Yahudanci ( Ibrananci : יהדות ) addini ne daga cikin addinin Ibrahimiyya mafi tsufa a duniya. Yana da kusan shekaru 4,000 kuma ya samo asali daga Isra'ila. Akwai mabiya kusan miliyan 15. Ana kiran su Yahudawa. [1] Shi ne addinin tauhidi mafi daɗewa. Attaura ita ce mafi mahimmancin littafi mai tsarki na Yahudanci. Dokoki da koyarwar addinin Yahudanci sun fito ne daga Attaura, littattafai biyar na farko na Littafi Mai Tsarki na Ibrananci da al'adun baka . Wasu daga cikin waɗannan hadisai na baka ne na farko kuma daga baya an rubuta su a cikin Mishnah, Talmud, da sauran ayyuka.

Yahudanci
Founded 5 century "BCE"
Mai kafa gindi Ibrahim
Classification
Sunan asali יַהֲדוּת‎
Practiced by Jewish leadership (en) Fassara, rabbi (en) Fassara da Dayan (en) Fassara
Branches Jewish religious movements (en) Fassara

Kiristanci da Musulunci duka suna da alaƙa da Yahudanci. Waɗannan addinai sun yarda da imani ga Allah ɗaya da koyarwar ɗabi'a na Littafi Mai Tsarki na Ibrananci (Tsohon Alkawari), wanda ya haɗa da Attaura ko "תורה."

Imani na asali

gyara sashe
::::::Thirteen Principles of Faith

Maimonides sanannen malamin addinin Yahudanci ne na ƙarni na 12. Ya jeranta manyan shika shikan imani goma sha uku na addinin Yahudanci. Ana kiransu Ginshiƙan Imani.”[2][3]

  1. Ubangiji shine mahalicci kuma Sarkin duniya.
  2. Akwai Ubangiji ɗaya, kuma wannan Ubangiji ɗin shi kaɗai ne Ubangiji.
  3. God has no body or physical form and nothing else is like God.
  4. Ubagiji ne tsayye kuma ya nan har abada.
  5. Allah ne kaɗai zai amsa addu'ar mutane, kuma idan mutane za su yi roƙo to su roƙi Ubangiji.
  6. Kalmomin annabawa gaskiya ne.
  7. Musa shine babban Annabi.
  8. Ubangiji ya saukar da a Attaura ga Annabi Musa.
  9. Ibangiji ba zai canza Attaura ba kuma ba zai sake saukar da wani littafi ba.
  10. Ubangiji ya san aiki da tunanin kowa.
  11. Ubangiji ne zai bayar da lada kuma ya azabtar da wanda bai bi shi ba.
  12. Mahadi zai zo.
  13. Ubagiji zai iya raya matattu idan ya so.

Manyan imani guda uku a tsakiyar addinin Yahudanci sune Tauhidi, Shaida, da alƙawari (yarjejeniya tsakanin Allah da mutanen Allah).

Koyarwar da ta fi muhimmanci a addinin Yahudanci ita ce akwai Allah ɗaya, wanda yake son mutane su yi abin da yake na adalci da kuma juyayi. Addinin Yahudanci yana koyar da cewa mutum yana bauta wa Allah ta wurin koyon littattafai masu tsarki da kuma yin abin da suke koyarwa. Waɗannan koyarwar sun haɗa da ayyukan al'ada da ɗabi'a. Yahudanci yana koyar da cewa an halicce dukan mutane cikin surar Allah kuma sun cancanci a bi da su da daraja da daraja .

Allah daya

gyara sashe

Babban koyarwar addinin Yahudanci game da Allah ne, cewa Allah ɗaya ne. A bisa addinin Yahudanci, Allah ne kaɗai ya halicci duniya kuma Allah ne kaɗai yake iko da ita. Yahudawa suna ambaton Allah da sunaye da yawa. Sunan mafi tsarki ga Allah a cikin addinin Yahudanci shine “ Yahweh ”, ko da yake yawancin Yahudawa suna guje wa faɗin wannan sunan da babbar murya saboda girmansa. Yahudanci kuma yana koyar da cewa Allah na ruhaniya ne ba na zahiri ba.[4][5]

Yahudawa sun gaskata cewa Allah ɗaya ne – haɗin kai: Allah ɗaya ne, cikakke. Ba za a iya raba Allah kashi-kashi ba kuma mutane ba za su iya fadin yadda Allah yake kallo da kalmomi ba; kawai suna iya faɗin yadda Allah yake da kuma abin da Allah yake aikatawa.[6]

Yahudawa sun yi imani cewa duk alheri da ɗabi'a daga Allah suke. Allah yana sha'awarabin da mutane suke yi kuma Allah yana kallon abin da suke aikatawa.[7][8]

Yahudanci yana koyar da cewa dukan mutane an halicce su cikin surar Allah. Don haka dole ne a yi wa mutane adalci da kuma a daraja mutane. Mutum yana bautawa Allah ta wurin zama kamar Allah. Wannan yana nufin cewa dole ne su yi adalci su yi jinƙai, su kasance da alheri da ƙauna ga mutane.

Yahudanci ya ce Allah yana wanzuwa har abada, Allah yana ko'ina, kuma Allah ya san komai. Allah yana bisa dabi'a ("mafi allahntaka") amma Allah yana cikin duniya yana jin masu addu'a ga Allah kuma zai amsa musu. Allah shine babban iko a sararin samaniya.[9][10]

Addinin Yahudanci yana koyar da cewa Allah yana ƙyale mutane su zaɓi abin da za su yi - ana kiran wannan “ yancin zaɓi .” Ƴancin zaɓe shi ne ’yancin yin duk abin da mutum yake so, amma dole ne su kasance masu alhakin ayyukansu. Mutane ne ke da alhakin ayyukansu. Allah yana sakawa masu kyautatawa, kuma zai azabtar da masu zalunci. Allah yana ba mutum lada ko ukuba a nan duniya, amma Allah yana ba da lada ko ukuba ga ran mutum bayan mutuwarsa.[11]

Yahudawa sun gaskata cewa Allah ya yi yarjejeniya da ake kira “alƙawari” da Ibrahim, kakan Yahudawa. Littafi Mai Tsarki ya ce Allah yayi alkawari zai albarkaci Ibrahim da zuriyar sa idan sun bautawa Allah kuma suka kasance da aminci ga Allah. Allah ya yi wannan alkawari da ɗan Ibrahim, Ishaku, da ɗan Ishaku, Yakubu . Allah ya ba Yakubu wani suna, Isra'ila. Haka zuriyar Yakubu ta sami sunan “Ya’yan Isra’ila” ko kuma “ Isra’ilawa .” Daga baya Allah ya ba Isra’ilawa Attaura ta hannun shugabansu Musa . Attaura ta gaya wa Isra'ilawa yadda za su yi rayuwa da gina al'ummarsu . Allah ya ba Isra’ilawa Dokoki Goma da wasu dokoki a cikin Attaura (613 a jimla).[12] A wasu lokatai ana kiran Yahudawa “Zaɓaɓɓu.” Domin Littafi Mai Tsarki ya ce Allah ya ce musu, “Za ku zama mini mulkin firistoci, al’umma mai-tsarki.” (Fitowa 19:6) da kuma “Gama ku mutane ne masu-tsarki. ga Ubangiji Allahnku, Ubangiji kuwa ya zaɓe ku, ku zama al’umma ta Allah daga cikin dukan al’umman duniya.” (Kubawar Shari’a 14:2) Yahudawa sun fahimci cewa wannan yana nufin suna da ayyuka na musamman da kuma hakki da Allah ya umurce su. Dole ne Yahudawa su gina al'umma mai adalci kuma su bauta wa Allah kaɗai. abin da Allah ya gaya musu.Yahudawa sun gaskata cewa dole ne su koya wa mutane cewa Allah ya wanzu kuma Allah yana son dukan mutane su yi ayyuka masu kyau, Yahudawa sun gaskata cewa aikinsu a duniya shi ne ya zama “haske ga al’ummai.” (Ishaya 49:6) ta hanyar nuna wa mutanen duniya hanyoyin da za su gyara duniya.[4][13]

Yahudawa sun yi imanin cewa Allah ya ba su aiki na musamman wanda shine gyara duniya. Aikin su shine su sa duniya ta zama wuri mafi kyau tare da mafi kyau a cikinta. Dole ne su yi amfani da abubuwan da ke cikin duniya don haɓaka alheri kuma su kusanci Allah. Suna kiran wannan "tikkun olam" - gyaran duniya. Yahudawa suna ganin kansu da dukan mutane a matsayin abokan tarayya da Allah. Dole ne mutane su gyara duniya ta kowace hanya - don nemo hanyoyin da za a rage wahalhalun mutane da dabbobi, don samar da ƙarin zaman lafiya, samar da mutuntawa tsakanin mutane da kare muhallin duniya daga halaka.

Yahudawa ba sa ƙoƙarin shawo kan wasu mutane su yi imani da addinin Yahudanci. Yahudawa sun gaskata suna da aiki na musamman don nuna wa duniya cewa akwai Allah, amma ba dole ba ne mutane su zama Bayahude su bi Allah ba. Dukan mutane za su iya bauta wa Allah ta wajen bin Dokoki Bakwai (dokoki) da aka ba Nuhu. Amma, Yahudanci yana yarda da mutanen da suka zaɓi canza addininsu zuwa addinin Yahudanci.[14]

Attaura da Mizvot

gyara sashe

Yahudawa sun gaskata cewa Allah ya gaya musu a cikin Attaura hanyar rayuwa da dole ne su bi. Attaura ta ce Allah yana son mutanen Isra’ila su yi tafiya cikin tafarkun Allah, su ƙaunaci Allah, su bauta wa Allah, su kiyaye dokokin Allah (K. Sha 10:12–13). Ayyuka sun fi mahimmanci fiye da imani kuma dole ne a sanya imani cikin ayyuka.

Ana kiran waɗannan ayyukan “mitzvot” a cikin Ibrananci (mai guda ɗaya: mitzvah מִצְוָה). Wani lokaci ana kiran su "dokoki," "dokoki" ko "umarni". Mutane da yawa suna tunanin mitzvah a matsayin "aiki mai kyau," ko "abu mai kyau da za a yi." Akwai mitzvot 613 a cikin Attaura. Yahudawa sun gaskata cewa Attaura tana ba da mitzvot ga dukan mutane; Dole ne dukan mutane su kiyaye dokoki bakwai da aka koya wa Nuhu da ’ya’yansa bayan rigyawa. Dole ne Yahudawa su kiyaye mitzvot 613, waɗanda aka jera a cikin Attaura. Malaman sun ƙidaya mitzvot 365 waɗanda Yahudawa ba za su yi ba (mara kyau mitzvot), da kuma mitzvot 248 da Yahudawa dole ne su yi (mai kyau mitzvot). Wasu mitzvot na rayuwar yau da kullun ne, wasu kuma don lokuta na musamman ne kawai, kamar bukukuwan Yahudawa. Yawancin mitzvot 613 game da Haikali Mai Tsarki ne a Urushalima kuma ba za a iya yin su ba, tun da an lalatar da Haikali.[15]

Wasu daga cikin mitzvot game da yadda dole ne mutane su yi wa wasu mutane. Misali, dole ne su ba da sadaka ga talaka, ko kuma su taimaki wanda ke cikin hadari. Kada su yi sata ko yin ƙarya. Waɗannan su ne mitzvot na ɗabi'a da ɗabi'a.

Wasu mitzvot game da yadda dole ne mutane suyi aiki ga Allah. Alal misali, dole ne su daraja sunan Allah, ko kuma kada su yi aiki a ranar Asabar. Waɗannan su ne mitzvot na addini ko na al'ada. Yahudawa sun gaskata cewa Allah ya gaya musu su yi duka ayyuka na ɗabi'a da na addini.[4][16]

Yahudawa suna kallon mitzvot a matsayin ayyukan da suke tsarkakewa - kawo tsarki - ga duniya kuma suna kusantar mutane da duniya kusa da Allah. Yahudawa suna yin mitzvot don tsarkake duniyar zahiri da abubuwan da ke cikinta, kamar abinci da abin sha, tufafi, da ayyukan halitta kamar jima'i, aiki, ko ganin kyawawan abubuwan gani. Kafin su yi ayyuka da yawa, kamar su ci, Yahudawa suna sanya albarka – gajeriyar addu’a – da Allah ya yi kuma ya ba mutum abubuwan da suke bukata don rayuwa. A cikin addinin Yahudanci, rayuwa ita ce mafi tsarki da muhimmanci. Dole ne Bayahude ya daina yin wasu mitzvot na Attaura don taimakawa ceton ran wani.

Yahudawa sun gaskata cewa dole ne su yi aikin da farin ciki domin Littafi Mai Tsarki ya ce “Ku bauta wa Allah da farin ciki; Ku zo gaban Allah da raira waƙoƙi.” (Zabura 100:2). Yin mizawa yana taimaka wa mutum ya kusanci Allah kuma hakan yana sa mutumin farin ciki. Wata kungiyar Yahudawa da ake kira Hasidim ta ce wannan ita ce hanya mafi dacewa ta rayuwa. Sun ce damuwa yana kawar da mutane daga farin ciki kuma ba za su ga kyau da kyau a duniya ba.

Yawancin mitzvot a cikin Attaura suna game da ƙasar Isra'ila. Talmud da littattafai daga baya sun kira waɗannan mitzvot "umarni da ke da alaƙa da Ƙasa" domin Yahudawa kawai za su iya yin su a cikin ƙasar Isra'ila. Alal misali, Yahudawa suna ba da kyauta ga matalauta ko firistoci daga gonakinsu kowace shekara, kuma kafin a halaka Haikali, suna kai ’ya’yan itace ko dabbobi zuwa Haikali a Urushalima, kuma dole ne su daina aiki a ƙasar kowace shekara bakwai (“shmittah”) - shekara ta sabati).[16][17]

Ƙasar Isra'ila

gyara sashe

Ƙasar Isra'ila ƙasa ce mai tsarki ce a cikin addinin Yahudanci. Imani na Yahudawa shine Allah ya halicci Duniya daga Dutsen Moriah a Urushalima a cikin ƙasar Isra'ila, kuma Allah shine mafi kusanci da wannan ƙasa koyaushe. Yahudawa sun yi imani cewa wannan ƙasa ita ce inda Allah ya gaya wa Yahudawa su gina al'umma don bauta wa Allah, kuma yawancin mitzvot (umarni) a cikin Attaura suna game da ƙasar Isra'ila.[17][18][19]

Mutanen Yahudawa sun gaskata tarihinsu a matsayin al'umma ya fara da Ibrahim. Labarin Ibrahim a cikin Attaura ya fara ne lokacin da Allah ya gaya wa Ibrahim ya bar ƙasarsa. Allah ya yi wa Ibrahim da zuriyarsa alkawari sabon gida a ƙasar Kan’ana. Yanzu ana kiran wannan ƙasar Isra'ila. An ba da sunan jikan Ibrahim, Yakubu, wanda kuma ake kira Isra’ila kuma wanda shi ne uban ƙabilu goma sha biyu. A nan ne sunan “Ƙasar Isra’ila” ya fito. Ana kuma kiran ƙasar “Ƙasar Alkawari” domin a cikin Attaura, Allah ya yi alkawari zai ba da ƙasar ga ’ya’yan Ibrahim (Farawa 12:7, Far 13:15; Farawa 15:18, Farawa 17:8).[17][20]

Malaman Talmud sun fahimta daga Attaura (Littafin Lissafi 33:53) cewa “mitzvah” ne ga Yahudawa su zauna a ƙasar Isra’ila. Suna ganin rayuwa a wajen Isra'ila ba dabi'a ce ga Bayahude ba. Yahudawa sukan kira ƙasar da ke wajen Isra'ila "galut." Yawancin lokaci ana fassara wannan a matsayin "kasashen waje" (wajen da mutane ke warwatse), amma kalmar tana nufin "ƙaura" a hankali.[17][21]

Manazarta

gyara sashe
  1. Judaism 101: Jewish population
  2. Birnbaum, Philip (1975). "Principles of Faith". A Book of Jewish Concepts. New York: Hebrew Publishing Company. pp. 50-51. ISBN 088482876X.
  3. Maimonides. "The Thirteen Principles". Retrieved 29 June 2007.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Mendes-Flohr, Paul (2006). "Judaism". In Riggs, Thomas (ed.). Encyclopedia of Religious Practices. 1: Religions and Denominations. Detroit: Gale. p. 423-453.
  5. Donin, Hayim Halevy (1991). "The Cornerstones of Judaism: Israel–Its God". To Be a Jew: A Guide to Jewish Observance in Contemporary Life. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 18=23. ISBN 978-0465086320.
  6. Birnbaum, Philip (1975). "God (chapter)". A Book of Jewish Concepts. New York: Hebrew Publishing Company. p. 35. ISBN 088482876X.
  7. Neuser, Jacob; Avery-Peck, Alan (2003). The Blackwell Companion to Judaism. Blackwell. p. 3. ISBN 9781577180593.
  8. Wilkinson, Philip (2008). "Judaism". Religions. New York: Metro Books. pp. 66–83. ISBN 978-1-4351-2132-4.
  9. Green, Arthur (2014). Judaism's 10 Best Ideas. Woodstock, VT: Jewish Lights Publishing. pp. 29–35. ISBN 978-1-58023-803-8.
  10. "Tikkun Olam: Repairing the World". My Jewish Learning. Archived from the original on 25 June 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
  11. Birnbaum, Philip (1975). "Reward and Punishment". A Book of Jewish Concepts. New York: Hebrew Publishing Company. p. 600. ISBN 088482876X.
  12. Greenberg, Irving. "The Covenant & God". My Jewish Learning. Archived from the original on 20 December 2014. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
  13. Birnbaum, Philip (1975). "Attah Behartanu". A Book of Jewish Concepts. New York: Hebrew Publishing Company. pp. 70-72. ISBN 088482876X.
  14. Birnbaum, Philip (1975). "Proselytes". A Book of Jewish Concepts. New York: Hebrew Publishing Company. pp. 132-134. ISBN 088482876X.
  15. Tracey Rich. "A List of the 613 Mitzvot (Commandments)". Retrieved 2007-06-29.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Birnbaum, Philip (1975). "Mitzvah". A Book of Jewish Concepts. New York: Hebrew Publishing Company. pp. 390-391. ISBN 088482876X.
  17. 17.0 17.1 17.2 17.3 Rich, Tracey. "The Land of Israel". Judaism 101. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
  18. Schweid, Eliezer. "Significance of the Land of Israel in the Bible". My Jewish Learning. Archived from the original on 2015-04-06. Retrieved 2023-01-11.
  19. Blidstein, Gerald Y. (2007). "Even Shetiyyah". Encyclopaedia Judaica, Vol. 6 (2nd ed.). Thomson Gale. pp. 574–575.
  20. Birnbaum, Philip (1975). "Eretz Yisrael". A Book of Jewish Concepts. New York Company: Hebrew Publishing Company. pp. 62-66. ISBN 088482876X.
  21. Donin, Hayim Halevy (1972). "The Cornerstones of Judaism: Israel–Its Land". To Be a Jew: A Guide to Jewish Observance in Contemporary Life. New York: Basic Books. pp. 12=18. ISBN 0465-08624-1.