Mafalsafi

mutumin da ke da ilimin falsafa

Mafalsafi ko mai falsafa shine masanin falsafa wanda kuma yake aiki da falsafar . Kalmar Falsafa ta fito ne daga daɗaɗɗar Girka: Philosophos, ma'ana 'masoyin hikima'. Ƙirƙirar kalmar an danganta ta ga manazarcin Girka mai suna Pythagoras (a ciken ƙarni na 6 KZ).

mai falsafa
sana'a
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na humanities scholar (en) Fassara
Field of this occupation (en) Fassara Falsafa
Yana haddasa tarihin falsafa
Patron saint (en) Fassara Catherine of Alexandria (en) Fassara, Albertus Magnus (en) Fassara, Justin Martyr (en) Fassara da Thomas Aquinas
Nada jerin list of philosophers (en) Fassara
Giorgi Khuroshvili - Philosopher.
Salvator Rosa, Hoton Mafalsafi

A kilasikiyance, mafalsafi shi ne wanda ya rayu bisa ga wata hanya ta rayuwa, yana mai da hankali kan warware tambayoyi na wanzuwa game da yanayin ɗan adam ; ba lallai ba ne su yi magana a kan ra'ayoyin ko yin sharhi kan marubuta. [1] Waɗanda suka sadaukar da kansu ga wannan salon rayuwa da an ɗauke su a matsayin mafalsafa, kuma yawanci sun bi falsafar Hellenanci .

A ma'anar zamani, mafalsafi intelekcuwal ne wanda ke ba da gudummawa ga ɗaya ko fiye da ɗaya na rassan falsafa, kamar su aesthetics, ɗa'a, efistomalojiya, falsafar kimiyya, lojik, fiziyarmeta, Nazariyar zamantakewa, falsafar addini, falsafar siyasa . Masanin falsafa kuma yana iya zama wanda ya yi aiki a cikin ilimin ɗan adam ko wasu ilimomin kimiya waɗanda a cikin ƙarnukan da suka wuce suka rabu da falsafar, kamar fasaha, tarihi, tattalin arziki, ilimin zamantakewa, soshiyolojiya, ilimin harshe, anturofolojiya, tiyoloji, da siyasa .  

Tarihi gyara sashe

Daɗaɗɗar Indiya da Bedas gyara sashe

Ana iya kuma samun lissafin farko na falsafar da aka haɗa a cikin tsohuwar bedas na Hindu, wanda kuma aka rubuta tsakanin 1500 zuwa 1200 KZ ( Rigveda ) da kuma kusan 1200-900 KZ ( Yajur Veda, Sama Veda, Atharva Veda ). Kafin a haɗa Vedas, an ba da su ta baki daga janereshan zuwa janereshan.

Kalmar beda tana nufin "ilimi." A duniyar zamani, ana amfani da kalmar "kimiyya" don gano nau'in ilimin da ya ke da iko wajen samar da tushen da ci gaban ɗan adam. A zamanin Vedic, farkon abin da kimiyya ta fi mayar da hankali shi ne na har-abada; Ci gaban ɗan adam yana nufin ci gaban wayewar ruhi wanda zai kai ga samar da kuɓutar ruhi daga tarko material na jauhari da dai sauransu.

Falsafar beda tana ba da amsa ga duk tambayoyin da ba a amsa ba, watau me yasa ake jin ciwo da jin daɗi, masu arziki da matalauta, masu lafiya da marasa lafiya; Ubangiji - halayensa, yanayi da ayyukansa. Ruhi - Halinsa da halayensa, rayukan mutane da dabbobi; reincarnation - ta yaya yake faruwa, dalilin da yasa aka kuma haifi mutum kamar yadda yake. Menene manufar rayuwa? Me ya kamata mu yi?

Ilimin beda ya ƙunshi bedoji guda huɗu (Rig, Yajur, Sāma, da Atharva) tare da Samhita masu yawa, 108 Upanishad, 18 Purāna, Mahabharata, rubutun Tantra da yawa. Dukkan Falsafar beda ta kasu kashi shida:

  1. Nyaya : Falsafar lojik da nazari
  2. Vaisesika : Asalin abubuwa
  3. Sankhya : Nontheistic Dualism
  4. Yoga : Horon Kai don Gane Kai
  5. Mīmāṁsā : Tunanin dharma
  6. Vedanta : Kammaluwar Wahayin Beda Fahimtar wannan tsarin ya ƙunshi pragmatic ilimin da ya dace na yadda za a tsara al'umma, yadda ya kamata a sarrafa tattalin arziki, da kuma yadda tsarin siyasa dole ne ya jagoranci al'umma.

A taƙaice, dukkanin mazhabobi shida na falsafar Beda suna da nufin bayyana yanayin duniyar waje da dangantakarta da mutum, da wuce kammanin duniya da zuwa ga zahirin gaskiya, da kuma bayyana manufar rayuwa da hanyoyin cimma wannan manufa. .

Daɗaɗɗar Iran gyara sashe

Mawaƙin Iran kuma masanin falsafa Zarathustra ya yi zamani da marubutan Beda amma koyarwarsa tana da individual character. Gathas ɗinsa ya ƙunshi ainihin koyarwar falsafar Zorastiya: ra'ayin ' yancin zaɓe, 'yantaccen zaɓi da ƙaddamar da kai na ɗan adam. A cewar Zarathustra sararin samaniya mai hankali ce, wanda Hikimar (mazda) ta halitta don haka mutum ya san sararin samaniya ta hanyar hankali (xratu). Mafi girman alheri (vohu vahishta) shine mafi girman ƙa'idar ɗa'a. Za a iya ɗaukar Zoroaster a matsayin masanin falsafa na farko. [2]

Daɗaɗɗar Girka da kuma Roma gyara sashe

 
Makarantar Athens ta Raphael, 1509-1511, ya kwatanta Plato da Aristotle (tsakiyar) suna musayar iliminsu tare da wasu tsoffin masana falsafa.

Rabuwar falsafa da kimiyya daga tiyoloji ya fara ne a Girka a cikin karni na 6 BC. [3] Thales, masanin ilmin taurari da lissafi, Aristotle ya ɗauka a matsayin masanin falsafa na farko na al'adar Girkanci . [4]

Yayin da Pythagoras ne ya ƙirƙira kalmar, sanannen bayani na farko game da batun Plato ne ya gudanar da shi. A cikin Taro nasa, ya kuma kammala cewa soyayya ita ce wacce ta rasa abin da take nema. Don haka, masanin falsafa shi ne mai neman hikima; idan ya sami hikima, da ya zama mai hikima . Don haka, masanin falsafa a zamanin da, shi ne wanda ke rayuwa a cikin neman hikima, kuma yana rayuwa bisa ga wannan hikimar. [5] An sami sabani game da abin da rayayyun falsafa ya ƙunsa. Waɗannan rashin jituwa sun haifar da mazhabobi na falsafar Helenawa daban-daban . A sakamakon haka, tsohon masanin falsafa yayi tunani a cikin al'ada. [6] Yayin da tsohuwar duniyar ta zama schism ta hanyar muhawarar falsafa, gasar ta kasance a cikin rayuwa ta hanyar da za ta canza dukan rayuwarsa a duniya. [7]

Daga cikin na ƙarshe na waɗannan masana falsafa akwai Marcus Aurelius, wanda ake ɗauka a matsayin masanin falsafa a wannan zamani, amma da kansa ya ƙi kiran kansa da irin wannan laƙabi, tun da yake yana da hakki na rayuwa a matsayin emperor . [8]

Sauyi gyara sashe

A cewar Classicist Pierre Hadot, tunanin zamani na masanin falsafa da falsafanci ya haɓaka ta hanyar canje-canje uku:

Na farko shi ne dabi'ar jauhari ta tunanin falsafa. Falsafa horo ne mai jaraba wanda zai iya ɗaukan mutum cikin sauƙi wajen tahalilin sararin samaniya da abstract theory. [9]

Na biyu shine canjin tarihi a duk medieval era. Da tasowar Kiristanci, hanyar rayuwa ta falsafa ta sami karbuwa ta hanyar tiyolojinsa. Don haka, an raba falsafar tsakanin hanyar rayuwa da conceptual, logical, physical, da metafizikal don tabbatar da wannan hanyar rayuwa. Falsafa a lokacin ita ce bawan tauhidi. [10]

Na uku shine bukatar zamantakewa tare da ci gaban jami'a. Jami’ar zamani na bukatar kwararru don koyarwa. Kula da kanta yana buƙatar koyar da ƙwararrun don maye gurbin faculty din. Don haka, horon ya ƙasƙanta zuwa harshen fasaha da aka keɓe don ƙwararrun, gaba ɗaya yana gujewa ainihin tunaninsa a matsayin hanyar rayuwa. [10]

Zamanin Tsakiya gyara sashe

A ƙarni na huɗu, kalmar falsafa ta fara bayyana namiji ko mace da suka gudanar da rayuwar zuhudu. Gregory na Nyssa, alal misali, ya bayyana yadda ’yar’uwarsa Macrina ta rinjayi mahaifiyarsu ta bar “wahalar rayuwa ta abin duniya” don rayuwa ta falsafa. [11]

Daga baya a tsakiyar zamanai, mutanen da suka tsunduma cikin alchemy ana kiran su philosophers - don haka, Dutsen Falsafa .

Zamanin Farko Farko gyara sashe

  Yawancin masana falsafa har yanzu sun fito daga al'adar kilasikiya, kamar yadda suke ganin falsafar su a matsayin hanyar rayuwa. Daga cikin mafi shahara akwai René Descartes, Baruch Spinoza, Nicolas Malebranche, da Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz . Da tasowar jami'a, tunanin zamani na falsafa ya qara shahara. Yawancin manyan masana falsafa na karni na sha takwas zuwa gaba sun halarci, koyarwa, da haɓaka ayyukansu a jami'a. Misalai na farko sun haɗa da: Immanuel Kant, Johann Gottlieb Fichte, Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling, da Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel . [12]

Bayan waɗannan mutane, coonception na kilasikiya ya mutu amma ban da Arthur Schopenhauer, Søren Kierkegaard, da Friedrich Nietzsche . Babban jigo na ƙarshe a cikin falsafar da bai bi ƙaƙƙarfan tsarin ilimi ba shine Ludwig Wittgenstein . [13]

Mafalsafa a zamanin Nazi gyara sashe

A lokacin Naziyanci, a wannan lokaci sabuwar hanyar tunani ta shafi masana falsafa. Yayin da yawancin masana falsafa suka bar Jamus, galibi Yahudawa, wasu kuma sun kasance a buɗe ga tsarin Nazi kuma suna goyon bayansa. Wadannan sun hada da Alfred Rosenberg, Alfred Baeumler, Ernst Krieck, Hans Heyse, Erich Rothacker, da Martin Heidegger . Duk da tanadin da NSDAP ta yi game da bil'adama, an inganta wasu masana falsafa. Ma'aikatar tsaro ta Reichsführer SS ta rubuta kimar akida na malaman jami'a a cikin "littafin SD akan malaman falsafa". [14] Sabanin mafi yawan malaman falsafar Jamus, daga baya priest na Austria kuma masanin falsafa Heinrich Maier da kungiyarsa da aka kashe sun bijirewa Jamus na Nazi tare da tura bayanan da ke da mahimmanci ga yaƙin ga ƙawancen. [15] [16] Bayan yakin, yawancin masana falsafa sun sami damar ci gaba da aiki a jami'o'in Jamus. Sabanin Ernst Krieck, Baeumler da Heyse, Erich Rothacker ma ya koma jami'a. [17]

Ilimin Zamani gyara sashe

A zamanin yau, waɗanda suka sami digiri mai zurfi a falsafa sukan zaɓi su ci gaba da kasancewa cikin sana'o'i a cikin tsarin ilimi a zaman wani ɓangare na faffadan tsarin ƙwararrun horo a cikin ƙarni na 20. [18] Bisa ga binciken 1993 da Cibiyar Bincike ta Ƙasa (kamar yadda Ƙungiyar Falsafa ta Amirka ta ruwaito), 77.1% na masu riƙe da 7,900 na PhD a falsafar da suka amsa sun kasance suna aiki a makarantun ilimi ( akadamiya). A daga wajen ilimin kimiyya, masana falsafa na iya amfani da ƙwarewar rubuce-rubuce da tunani a wasu sana'o'i, kamar likitanci. , bioethics, kasuwanci, wallafe-wallafe, free-lance-writing, kafofin watsa labaru, da doka.

Jiga-jigan masu tunani gyara sashe

Wasu sanannun masu tunani na zamantakewa na Faransa sune Claude Henri Saint-Simon, Auguste Comte, da Émile Durkheim . Tunanin zamantakewa na Biritaniya, tare da masu tunani irin su Herbert Spencer, sun magance tambayoyi da ra'ayoyin da suka shafi tattalin arzikin siyasa da juyin halitta . Manufofin siyasa na John Ruskin sun kasance jigon tattalin arziƙin zamantakewa ( Har zuwa Wannan Ƙarshe yana da tasiri mai mahimmanci ga falsafar Mahatma Gandhi ). Muhimman masana falsafar Jamus da masu tunani na zamantakewa sun haɗa da Immanuel Kant, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel, Karl Marx, Max Weber, Georg Simmel, da Martin Heidegger . Muhimman masana kimiyyar zamantakewa na Italiya sun hada da Antonio Gramsci, Gaetano Mosca, Vilfredo Pareto, Franco Ferrarotti, da Elena Cornaro Piscopia .

Muhimman masana falsafa na kasar Sin da masu tunani na zamantakewa sun hada da Shang Yang, Laozi, Confucius, Mencius, Zhuangzi, Wang Chong, Wang Yangming, Li Zhi, Zhu Xi, Gu Yanwu, Gong Zizhen, Wei Yuan, Kang Youwei da Lu Xun . Masana falsafa na Indiya sun haɗa da Adi Shankaracharya, Ramanuja, Chanakya, Buddha, Mahavira, Śāntarakṣita, Dharmakirti, da Nagarjuna .

Mafalsafa mata gyara sashe

  Mata sun tsunduma cikin falsafa a tsawon tarihin fagen. Akwai mata masu ilimin falsafa tun zamanin da, kuma an yarda da mata a matsayin masana falsafa a zamanin da, da na zamani, na zamani da na zamani - fiye da a cikin karni na 20 da 21, yayin da tsarin ilimi da al'umma suka zama masu haɗaka. [19] Fitattun masana falsafar mata sun haɗa da Maitreyi, Gargi Vachaknavi, Ghosha, Hypatia, Hipparchia na Maroneia, Mary Wollstonecraft, GEM Anscombe, da Susanne Langer . Sauran fitattun masana falsafar mata sun haɗa da: Judith Butler, Kaja Silverman, Simone de Beauvoir, da Gayatri Spivak.

Kyaututtuka a falsafa gyara sashe

Kyaututtuka daban-daban a falsafa sun wanzu; daga cikin mafi shahara:

  • Kyoto Prize a Arts da Falsafa
  • Kyautar Rolf Schock
  • Kyautar Avicenna
  • Berggruen Philosophy Prize

Wasu manyan masana falsafa, irin su Henri Bergson, Bertrand Russell, Rudolf Christoph Eucken, Albert Camus, da Jean-Paul Sartre, sun kuma ci kyautar Nobel a fannin adabi .

Kyautar John W. Kluge don Nazarin Dan Adam, wanda Library of Congress ya kirkiro don gane aikin da kyautar Nobel ba ta rufe ba, an ba wa masana falsafa: Leszek Kołakowski a 2003, Paul Ricoeur a 2004, da Jürgen Habermas da Charles Taylor a shekarar 2015.

Kuma sauran wasu abubuwan gyara sashe

  • Sage (falsafa)
  • Jerin masana falsafa

Nassoshi gyara sashe

  1. Pierre Hadot, The Inner Citadel. p. 4
  2. Olga Louchakova-Schwartz, "Intersubjectivity and Multiple Realities in Zarathushtra’s Gathas", Open Theology, 4(1), 2018, 471-488. doi: https://doi.org/10.1515/opth-2018-0036
  3. Empty citation (help)
  4. Aristotle, Metaphysics Alpha, 983b18.
  5. That is to say philosophically – Pierre Hadot, Philosophy as a Way of Life, trans. Michael Chase. Blackwell Publishing, 1995. p. 27: Introduction: Pierre Hadot and the Spiritual Phenomenon of Ancient Philosophy by Arnold I. Davidson. Citing Hadot, 'Presentation au College International de Philosophie,' p. 4.
  6. Pierre Hadot, Philosophy as a Way of Life, trans. Michael Chase. Blackwell Publishing, 1995. p. 5: Introduction: Pierre Hadot and the Spiritual Phenomenon of Ancient Philosophy by Arnold I. Davidson. Citing Hadot, 'Theologie, exegese, revelation' p. 22
  7. Pierre Hadot, Philosophy as a Way of Life, trans. Michael Chase. Blackwell Publishing, 1995. p. 30: Introduction: Pierre Hadot and the Spiritual Phenomenon of Ancient Philosophy by Arnold I. Davidson. Citing Hadot, Dictionnaire des philosophes antiques, p. 13
  8. Wikisource:Meditations#THE EIGHTH BOOK
  9. Pierre Hadot, Philosophy as a Way of Life, trans. Michael Chase. Blackwell Publishing, 1995. p. 31: Introduction: Pierre Hadot and the Spiritual Phenomenon of Ancient Philosophy by Arnold I. Davidson. Citing Hadot, 'Presentation au College International de Philosophie,' p. 7
  10. 10.0 10.1 Pierre Hadot, Philosophy as a Way of Life, trans. Michael Chase. Blackwell Publishing, 1995. p. 32: Introduction: Pierre Hadot and the Spiritual Phenomenon of Ancient Philosophy by Arnold I. Davidson.
  11. Readings in World Christian History (2013), pp. 147, 149
  12. Pierre Hadot, Philosophy as a Way of Life, trans. Michael Chase. Blackwell Publishing, 1995. p. 271: Philosophy as a Way of Life
  13. A. C. Grayling. Wittgenstein: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press, 2001. p. 15
  14. Hans Joachim Dahms, in: Frank-Rutger Hausmann: Die Rolle der Geisteswissenschaften im Dritten Reich, 1933–1945. (2002), p 194.
  15. Christoph Thurner "The CASSIA Spy Ring in World War II Austria: A History of the OSS's Maier-Messner Group" (2017), pp 14.
  16. Bernhard Kreutner "Das Leben des Heinrich Maier - Mann Gottes und unbeugsamer Widerstandskämpfer" (2021) pp 195.
  17. Hans Joachim Dahms, In: Frank-Rutger Hausmann: Die Rolle der Geisteswissenschaften im Dritten Reich, 1933–1945. München 2002, p 227.
  18. . JSTOR Kuklick. Invalid |url-status=51–57 (help); Cite journal requires |journal= (help); Missing or empty |title= (help)
  19. Duran, Jane. Eight women philosophers: theory, politics, and feminism. University of Illinois Press, 2005.