Albert Einstein An haife shi a 14 March 1879; yarasu a April 1955) haifaffen kasar Jamus ne theoretical physicist[1] wanda ya Samar da theory of relativity, daya daga cikin ginshikan ilimin physics ayanzu (tareda quantum mechanics).[2][3] Ayyukan sa sun shahara ne akan philosophy din kimiyya.[4][5] Mutane sun sansa akan mass–energy equivalence formula, which has been dubbed "the world's most famous equation".[6] Ya lashe kyautar 1921 ta Nobel Prize a Physics "Dan ayyukan sa akan theoretical physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect",[7] a pivotal step in the development of quantum theory.

Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Albert Einstein
Albert Einstein Head.jpg
Murya
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Ulm (en) Fassara, ga Maris, 14, 1879
ƙasa German Empire (en) Fassara
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Switzerland
Austria-Hungary (en) Fassara
Weimar Republic (en) Fassara
Tarayyar Amurka
Mazaunin Einsteinhaus Caputh (en) Fassara
Einsteinhaus (en) Fassara
Jamus
München
Princeton (en) Fassara
ƙungiyar ƙabila Yahudawa
Ashkenazi Jews (en) Fassara
Harshen uwa German (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Princeton (en) Fassara, ga Afirilu, 18, 1955
Makwanci National Museum of Health and Medicine (en) Fassara
Yanayin mutuwa natural causes (en) Fassara (abdominal aortic aneurysm (en) Fassara)
Yan'uwa
Mahaifi Hermann Einstein
Mahaifiya Pauline Koch
Yara
Siblings
Karatu
Matakin karatu Doctor of Philosophy in Physics (en) Fassara
Thesis director Alfred Kleiner (en) Fassara
Heinrich Burkhardt (en) Fassara
Heinrich Friedrich Weber (en) Fassara
Harsuna Turanci
German (en) Fassara
Malamai Heinrich Friedrich Weber (en) Fassara
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Sana'a theoretical physicist (en) Fassara, philosopher of science (en) Fassara, inventor (en) Fassara, science writer (en) Fassara, pedagogue (en) Fassara, university teacher (en) Fassara, physicist (en) Fassara, marubucin labaran da ba almara, philosopher (en) Fassara, marubuci, malami, scientist (en) Fassara, mathematician (en) Fassara da patent examiner (en) Fassara
Wurin aiki Bern (en) Fassara, Prag, Zürich (en) Fassara, Berlin, Caputh (en) Fassara da Princeton (en) Fassara
Muhimman ayyuka special relativity (en) Fassara
general relativity (en) Fassara
photoelectric effect (en) Fassara
theory of relativity (en) Fassara
theory of Brownian Motion (en) Fassara
mass–energy equivalence (en) Fassara
Planck constant (en) Fassara
Einstein field equations (en) Fassara
quantum mechanics (en) Fassara
unified field theory (en) Fassara
Wanda ya ja hankalinsa Fyodor Dostoyevsky (en) Fassara, Hermann Minkowski (en) Fassara, Benedictus de Spinoza (en) Fassara, Mahatma Gandhi, Arthur Schopenhauer (en) Fassara, Hendrik Lorentz (en) Fassara, George Bernard Shaw (en) Fassara, Isaac Newton, Riazuddin (en) Fassara, David Hume (en) Fassara, Thomas Young (en) Fassara, Bernhard Riemann (en) Fassara, Moritz Schlick (en) Fassara, James Clerk Maxwell (en) Fassara, Paul Valéry (en) Fassara, Karl Pearson (en) Fassara, Henry George (en) Fassara da Ernst Mach (en) Fassara
Mamba Royal Society (en) Fassara
Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
German Academy of Sciences Leopoldina (en) Fassara
Lincean Academy (en) Fassara
American Philosophical Society (en) Fassara
Bavarian Academy of Sciences and Humanities (en) Fassara
Göttingen Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Academy of Sciences of the USSR (en) Fassara
French Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences (en) Fassara
American Academy of Arts and Sciences (en) Fassara
Russian Academy of Sciences (1917–25) (en) Fassara
Indian National Science Academy (en) Fassara
Accademia Nazionale delle Scienze detta dei XL (en) Fassara
Brazilian Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
Centre international de synthèse (en) Fassara
National Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
National Academy of Sciences (en) Fassara
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Jam'iyar siyasa German Democratic Party (en) Fassara
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Albert Einstein signature 1934.svg

A Farkon fara aikinsa, Einstein yayi tunanin Newtonian mechanics was no longer enough to reconcile the laws of classical mechanics with the laws of the electromagnetic field. Wannan ne yakaisa ga Samar da special theory of relativity kansa a lokacin yana Swiss Patent Office a garin Bern (1902–1909), Switzerland. However, he realized that the principle of relativity could also be extended to gravitational fields, and he published a paper on general relativity a 1916 with his theory of gravitation. yacigaba da kokarin warware matsalar statistical mechanics and quantum theory, hakan yakaisa ga yin bayani akan particle theory da kuma motion of molecules. Ya kuma yi bincike akan thermal properties of light wanda yazama itace Farkon photon theory of light. A 1917, he applied the general theory of relativity to model the structure of the universe.[8][9]

Einstein yayi rayuwa a kasar Switzerland daga tsakanin shekara ta 1895 zuwa 1914, baccin shekara daya dayayi a Prague, daga nan ne yayarda yabar amfani da matsayin sa Dan kasar Jamus a 1896, sannan ya karbi sakamakon sa na diploma daga Swiss federal polytechnic school (daga bayan nan Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule, ETH) dake Zürich a 1900. Bayan zamansa Mara kasa na tsawon shekara biyar (5) yazama dan kasar Switzerland a 1901, wanda yacigaba da rikewa har karshen rayuwarsa. A shekara ta 1905, yasamu sakamako na PhD daga jami'ar Zurich. A wannan shekara ya wallafa four groundbreaking papers a lokacin dinshi annus mirabilis (miracle year) wanda yakaisa zuwa ga sanayyar makarantu a shekararsa 26. Einstein yakarantar da theoretical physics a Zurich tsakanin 1912 zuwa 1914 kafin yabar Berlin, inda aka zabesa Prussian Academy of Sciences. A 1933, sanda Einstein yake ziyara a United States, Adolf Hitler yakai karagar mulki. Saboda alakarsa da Jewish, Einstein bai koma kasar Jamus ba.[10] Yasamu matsaguni a kasar United States daga nan yazama Dan kasa a shekarar 1940.[11] a jajibirin Yakin duniya II, Ya aika da letter to President Franklin D. Roosevelt inda yake labarta masa cewar akwai yuwuwar samarda "wasu sabbin bamabamai da ba'a taba irinsu ba" kuma yaga Amurika sunfara binciken kirkiransu. Wannan yasa aka fara Aikin Manhattan. Einstein yataimaki Allies, amma bai goyi bayan amfani da makaman karedangi ba. Yasa hannu a Russell–Einstein Manifesto philosopher Biritaniya wato Bertrand Russell, whanda ya bayyana illolin makaman karedangin. Yayi hadin gwiwa da Institute for Advanced Study dake Princeton, New Jersey, har zuwa lokacin dayarasu a shekarar 1955.

Einstein yayi wallafe wallafe akan kimiyya fiye da waraka 300 da wasu guda 150 wadanda basu shafi kimiyya..[8][12] nasarorinsa akan ilimi da asalinsa yasa anama sunansa "Einstein" kamar sunan "genius".[13] Eugene Wigner Yayi rubutu game da Einstein dayake dangantashi da ire-irensa, "fahimtar Einstein ya zarfi har fahimtar Jancsi von Neumann, tunaninsa yafi ratsawa da asali akan na von Neumann. Kuma wannan jawabi da baza'a taba mancewa ba."[14]

AnazarciGyara

  1. cite web |url=http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1921/einstein-bio.html |title=Albert Einstein – Biography |accessdate=7 March 2007 |publisher=Nobel Foundation| archiveurl= https://web.archive.org/web/20070306133522/http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1921/einstein-bio.html%7C archivedate= 6 March 2007 | deadurl= no
  2. cite journal | last1 = Whittaker | first1 = E. | authorlink = E. T. Whittaker| doi = 10.1098/rsbm.1955.0005 | title = Albert Einstein. 1879–1955 | journal = Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society | volume = 1 | pages = 37–67 | date = 1 November 1955| jstor = 769242| doi-access = free
  3. cite book|author1=Fujia Yang|author2=Joseph H. Hamilton|title=Modern Atomic and Nuclear Physics|date=2010|publisher=World Scientific|isbn=978-981-4277-16-7
  4. Cite journal |title=Einstein's Philosophy of Science |url=http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/einstein-philscience/#IntWasEinEpiOpp |website=Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy |publisher=The Metaphysics Research Lab, Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University |editor-first=Don A. | editor-last=Howard |date=2014 |orig-year=First published 11 February 2004 |accessdate=2015-02-04
  5. Cite journal |first=Don A. | last=Howard |title=Albert Einstein as a Philosopher of Science |url=http://www3.nd.edu/~dhoward1/vol58no12p34_40.pdf |format=PDF |date=December 2005 |journal=Physics Today |volume=58 |issue=12 |pages=34–40 |via=University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, author's personal webpage |accessdate=2015-03-08|bibcode=2005PhT....58l..34H |doi=10.1063/1.2169442
  6. cite book |first=David | last=Bodanis |title=E = mc2: A Biography of the World's Most Famous Equation |location=New York |publisher=Walker |date=2000
  7. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Nobel Prize
  8. 8.0 8.1 cite web |url=https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2011/advanced-physicsprize2011.pdf |title=Scientific Background on the Nobel Prize in Physics 2011. The accelerating universe |publisher=Nobel Media AB |page=2 |format=PDF |accessdate=2015-01-04
  9. cite news |last=Overbye |first=Dennis |authorlink=Dennis Overbye |title=A Century Ago, Einstein's Theory of Relativity Changed Everything |url=https://www.nytimes.com/2015/11/24/science/a-century-ago-einsteins-theory-of-relativity-changed-everything.html |date=24 November 2015 |work=The New York Times |accessdate=24 November 2015
  10. cite journal |date=9 June 2017 |first=Thomas |last=Levenson |journal=The Atlantic |title=The Scientist and the Fascist |url=https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2017/06/einstein-germany-and-the-bomb/528534/
  11. cite book|author1=Paul S. Boyer|author2=Melvyn Dubofsky|title=The Oxford Companion to United States History|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=SgtyKzBes6QC&pg=PA218%7Cdate=2001%7Cpublisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=978-0-19-508209-8|page=218}}
  12. cite book |editor=Paul Arthur Schilpp |date=1951 |title=Albert Einstein: Philosopher-Scientist |volume=II |publisher=Harper and Brothers Publishers (Harper Torchbook edition) |location=New York |pages=730–746. His non-scientific works include: About Zionism: Speeches and Lectures by Professor Albert Einstein (1930), "Why War?" (1933, co-authored by Sigmund Freud), The World As I See It (1934), Out of My Later Years (1950), and a book on science for the general reader, The Evolution of Physics (1938, co-authored by Leopold Infeld).
  13. Cite web |url=http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=Einstein |title=Result of WordNet Search for Einstein |version=3.1 |publisher=The Trustees of Princeton University |accessdate=2015-01-04
  14. The Recollections of Eugene P. Wigner, By Eugene Paul Wigner, Andrew Szanton, (Springer, 11 Nov 2013), page 170