Yaƙin Basasar Afghanistan (1996–2001)

 

Infotaula d'esdevenimentYaƙin Basasar Afghanistan
1996afghan (1).png
Iri civil war (en) Fassara
Bangare na Afghanistan conflict (en) Fassara
Kwanan watan kalanda 27 Satumba 1996 –  7 Oktoba 2001
Wuri Afghanistan
Ƙasa Afghanistan
Winner (en) Fassara

Wannan labarin ya kunshi Tarihin Afghanistan tsakanin Bama da Taliban tayi wa Kabul, kuma sun kafa Masarautar Musulunci ta Afghanistan a ranar 27 ga watan Satumban shekara ta 1996, , da mamayewar Amurka da birtaniya yayi wa Afghanistan a ranar 7 ga watan Oktoban Shekara ta 2001: a lokacin da wani bangare ne na yakin basasar Afganistan da ya fara a cikin shekara ta 1989, sannan kuma wani bangare ne na yakin (a fadi mafi girma) a Afghanistan wanda ya fara a cikin shekara 1978 .

Jahar musulunci ta Afghanistan gwamnatin na zaune a matsayin gwamnatin Afghanistan na mafi yawan} asashen duniya, da Masarautar musulunci ta taliban a Afghanistan duk da haka tana karbuwa daga Saudi Arabia, Pakistan da kuma Hadaddiyar Daular Larabawa .

Ministan tsaron kasar na jahar musulunci Afghanistan, Ahmad Shah Massoud, ya kirkiri Kunigiyar hada kai(Arewacin hadaka) a cikin 'yan adawa ga Taliban. Kungiyar hada kai ta hada dukkan kabilun Afghanistan: Tajiks, Uzbeks, Hazaras, Turkmens, wasu Pashtuns da sauransu. A yayin rikicin, kungiyar Taliban ta samu tallafin soja daga Pakistan da kuma taimakon kudi daga Saudiyya. Pakistan ta tsoma baki a Afghanistan, tana tura dakaru da sojoji na kungiyar Frontier Corps da Soja akan kungiyar hadaka Al-Qaeda tallafawa Taliban da dubunnan mayaka da aka shigo da su daga Pakistan, kasashen Larabawa, da Asiya ta Tsakiya.

Manyan mahalartaGyara

Ahmad Shah Massoud (na kungiyar hadaka da jahar musulunci ta Afghanistan ), Mullah Mohammad Omar (na Taliban ) da Osama Bin Laden tare da Ayman al-Zawahiri (don Al-Qaeda da bukatun wasu Larabawa ) su ne manyan shugabannin kungiyar. yakin da ke zaune a Afghanistan . Akwai wasu shugabannin, galibi daga Pakistan (kamar Pervez Musharraf da kuma daga baya Janar Mahmud ) a gefe guda kuma daga Kungiyar hadaka (watau Haji Abdul Qadeer, Abdul Rashid Dostum ) a wancan gefen, wanda, amma, ba koyaushe yake cikin Afghanistan kanta ba. Ingancin rayuwar jama'ar Afghanistan ya dogara sosai da takamaiman shugaban da ke kula da yankin da suke zaune kai tsaye. Cikin wuri ya bambanta game da rayuwa da tsari a yankuna daban-daban.

Ƙungiyar haɗa (Kawancen Arewa)Gyara

A cikin dukkanin tarihin ayyukanta, Hadaddiyar kungiyar Musulunci ta Ceto ta Afghanistan (Northern Alliance) ta kasance karkashin jagorancin Ahmad Shah Massoud, wani dalibin injiniya na Jami'ar Kabul ya zama shugaban soja wanda ya taka rawa wajen fitar da sojojin Soviet daga Afghanistan, yana samun kudi masa sunan barkwanci Lion na Panjshir . Mabiyansa kuma suna kiransa Smer Sāheb-e Shahīd ( Commanderaunataccen Kwamandanmu na Shahada ). Jaridar Wall Street Journal a wancan lokacin ta sadaukar da ɗayan murfin nata ga Massoud yana kiransa "Afganistan da ya ci Yakin Cacar Baki". Bayan ficewar sojojin Soviet daga Afghanistan da kuma rugujewar gwamnatin Mohammad Najibullah mai samun goyon bayan Soviet, Massoud ya zama Ministan Tsaro a 1992 karkashin gwamnatin Burhanuddin Rabbani . Bayan hauhawar kungiyar Taliban a shekarar 1996, Massoud ya koma matsayin madugun adawar da ke dauke da makamai, yana aiki a matsayin kwamandan soja na Hadaddiyar Daular Musulunci.

Massoud mutum ne mai zurfin addini da ruhaniya, wanda ke tsananin adawa da fassarar addinin Islama da Taliban ko Al-Qaeda suke bi . Musulmin Sunni shi ma yana ɗauke da littafin Sufi-mystic al-Ghazali koyaushe.

'Yan Taliban sun sha ba Massoud mukamin iko don sanya shi dakatar da juriyarsa. Massoud ya ƙi saboda bai yi yaƙi don kare ƙarfi ba. Ya bayyana a wata hira:

Taliban suka ce; "kazo ka amshi mukamin pirayim minista ka kasance tare da mu", wai zasu aje babban ofishi a kasar, shugaban kasan ce. Amma a wani farashi ?! Bambamci tskanin mu shine duk hanyoyin mu da dokokin jama'ar mu da jahar mu.baza mu yarda da dokokin yar jejeniya,ko kuma sare ma dokokin dimokaraddiyar zamani ba. Mu muna kalubalantar salon mulkin ake kira " Masarautar Afghanistan"

Massoud ya hakikance cewa tsarin dimokiradiyya ne kawai zai iya tabbatar da dorewar zaman lafiya a Afghanistan. Ya so ya shawo kan Taliban su shiga tsarin siyasa wanda zai kai ga zaben dimokiradiyya a nan gaba.

A ranar 9 ga Satumba, 2001, kwana biyu kafin harin na 11 ga Satumba a Amurka, wasu da ake zargin wakilai ne na kungiyar Al-Qaeda suka kashe Massoud a lardin Takhar na Afghanistan. Jana'izar, kodayake ana yin ta a karkara, dubun dubatar mutane ne suka yi ta makoki. Shekarar da ta biyo baya, shugaban Afghanistan Hamid Karzai ya ba shi suna "Jarumi Kasa". Ranar mutuwarsa, 9 ga Satumba, ana kiyaye ta a matsayin ranar hutu a ƙasar Afghanistan, wanda aka fi sani da "Ranar Massoud". Shekarar da ta biyo bayan kisan nasa, a shekarar 2002, an zabi Massoud don kyautar Nobel ta Zaman Lafiya [1] (wanda, ba zato ba tsammani, ba a taba bayar da shi ba bayan mutuwa).

Wani dan gudun hijirar, wanda ya takurawa danginsa 27 cikin wata tsohuwar motar jeep don tserewa daga Taliban zuwa yankin Massoud, ya bayyana yankin Massoud a matsayin "kusurwa ta karshe ta Afghanistan". Game da rayuwarsa a yankin Massoud ya ce: "Ina jin 'yanci a nan. babu wanda ke damu na.Ina yin aiki na. Ina kula da iyalina. Ina zama yadda nake so a wannan yankin. ” Massoud ba shi da wani tasiri a rayuwar mutanen da ke zaune a yankunan Abdul Rashid Dostum wanda ya shiga kungiyar Hadin Kan don yakar kungiyar Taliban.

A yankin Massoud, ba dole ba ne mata da 'yan mata su sanya burqar Afghanistan. An ba su izinin yin aiki da zuwa makaranta. Aƙalla sau biyu da aka sani, Massoud da kansa ya shiga tsakani game da shari'ar auren dole. Duk da cewa gamsuwa da Massoud ya yi cewa maza da mata sun daidaita kuma ya kamata su sami 'yanci iri daya, dole ne kuma ya yi aiki da al'adun Afganistan, wadanda ya ce zai bukaci tsararraki ko sama da haka don cin nasara. A ra'ayinsa, ana iya cimma hakan ne ta hanyar ilimi.

Massoud ya kirkiro cibiyoyin dimokiradiyya wadanda aka tsara su cikin kwamitoci da yawa: siyasa, kiwon lafiya, ilimi da tattalin arziki. Duk da haka, mutane da yawa sun zo wurinsa da kansu lokacin da suke wata jayayya ko matsala kuma suka roƙe shi ya magance matsalolinsu.

Daruruwan dubunnan 'yan gudun hijira ne suka tsere daga Taliban zuwa yankunan Massoud. A shekarar 2001, Massoud da shahararren mai daukar hoto kuma tsohon jakadan Majalisar Dinkin Duniya Reza Deghati ya bayyana halin kunci da ‘yan gudun hijirar Afghanistan suka shiga tare da neman taimakon jin kai.

Abdul Rashid DostumGyara

Bayan karuwar kungiyar Taliban da kwace Kabul, Abdul Rashid Dostum ya hada kai da kungiyar kawancen Arewa (United Front) da kungiyar Taliban. Stungiyar Arewa ta haɗu a ƙarshen 1996 ta Dostum, Ahmad Shah Massoud da Karim Khalili a kan Taliban. A wannan lokacin an ce yana da kusan dakarun mazaje 50,000 da ke da goyon bayan jiragen sama da tankuna.

Yawa kamar sauran shugabannin kawancen Arewa, Dostum shima ya fuskanci rikici tsakanin kungiyarsa kuma daga baya aka tilasta shi ya mika ikonsa ga Janar Abdul Malik Pahlawan . Malik ya shiga tattaunawa a asirce da Taliban, wadanda suka yi alkawarin girmama ikonsa a galibin arewacin Afghanistan, don jin tsoron Ismail Khan, daya daga cikin makiyan su. A kan haka, a ranar 25 ga Mayu 1997, Malik ya kama Khan, ya ba da shi kuma ya bar Taliban suka shiga Mazar-e-Sharif, yana ba su iko da yawancin arewacin Afghanistan. Saboda wannan, aka tilasta Dostum ya gudu zuwa Turkiyya . ba da dadewa ba Malik ba da daɗewa ba ya fahimci cewa Taliban bata da gaskiya a alƙawarinsu yayin da yake ganin an kwance damarar mutanensa. Sannan ya sake hadewa da kawancen Arewa, ya kuma bijire wa tsoffin abokansa, yana kore su daga Mazar-e-Sharif. A watan Oktoba 1997, Dostum ya dawo daga gudun hijira kuma ya sake ɗaukar caji. Bayan Dostum ya sake karɓar ikon Mazar-e-Sharif na ɗan lokaci, Taliban ta dawo a 1998 kuma ya sake tserewa zuwa Turkiyya.

Haji Abdul QadeerGyara

Haji Abdul Qadeer (c. 1951 a Jalalabad, Afghanistan - 6 ga Yuli, 2002 a Kabul, Afghanistan) (Larabci: الحاج عبد القادر) fitaccen shugaban anti-Taliban ne na Pashtun a cikin United Front. Ya kasance dan uwan Abdul Haq, sanannen shugaban gwagwarmaya kan mamayar Soviet a Afghanistan . Iyalan Qadeer sun kasance dangi ne masu karfi a al'adance, suna da alaƙa da tsohon sarkin Afghanistan Mohammed Zahir Shah . Haji Abdul Qadeer yana da tushe a gabashin Afghanistan kuma shi ne gwamnan lardinsa Nangarhar kafin 'yan Taliban su karbi mulki.

Qadeer ya zama Mataimakin Shugaban Afghanistan a bayan gwamnatin Taliban bayan Hamid Karzai . A ranar 6 ga Yulin 2002, wasu ‘yan bindiga suka kashe Qadeer da surukinsa. An kuma kashe wani dan sa, Haji Mohammed Zaher a Kabul shi ma a 2002.

Masarautar Musulunci ta AfghanistanGyara

TalibanGyara

Mullah Mohammed Omar ne ya shugabanci sojojin Taliban a lokacin yakin basasar Afghanistan. Mullah Omar ya bayyana kansa Amir-ul-Momineen (Amirul Muminina). Ba a ɗaukar masa hoto da kyar kuma ya yi magana da 'yan jarida kai tsaye. Da yawa  sun ga Mullah Omar a matsayin mutumin da aka zaɓa daga hukumar leken asirin Pakistan, ISI. [2]

Mabiyan kungiyar Taliban sun ce an haifi Mullah Omar ne a lardin tsakiyar Uruzgan, a shekarar 1962. Sauran kafofin sun sanya haihuwarsa a Kandahar, kamar 1959. Sun kuma ce ya yi karatu a makarantun Islamiyya da yawa a wajen Afghanistan, musamman a Quetta, Pakistan. A 1980s ya shiga cikin juriya game da mamayar Soviet. An yi imanin cewa ya rasa idanunsa ne yayin yakar Soviet a matsayin mataimakin Babban Kwamanda a jam'iyyar Harakat-i Islami ta Mohammad Nabi Mohammadi. A cikin 1994, Mullah Omar ya kwace mulki a Kandahar ta hanyar tumbuke gungun 'yan daba da sojoji a bayyanar farko ta kungiyar Taliban. [3]

Mullah Omar yana da kyakkyawar alaƙa da wani sanannen ɗan siyasa a duniya: Osama bin Laden. Ya auri ɗaya daga cikin 'ya'yan bin Laden. Ya ƙi amincewa da buƙatun Amurka da yawa don ya ba da Osama bin Laden, wanda aka kashe a watan Mayu na 2011 a cikin ɓoye ɓoye da mambobin United States Naval Special Warfare Development Group da kungiyar Leken Asiri ta SAD / SOG suka yi bisa umarnin Shugaban Amurka Barack Obama .

Wani nazari daga likitocin kare hakkin dan adam (PHR) ya ce: "Kungiyar Taliban ita ce bangare na farko da ke ikirarin iko a Afghanistan da ta auna mata don tsananin zalunci da kuma azabtar da su da keta haddi. A iya sanin PHR, babu wani tsarin mulki a duniya da ya tilasta rabin yawan jama'arta cikin kama-kama a gida, ya hana su azabar azaba ta zahiri. . "

Bayan karbe iko da babban birnin Kabul a ranar 26 ga Satumbar, 1996, kungiyar Taliban ta ba da umarni na hana mata yin aiki a wajen gida, zuwa makaranta, ko barin gidajensu sai dai idan wani dan uwansu ya raka su. A cikin jama'a, dole ne a lulluɓe mata daga kai har zuwa ƙafarta cikin burki - suturar tsawon jiki tare da buɗe raga kawai don gani. Ba a ba wa mata damar sanya fararen (kalar tutar Taliban) safa ko takalmi ba, ko takalmin da zai iya yin kara yayin da ake shigarsu. Hakanan, gidaje da gine-gine dole ne a zana musu tagogin tagoginsu ta yadda ba za a iya ganin mata a ciki ba. Kusan an hana mata shiga rayuwar jama'a, an hana su damar kula da lafiya, ilimi, da aiki kuma ba a ba su damar yin dariya ta yadda wasu za su ji su ba.

'Yan Taliban, ba tare da wata kotu ta ainihi ba ko saurare, sun yanke hannayen mutane ko hannayensu a lokacin da ake zarginsu da sata. 'Yan kungiyar Taliban da suka yi kaurin suna daga mashahurin "Ma'aikatar Inganta nagarta da Rigakafin Mataimakin" sun kalli tituna suna gudanar da mugunta, bugun mutane a bainar jama'a lokacin da suka ga abin da suke dauka a matsayin dabi'ar da ba ta dace da Musulunci ba.

PakistanGyara

 
Tsohon shugaban kasar Pakistan Pervez Musharraf

Janar Pervez Musharraf, mai ritaya mai tauraruwa huɗu wanda ya yi aiki a matsayin Shugaban Kwamitin Hadin Gwiwar Kwamitin Sojoji daga 1998 zuwa 2001 da kuma Babban hafsan hafsoshin Sojojin Pakistan daga 1998 zuwa 2007, sun taka rawar gani wajen tsara rawar Pakistan a farar hula na Afghanistan yaƙi. A cikin 2001, zai ci gaba da zama shugaban mulkin sojan Pakistan da kuma Shugaban Kasa. Janar Pervez Musharraf ne ke da alhakin tura dubun-dubatar ‘yan kasar Pakistan don yin yaki tare da Taliban da Bin Laden a kan Ahmad Shah Massoud . A jimilce an yi imanin akwai 'yan Pakistan dubu 28,000 da ke yaƙi a cikin Afghanistan tare da sojojin Massoud. 20,000 sojoji ne na yau da kullun na Pakistan ko dai daga Frontier Corps, na 50th Airborne Division ko kuma sojoji na 12 na yau da kullun, kuma an kiyasta kimanin 8,000 mayaƙan da aka ɗauka a cikin madarasas masu cika matakan Taliban na yau da kullun. Kimanin Talibanan Taliban 25,000 na yau da kullun don haka ya ƙunshi fiye da Pakan ƙasar Pakistan 8,000. Wani daftarin aiki da Ma'aikatar Harkokin Wajen Amurka ta yi a 1998 ya tabbatar da cewa "kashi 20 zuwa 40 na sojojin Taliban na yau da kullum 'yan Pakistan ne." Takardar ta ci gaba da cewa iyayen wadannan 'yan Pakistan din "ba su san komai ba game da shigar dansu da kungiyar Taliban har sai an dawo da gawarwakinsu zuwa Pakistan." Wani ƙarin mayaƙa 3,000 na sojojin Taliban na yau da kullun sun kasance mayaƙan Larabawa da Asiya ta Tsakiya. Daga kusan 45,000 na Pakistan, Taliban da sojojin Al Qaeda da ke yaƙi da sojojin Massoud 14,000 ne kawai Afghanistan (Taliban).

Laftana-Janar Mahmud Ahmed, tsohon darekta-janar na hukumar leken asirin ta Pakistan (ISI), shi ne ke da alhakin tallafawa kungiyar ta Taliban. Yawancin jami'an ISI, kamar Laftana-Janar Hamid Gul, Laftanar-Janar Naseem Rana, Laftanar-Janar Ziauddin Butt da Kanar Sultan Amir Tarar mai ritaya, sun taka rawa a yakin. Jami'an sun ba da taimakon kudi, tattalin arziki, dabaru, da kuma na soji ga Taliban. An jagoranci sojojin Pakistan masu fada a karkashin jagorancin soja na Janar Naseem Rana, tunda shi ne babban kwamandan soja na dukkan sojojin Pakistan din. Kanar (wanda ya yi ritaya) Tarar ne ya ba da horon Taliban kuma, Janar (mai ritaya) Hamid Gul ke kula da taimakon kuɗi. Manjo-Janar Ziauddin Butt ya yi aiki a matsayin mai kula da ayyukan leken asiri a karkashin Janar Naseem Rana. A duk wannan yakin, dukkan manyan hafsoshin sojan kasar sun kai rahoto ga Janar Naseem Rana wanda, ba shakka, ya gabatar da kimantawarsa sannan daga baya ya yiwa Janar Musharraf bayani game da kokarin da ya jagoranta a Afghanistan. Janar Musharraf ya kuma tura samari sojoji da sojoji wadanda ke karkashin Janar Naseem don yakar kawancen Arewa, kuma babu daya daga cikinsu da Janar Musharraf ko Janar Naseem Rana suka fada kan dalilin da ya sa aka tura su zuwa yakin, a madadin Taliban, kan makiyin da bai bayyana yakin Pakistan ba, Kawancen Arewa. Sojojin Pakistan sun yi yaƙin tare da Khaki Shalwar Qameez[ana buƙatar hujja], maimakon sanya kayan yaƙi na hukuma, kamar yadda Janar Naseem Rana ya umarce su[ana buƙatar hujja] . Janar Naseem Rana ne ya yi hakan a kokarin boye asalin sojoji 'yan Pakistan ne, da kuma kaucewa matsin lambar kasa daga gwamnatin Navaz Sharif da matsin lambar kasashen duniya daga Yammacin duniya.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Ahmad Shah Massoud a asirce ya aika da manzo wanda ya tuntubi Navaz Sharif, Firayim Minista a wancan lokacin.[ana buƙatar hujja] Details na Pakistan Army da ISI 's hannu da aka bayar ga Prime Ministan Sharif. Lokacin da Sharif ya yi kokarin shiga tsakani, Janar Musharraf ya dakatar da Sharif, kuma ya kira Taliban a matsayin "kadara masu kima" da "Masu kare Pakistan gaba-da-gaba", saboda haka ya yi watsi da duk wani umarni daga Sharif na dakatar da goyon bayan Pakistan ga Taliban.[ana buƙatar hujja] Duk da haka, a shekarar 2008, tsohon mataimakin sakataren harkokin John Negroponte ya kare Janar Musharraf, ya kuma san dukan tarihin ISI. John Negroponte ya fayyace cewa an canza lokaci kuma ISI na kokarin yaki da ta'addanci.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Masu lura da al'amurra hira da Human Rights Watch, a Afghanistan da Pakistan da rahoton cewa Pakistan Army sufurin jiragen sama Corps 4th Army tsokana rundujar soja masu dawaki 's kula da jirgin sama taimaka Taliban sojojin a lokacin fama da gudanar da marigayi 2000, da kuma cewa manyan jami'an Pakistan ta m dillancin kuma sojojin da hannu a cikin shirin babbar Taliban ayyukan soja.[ana buƙatar hujja] Kamar yadda yaki cigaban, Pakistan Army tura ta 50th Airborne Division da Frontier Corps don samar da logistic support zuwa Taliban kamfen a kan Massoud ta sojojin.

Pakistan da Saudi Arabia sun kirkiro kawance mai zurfin dabaru kan batutuwa da dama daya daga cikin mahimmancin shine Afghanistan. Bayan juyin mulkin da Musharraf ya yi a watan Oktoba na shekarar 1999, babban birnin Saudiyya Riyadh shi ne babban birnin kasar waje na farko da Pervez Musharraf ya fara ziyarta, don nuna muhimmancin da ya ba dangantakar PAK da Saudiyya. Shugaba Musharraf ya karrama Sarki Abdullah ne ta hanyar ba shi lambar yabo mafi girma a Pakistan, Nishan-e-Pakistan, a wani bikin saka jari a fadar shugaban kasa. A ranar 21 ga Janairun 2007, Wakilin Masallatai Biyu Masu Alfarma Sarki Abdullah ya ba da lambar girmamawa ta Sarki Abdul Aziz, ga Shugaban Pakistan Gen. Pervez Musharraf yayin wani biki a fadarsa da ke Riyadh. Shugaban Pakistan na farko da ya taba karɓar wannan babbar daraja ta Saudiyya.

Al-QaedaGyara

 
Dan jaridar Pakistan Hamid Mir yana hira da Osama bin Laden a Afghanistan a 1997

Osama bin Laden daya daga cikin fitattun dangin Saudi bin Laden kuma shi ne shugaban da ya kafa kungiyar Al Qaeda . Bayan hare-haren 11 ga Satumba, 2001 (inda mutane 3 000 suka mutu a ƙasar Amurka), Osama bin Laden da ƙungiyarsa sun kasance manyan wuraren Yakin Amurka na Ta'addanci . An kashe Osama bin Laden a Pakistan a ranar 2 ga Mayu, 2011, jim kaɗan bayan ƙarfe 1 na dare agogon ƙasar da wata rundunar soja ta musamman ta Amurka.

Ayman al-Zawahiri shine "sarki " na biyu kuma na ƙarshe na Jihadin Islama na Masar. A 1998 al-Zawahiri bisa tsari ya hade Jihadin Islama na Masar zuwa kungiyar bin Laden. Sau da yawa ana bayyana shi a matsayin "mai jiran gado" ga Osama bin Laden, duk da cewa zababben tarihin bin Laden ya ambace shi da "ainihin kwakwalwar" ta al-Qaeda. Ayman al-Zawahiri ya yi amannar cewa yana boye a Yankunan Kabilanci na Tarayya da ke karkashin jagorancin wasu masu sharhi yayin da wasu masu lura da al'amura ke ganin yana iya boyewa a manyan biranen Pakistan ko kuma wani wuri.

Daga 1996 zuwa 2001 Osama Bin Laden da Ayman al-Zawahiri sun zama ƙasa ta gari cikin ƙasar Taliban. Bin Laden ya tura mayaka Larabawa don su shiga yaki da United Front, musamman abin da ake kira 055 Brigade . Mayakan Larabawa a karkashin Bin Laden ne suka yi sanadiyyar mummunan kisan kiyashi a yakin, inda suka kashe daruruwan fararen hula a yankunan da United Front ke iko da su. Wani rahoto da Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta fitar ya ambato shaidun gani da ido a kauyuka da dama suna kwatanta mayakan Larabawa dauke da dogayen wukake da ake amfani da su wajen yanka makogwaro da fatar mutane. A halin da ake ciki, an san mayaka na Brigade ta 055 ta Brigade da aikata kisan kai a dunkule kafin fuskantar barazanar karbe su da sojojin abokan gaba kansu.

Hadin kai tare da Harkar Musulunci na Uzbekistan (IMU)Gyara

Harkar Musulunci ta Uzbekistan (IMU) ƙungiya ce ta mayaƙa da aka kafa a 1991 tare da ƙawancen ƙawance da Al Qaeda. An kiyasta cewa IMU a ƙarshen 1990s kusan maza 2000 ne masu ƙarfi, kuma sun ba da gudummawar kusan mayaka 600 don yaƙin Taliban a kan Massoud, suna cikin shiga Taloqan, inda suka yi yaƙi tare da Brigade na 055 na Bin Laden. Ba a sani ba idan IMU ta yi aiki kai tsaye tare da Taliban ko kuma tana da wata dangantaka da su, ganin cewa ‘yan Taliban din‘ yan kabilar Pashtun ne wadanda suka yi fada da kabilun da ba na Pashtun na Afghanistan ba. A cikin 2001 IMU ta lalace sosai yayin yaƙi tare da Taliban akan sojojin ƙawancen da Amurka ke jagoranta a Afghanistan. Wasu mayaƙansu da ba a san su ba sun tsere tare da ragowar 'yan Taliban zuwa Waziristan a Pakistan inda suka kirkiro wata ƙungiya mai bin sahun gaba. An kashe shugaban IMU na tsawon lokaci Tahir Yuldashev a sakamakon wani harin wuce gona da iri da Amurkawa suka kai a Kudancin Waziristan . Abu Usman ya gaje shi a matsayin sabon shugaban IMU. A yau akwai kimanin mayaƙan IMU 2,500 zuwa 4,000 da ke zaune a yankunan kabilu na Pakistan da Afghanistan.

Fage da tarihiGyara

Taliban ta hau karagar mulkiGyara

Bayan faduwar Najibullah mai ra'ayin gurguzu - a shekarar 1992, bangarorin siyasar Afghanistan suka amince kan yarjejeniyar zaman lafiya da raba madafun iko (yarjejeniyar Peshawar). Yarjejeniyar Peshawar ce ta kirkiro daular Islama ta Afghanistan . Tun ranar farko da aka kafa ta har zuwa karshen 1994, sabuwar kungiyar Daular Islama ta Afghanistan (ISA) ta gamu da farmaki daga kungiyar Gulbuddin Hekmatyar ta Hezb-e Islami Gulbuddin da ke dauke da makamai, da kudi da kuma bayar da umarni daga makwabtan Pakistan. Masanin Afghanistan Amin Saikal ya kammala a cikin Afghanistan ta zamani: Tarihin Gwagwarmaya da Tsira :


Abdul Rashid Dostum da 'yan sa kai na Junbish-i Milli sun shiga kawance da Gulbuddin Hekmatyar a farkon 1994. Bugu da kari, Saudi Arabiya da Iran - a matsayin wadanda ke fafatawa a fagen mulkin mallaka - sun goyi bayan sojojin Afghanistan da ke gaba da juna. A cewar kungiyar kare hakkin dan adam ta Human Rights Watch, Iran na taimakawa sojojin Shi'a Hazara Hezb-i Wahdat na Abdul Ali Mazari, yayin da Iran din ke kokarin kara karfi da tasirin Wahdat. Saudi Arabiya ta goyi bayan Wahabiyanci Abdul Rasul Sayyaf da bangarensa na Ittihad-i Islami . Ba da daɗewa ba rikici tsakanin mayaƙan biyu ya rikide zuwa yaƙin gama gari. Babban birnin Kabul ya ga mummunan faɗa a wannan lokacin. An rarraba iko sosai.

A halin da ake ciki, kudancin Afghanistan ba ya karkashin ikon mayakan sa-kai da ke samun goyon bayan kasashen waje ko kuma gwamnati a Kabul, amma shugabannin yankin kamar Gul Agha Sherzai da mayakansu ke mulki. A cikin 1994, kungiyar Taliban (kungiyar da ta samo asali daga Jamiat Ulema-e-Islam - makarantun addini na ‘yan gudun hijirar Afghanistan a Pakistan) sun kuma ci gaba a Afghanistan a matsayin kungiyar siyasa da addini, wanda aka ruwaito yana adawa da zaluncin gwamnan yankin. [39] <> A shekara ta 1994, kungiyar Taliban ta karbi iko a larduna da dama a kudanci da tsakiyar Afghanistan.

ManazartaGyara

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  2. "Mullah Mohammed Omar".
  3. Gall, Carlotta.