutanen Akan (1969), wakokin gargajiya na Ghana (1963), da Wakokin Akan (1958). Wasu daga cikin mahimman marubutan cikin harshen sune AA Opoku (mai wasan kwaikwayo), EJ Osew (mai wasan kwaikwayo), KE Owusu (marubucin littattafai), da RA Tabi (marubucin wasan kwaikwayo da marubuci). Ofishin Harsunan Ghanan bai iya ci gaba da buga littattafai a cikin yaren ba, kuma waɗannan ba a buga su: Obreguo, Okrabiri, Afrakoma, Obeede, Fia Tsatsala, da Ku Di Fo Nanawu.

IlimiGyara

Na farkoGyara

A cikin 1978 AOC sun kafa harshe iri ɗaya na Akan, wanda ake amfani dashi azaman matsakaiciyar koyarwa a makarantar firamare. Ana fahimtar harshen Akan don karatu da rubutu, daga aƙalla ƙananan matakin firamare (na farko na 1-3).

Jami'arGyara

Ana karatun harshen Akan a manyan jami’o’i a Amurka, gami da jami’ar Ohio, da jami’ar jihar Ohio, da jami’ar Wisconsin-Madison, da jami’ar Harvard, da jami’ar Boston, da jami’ar Indiana, da jami’ar Michigan, da kuma jami’ar Florida . Akan ya kasance harshen karatun Afirka na yau da kullun a cikin shirin shekara-shekara na Hadin gwiwar Kasashen Afirka (SCALI). Ana karatun harshen Akan a cikin waɗannan jami'o'in azaman shirin bachelor ko masters.

Kalmomin gama gariGyara

  • Akwaaba / - Maraba
  • Aane (Twi) - Ee
  • Nyew (Fante) - Ee
  • Yiw (Akuapem) - Ee
  • Yoo - Lafiya / Lafiya
  • Oho / anhã (Fante) / Daabi - Babu / Nope
  • Da yie - Barka da dare (a zahiri "a kwana lafiya")
  • Me rekɔ da (Fante) - Zan yi barci
  • Sɛte sɛn? - Yaya lamarin yake / Yaya kake? (ana iya amfani dashi a cikin rashin haske. ma'ana azaman "hello")
  • 'Medaase - Na gode
  • Mepa wo kyɛw - Da fatan / a gafarce ni / ina neman afuwarku
  • Ndwom (Fante) / nnwom (Twi) - Waƙa / waƙoƙi ko kiɗa
  • Wo din de sɛn? / Yɛfrɛ wo sɛn? - Menene sunanki?
  • Wo dzin dze dεn? - Menene sunanki?
  • Me dzin dze. . . / Wɔfrɛ me. . . (Fante) - Sunana / An kira ni. . .
  • Woedzi mfe ahen ? (Fante) - Shekarunsa nawa?
  • Edzi mfe ahen (Fante) - Shekarunka nawa?
  • ɔwɔ hen? - Ina yake?
  • Me rekɔ - Zan tafi / Ina karɓar izina.
  • Mbo (Fante) / Mmo (Twi) - Yayi kyau
  • Jo (Fante) / (Twi) - Hutu
  • Ayɛ Adze (Fante) - anyi kyau
  • Gyae - Tsaya
  • Da - Barci

Duba kumaGyara

  • Akan shine ɗayan tushen harsunan yare na Afrihili.

BayaniGyara

  1. The following entries represent Akan speakers: Asante, Fante, Boron (Brong), Akyem, Akuapem, Kwahu, Wasa, Asen (Assin), Denkyira, Agona, Ahafo, Aowin, Akwamu, Evalue & Akan nec.
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^ a b c d
  1. The following entries represent Akan speakers: Asante, Fante, Boron (Brong), Akyem, Akuapem, Kwahu, Wasa, Asen (Assin), Denkyira, Agona, Ahafo, Aowin, Akwamu, Evalue & Akan
  2. ^ a b c The Brong (Bono) dialect of Akan” by Florence Abena Dolphyne University of Ghana, Legon 1979.
  3. a
  4. ^ a b Nina Pawlak, “Akan Folk Literature and the Beginning of Writing in Twi,” Literatures in African Languages: Theoretical Issues and Sample Surveysby B. W. Andrzejewski and S. Pilaszewicz, 128-157 (Cambridge University Press, 2010).
  5. ^ J G Christaller, Twi mmebuse̲m, mpensã-ahansĩa mmoaano. A collection of three thousand and six hundred Tshi proverbs, in use among the Negroes of the Gold Coast speaking the Asante and Fante language, collected, together with their variations, and alphabetically arranged,The Basel German Evangelical Missionary Society, 1879.

BibliographyGyara

  • Editocin Kasahorow (2005), Akan na Zamani: Takaitaccen gabatarwa ne ga harshen Akuapem, Fanti da Twi . kasahorow, Accra. ISBN 9988-0-3767-8
  • Dolphyne, Florence Abena (1988), Akan (Twi-Fante) Harshe: Tsarin Sautinta da Tsarin Tonal . Jami'o'in Ghana, Accra. ISBN 9964-3-0159-6
  • FA Dolphyne (1996) Cikakken Darasi a Twi (Asante) don eran Ba-Twi Ba . Jami'ar Jami'ar Ghana, Accra. ISBN 9964-3-0245-2 .
  • Schacter, Paul (1968). Ilimin Fasaha na Akan: Akuapem, Asante, Fante . Los Angeles: UC Latsa.
  • William Nketia (2004) Twi für Ghana :; Wort für Wort. Reise Sanin-Yaya Verlag, Bielefeld. ISBN 3-89416-346-1 . (A Jamusanci)
  • Obeng, Samuel Gyasi. (2001). Anthroponymy na Afirka: Nazarin ilimin kabilanci da na al'ada na sunayen mutane a Akan da wasu al'ummomin Afirka . LINCOM tana nazarin ilimin ɗan adam 08. Muenchen: LINCOM Europa. ISBN 3-89586-431-5 .
  • JE Redden da N. Owusu (1963, 1995). Twi Basic Course . Cibiyar Sabis ta Kasashen Waje (sake buga Hippocrene). ISBN 0-7818-0394-2

Hanyoyin haɗin wajeGyara

  1. Hammarström, Harald; Forkel, Robert; Haspelmath, Martin, eds. (2017). da akan1250 "Yaren Akan" Check |chapterurl= value (help). Glottolog 3.0. Jena, Germany: Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 The Brong (Bono) dialect of Akan” by Florence Abena Dolphyne University of Ghana, Legon 1979.
  3. Nina Pawlak, “Akan Folk Literature and the Beginning of Writing in Twi,” Literatures in African Languages: Theoretical Issues and Sample Surveys by B. W. Andrzejewski and S. Pilaszewicz, 128-157 (Cambridge University Press, 2010).
  4. J G Christaller, Twi mmebuse̲m, mpensã-ahansĩa mmoaano.