Template:Infobox company Microsoft Corporation ( /m aɪ k r ə s ɒ f t /, /-k r oʊ - / ) ne American manyan fasahar kamfanin da hedikwata a Redmond, Washington . Yana haɓaka, ƙera, lasisi, tallafi, da siyar da software na komputa, kayan masarufi na lantarki, kwamfutoci na sirri, da sabis masu alaƙa. Abubuwan sanannun kayan aikinta sune layin Microsoft Windows na tsarin aiki, da Microsoft Office suite, da kuma Internet Explorer da Edge masu bincike na yanar gizo . Manyan kayan aikin ta sune Xbox consoles game video video da Microsoft Surface jeri na kwamfutocin sirri na fuskar fuska. Microsoft ya kasance A'a. 21 a cikin martabar 2020 Fortune 500 na manyan kamfanonin Amurka ta hanyar kudaden shiga gaba daya; ita ce babbar mai samar da software a duniya ta kudaden shiga har zuwa shekarar 2016. Ana ɗaukarta ɗayan manyan Kamfanoni biyar a masana'antar fasahar ba da bayanai ta Amurka, tare da Google, Apple, Amazon, da Facebook .

Microsoft (kalmar ita ce tashar komputa na "microcomputer software" ) wanda Bill Gates da Paul Allen suka kafa a ranar 4 ga Afrilu, 1975, don haɓaka da sayar da masu fassarar BASIC don Altair 8800 . Ya tashi ya mamaye kasuwar tsarin komputa na mutum tare da MS-DOS a tsakiyar 1980s, sannan Microsoft Windows yana biye da ita. Hadayar jama'a ta farko ta kamfanin 1986 (IPO), da hauhawar da ta gabata a farashin rabonta, sun kirkiro masu kudi biliyan uku da kimanin 12,000 miliyoyin kuɗi tsakanin ma'aikatan Microsoft. Tun daga 1990s,ya ƙara haɓaka daga kasuwar tsarin aiki kuma ya sami samfuran kamfanoni da yawa, mafi girman su shine samun LinkedIn na $ 26.2 biliyan a cikin watan Disambar 2016, suka biyo baya ta hanyar sayen Technologies na Skype akan $ 8.5 biliyan a cikin Mayu 2011.

As of 2015, Microsoft is market-dominant in the IBM PC compatible operating system market and the office software suite market, although it has lost the majority of the overall operating system market to Android.The company also produces a wide range of other consumer and enterprise software for desktops, laptops, tabs, gadgets, and servers, including Internet search (with Bing), the digital services market (through MSN), mixed reality (HoloLens), cloud computing (Azure), and software development (Visual Studio).

Steve Ballmer ya maye gurbin Gates a matsayin Shugaba a 2000,daga baya ya yi tunanin dabarun "na'urori da aiyuka".Wannan ya bayyana ne tare da kamfanin Microsoft da ke samun Danger Inc a shekarar 2008,shiga kasuwar kera kwamfutocin mutum a karon farko a watan Yunin 2012 tare da ƙaddamar da layin Microsoft Surface na kwamfutocin kwamfutar hannu, sannan daga baya ya samar da Microsoft Mobile ta hanyar mallakar Nokia's na'urorin da sabis.Tunda Satya Nadella ta hau kujerar Shugaba a shekarar 2014, kamfanin ya sake komowa kan kayan aiki kuma ya mai da hankali ga aikin sarrafa girgije,wani yunkuri da ya taimaka hannun jarin kamfanin ya kai matsayin da ya fi shi tun Disamba 1999.

Tun da fari Apple ya kwace shi a cikin 2010,a cikin 2018 Microsoft ya sake dawo da matsayinsa a matsayin kamfanin da ya fi kowane dan kasuwa ciniki a duniya.A watan Afrilu na shekarar 2019, Microsoft ya kai darajar kasuwar trillion-dollar,ya zama kamfanin kamfanin Amurka na uku da aka kiyasta kan $ 1 tiriliyan bayan Apple da Amazon bi da bi. As of 2020 , Microsoft yana da ƙimar daraja ta uku mafi girma a fadin duniya.

TarihiGyara

1972–1985: KafaGyara

 
Kwamfuta ta Altair 8800 (hagu) tare da mashahurin Model 33 ASR Teletype azaman m, mai karanta kaset ɗin takarda, da naushi na tef.
File:1981BillPaul.jpg
Paul Allen da Bill Gates a ranar 19 ga Oktoba, 1981, bayan sanya hannu kan wata muhimmiyar kwangila tare da IBM :228

Abokan ƙuruciya Bill Gates da Paul Allen sun nemi yin kasuwanci ta amfani da ƙwarewar su a cikin shirye-shiryen kwamfuta . A cikin 1972, sun kafa Traf-O-Data, wanda ke siyar da komputa mai ƙwarewa don biye da nazarin bayanan zirga-zirgar motoci. Gates ya yi rajista a Jami'ar Harvard yayin da Allen ya ci gaba da karatun digiri a kimiyyar kwamfuta a Jami'ar Jihar Washington, kodayake daga baya ya bar aiki a Honeywell . Fitowar fitowar Watan Lantarki ta Janairu 1975 ta Micro Instrumentation da Telemetry Systems 's (MITS) Altair 8800 microcomputer, wanda ya zaburar da Allen ya ba da shawarar cewa za su iya shirya mai fassara BASIC don na'urar. Gates ya kira MITS ya yi da'awar cewa yana da mai fassara, kuma MITS ta nemi a yi zanga-zangar. Allen ya yi aiki a kan na'urar kwaikwayo ta Altair yayin da Gates ya haɓaka mai fassara, kuma ya yi aiki ba tare da ɓata lokaci ba lokacin da suka nuna shi ga MITS a watan Maris na 1975 a Albuquerque, New Mexico . MITS sun yarda su rarraba shi, suna tallata shi azaman Altair BASIC . :108, 112–114 Gates da Allen sun kafa Microsoft a ranar 4 ga Afrilu, 1975, tare da Gates a matsayin Shugaba, kuma Allen ya ba da shawarar sunan "Micro-Soft", a takaice don software na ƙananan kwamfutoci. A watan Agusta 1977, kamfanin ya kulla yarjejeniya tare da ASCII Magazine a Japan, wanda ya haifar da ofishin farko na duniya na ASCII Microsoft . Microsoft ya dauke hedkwatarsa zuwa Bellevue, Washington a watan Janairun 1979.

Microsoft ya shiga kasuwancin tsarin aiki (OS) a cikin 1980 tare da nasa iri na Unix da ake kira Xenix, amma MS-DOS ne ya tabbatar da mamayar kamfanin. IBM ya ba da kwangila ga Microsoft a watan Nuwamba 1980 don samar da sigar CP / M OS don amfani da shi cikin IBM Personal Computer (IBM PC). Don wannan yarjejeniyar, Microsoft ta sayi clone / CP mai suna 86-DOS daga Seattle Computer Products wanda ta sanya alama a matsayin MS-DOS, kodayake IBM ya sake suna zuwa IBM PC DOS . Microsoft ya ci gaba da mallakar MS-DOS bayan fitowar IBM PC a watan Agusta 1981. IBM ya haƙƙin mallaka na IBM PC BIOS, don haka dole ne sauran kamfanoni su sake injiniya don ba kayan aikin IBM ba su yi aiki azaman masu haɗin IBM PC, amma babu irin wannan ƙuntatawa da aka yi amfani da tsarin aiki. Daga ƙarshe Microsoft ya zama babban mai sayar da tsarin sarrafa PC. :210 Kamfanin ya faɗaɗa cikin sabbin kasuwanni tare da fitowar Mouse na Microsoft a cikin 1983, da kuma tare da sashen buga littattafai mai suna Microsoft Press . :232 Paul Allen ya yi murabus daga kamfanin Microsoft a shekarar 1983 bayan ya kamu da cutar Hodgkin . Allen ya yi ikirarin a cikin Idea Man: Memoir daga Co-kafa Microsoft cewa Gates ya so ya narkar da kasonsa a kamfanin lokacin da aka gano shi da cutar Hodgkin saboda bai yi tunanin cewa yana aiki tuƙuru ba. Daga baya Allen ya saka hannun jari a cikin ƙananan fannoni na fasaha, ƙungiyoyin wasanni, rukunin ƙasa na kasuwanci, ƙarancin kwakwalwa, sararin samaniya, da ƙari.

1985–1994: Windows da OfishiGyara

 
An fitar da Windows 1.0 a ranar 20 ga Nuwamba, 1985 a matsayin farkon sigar layin Microsoft Windows

Microsoft ya saki Microsoft Windows a ranar 20 ga Nuwamba, 1985, a matsayin ƙarin hoto na MS-DOS, :242–243, 246 duk da cewa sun fara haɓaka OS / 2 tare da IBM a watan Agusta da ya gabata. Microsoft ya dauke hedkwatarsa daga Bellevue zuwa Redmond, Washington a ranar 26 ga Fabrairu, 1986, kuma ya fito fili a ranar 13 ga Maris, tare da sakamakon karuwar hajojin da aka kiyasta masu biliyan hudu da 12,000 miliyoyin kuɗi daga ma'aikatan Microsoft. Microsoft ya saki sigar OS / 2 ga asalin masana'antun kayan aiki (OEMs) a ranar 2 ga Afrilu, 1987. A cikin 1990, Hukumar Kasuwanci ta Tarayya ta binciki Microsoft don yiwuwar haɗin gwiwa saboda haɗin gwiwa tare da IBM, wanda ke nuna farkon farkon rikice-rikicen doka da sama da shekaru tare da gwamnati. :243–244 A halin yanzu, kamfanin yana kan aiki akan Microsoft Windows NT, wanda ya dogara ƙwarai da kwafin su na lambar OS / 2. An shigo dashi ne a ranar 21 ga Yuli, 1993, tare da sabon kernel mai daidaito da kuma 32-bit Win32 aikace-aikacen shirye-shiryen aikace-aikace (API), yana mai sauƙin shigo da kaya daga Windows 16-bit (tushen MS-DOS) Microsoft ya sanar da IBM na Windows NT, kuma haɗin OS / 2 ya lalace.

A cikin 1990, Microsoft sun gabatar da Microsoft Office suite wanda ya hada aikace-aikace daban kamar Microsoft Word da Microsoft Excel . :301 A ranar 22 ga Mayu, Microsoft sun ƙaddamar da Windows 3.0, tare da fasalta ingantattun ƙirar mai amfani da ingantaccen yanayin kariya ga mai sarrafa Intel 386, kuma duka Office da Windows sun zama masu rinjaye a yankunansu.

A ranar 27 ga Yulin, 1994, Sashen Adalci na Ma'aikatar Shari'a ya gabatar da wata sanarwa game da tasirin gasar wanda ya ce: "farawa daga 1988, kuma ya ci gaba har zuwa 15 ga Yulin, 1994, Microsoft ya jawo yawancin OEMs don aiwatar da lasisin adawa da gasa 'kowane mai sarrafawa.' A karkashin lasisin sarrafa-injin sarrafawa, OEM na biyan Microsoft kudin masarauta ga kowace kwamfutar da ta sayar dauke da takamaiman microprocessor, ko OEM ta sayar da kwamfutar tare da tsarin aiki na Microsoft ko kuma tsarin da ba na Microsoft ba. A zahiri, biyan kuɗin masarauta ga Microsoft lokacin da ba'a amfani da kayan Microsoft yana yin azaba, ko haraji, akan amfani da OEM na tsarin PC mai aiki. Tun daga shekarar 1988, amfani da lasisin kere kere na Microsoft ya karu. "

1995 - 2007: Haɗa cikin Yanar gizo, Windows 95, Windows XP, da XboxGyara

 
A cikin 1996, Microsoft ya fitar da Windows CE, sigar tsarin aiki wanda ake nufi don mataimakan dijital na sirri da sauran ƙananan kwamfutoci.

Bayan bin bayanan Bill Gates na "bayanan Tidal Wave na Intanet" a ranar 26 ga Mayu, 1995, Microsoft ya fara sake fasalin abubuwan da yake bayarwa da fadada layin samfuransa zuwa sadarwar kwamfuta da Yanar Gizon Duniya . Tare da wasu ƙananan keɓe na sababbin kamfanoni, kamar Netscape, Microsoft shine kawai babban kuma kamfani da aka kafa wanda yayi aiki da sauri don zama ɓangare na Gidan Yanar Gizon Duniya kusan tun daga farko. Sauran kamfanoni kamar Borland, WordPerfect, Novell, IBM da Lotus, kasancewa da jinkirin daidaitawa da sabon yanayin, zai ba Microsoft ikon mamaye kasuwa. Kamfanin ya saki Windows 95 a ranar 24 ga watan Agusta, 1995, wanda ke nuna ayyukan ba da izini, sabon tsarin mai amfani tare da maɓallin farawa na sabon labari, da daidaituwa 32-bit; kwatankwacin NT, ta samar da Win32 API. :20 Windows 95 ya kasance tare da sabis na kan layi na MSN, wanda da farko aka yi niyya ya zama mai gasa ga Intanet,  da (don OEMs) Internet Explorer, mai binciken yanar gizo . Ba a haɗa Internet Explorer da akwatunan Windows Windows na kiri-kiri, saboda an buga kwalaye ɗin kafin ƙungiyar ta gama aikin gidan yanar gizon, kuma a maimakon haka aka sanya ta cikin Windows 95 Plus! shirya An goyi bayan wani babban kamfen na talla [1] da abin da The New York Times ta kira "fitarwa, mafi frenzied, mafi tsadar gabatarwar kayan komputa a tarihin masana'antar," [2] Windows 95 da sauri ya zama mai nasara. [3] Branching zuwa sababbin kasuwanni a cikin 1996, Microsoft da General Electric 's NBC unit sun ƙirƙiri sabon tashar tashar labaran 24/7 , MSNBC . Microsoft ya kirkiro Windows CE 1.0, sabon OS da aka tsara don na'urori tare da ƙananan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya da sauran ƙuntatawa, kamar mataimakan dijital na sirri . A watan Oktoba 1997, Ma'aikatar Shari'a ta gabatar da kara a Kotun Gundumar Tarayya, tana mai cewa Microsoft ta karya yarjejeniyar da aka sanya wa hannu a 1994 kuma ta nemi kotun da ta dakatar da hada Internet Explorer da Windows. :323–324

 
Microsoft ya fitar da kashi na farko a cikin jerin kayan wasan Xbox na 2001 a 2001. Xbox, wanda ke da iko sosai idan aka kwatanta da kishiyoyinsa, ya nuna samfurin 733 na PC MHz Intel Pentium III mai sarrafawa.

A ranar 13 ga Janairun 2000, Bill Gates ya mika mukamin Shugaba ga Steve Ballmer, wani tsohon abokin kwaleji na Gates kuma ma'aikacin kamfanin tun 1980, yayin kirkirar sabon matsayi ga kansa a matsayin Babban Masanin Gine-ginen Software . :111, 228 Kamfanoni daban-daban ciki har da Microsoft sun kirkiro Allianceungiyar Amintaccen Kayan Kayan Komfuta a cikin watan Oktoba na 1999 don (a tsakanin sauran abubuwa) haɓaka tsaro da kare kayan ilimi ta hanyar gano canje-canje a cikin kayan aiki da software. Masu suka sun yi tir da ƙawancen a matsayin wata hanya ta aiwatar da ƙayyadaddun iyakoki game da yadda masu amfani da su ke amfani da software, da kuma yadda kwamfutoci ke nuna ɗabi'a, kuma a matsayin nau'i na haƙƙin haƙƙin dijital : misali yanayin da kwamfuta ba ta amintar da mai ita kawai, har ma da tsaro a kan mai shi kuma. Ranar 3 ga Afrilu, 2000, an zartar da hukunci a game da Amurka v. Kamfanin Microsoft, kira kamfanin da "cin zali mai cin zali." Daga baya Microsoft ya zauna tare da Ma'aikatar Shari'a ta Amurka a 2004. A ranar 25 ga Oktoba, 2001, Microsoft ya fitar da Windows XP, yana haɗa manyan layi da NT na OS a ƙarƙashin lambar NT. Kamfanin ya fitar da Xbox daga baya a waccan shekarar, ya shiga kasuwar wasan bidiyo na wasan bidiyo wanda Sony da Nintendo suka mamaye. A watan Maris 2004 Tarayyar Turai ta kawo karar cin amana a kan kamfanin, suna masu cewa ta yi amfani da ikonta na Windows OS, wanda ya haifar da hukuncin € 497 miliyan ($ 613 miliyan) da kuma buƙatar Microsoft don samar da sababbin sifofin Windows XP ba tare da Windows Media Player ba : Windows XP Home Edition N da Windows XP Professional N. A watan Nuwamba 2005, kamfanin wasan bidiyo na bidiyo na biyu, Xbox 360, ya kasance saki. Akwai nau'i biyu, fasali na asali don $ 299.99 da kuma tsarin maficici na $ 399.99.

Presentara kasancewa a cikin kasuwancin kayan aiki bayan Xbox, Microsoft a cikin 2006 ya saki jerin Zune na 'yan wasan kafofin watsa labaru na dijital, magaji na dandamali na software na baya Portable Media Center . Waɗannan sun faɗaɗa kan alƙawarin kayan aikin da suka gabata daga Microsoft bayan Asalin Microsoft na asali a cikin 1983; ya zuwa shekara ta 2007 kamfanin ya sayar da mafi kyawun kebul keyboard ( Natural Ergonomic Keyboard 4000 ), linzamin kwamfuta ( IntelliMouse ), da kyamaran gidan yanar gizo na tebur ( LifeCam ) a Amurka. A waccan shekarar kamfanin ya kuma ƙaddamar da Surface "tebur na dijital", daga baya aka sake masa suna PixelSense . [4]

 
Shugaba Steve Ballmer a taron MIX a cikin 2008. A wata hira da aka yi da shi game da yadda yake gudanar da mulki a shekarar 2005, ya ambaci abin da ya sa a gaba shi ne samar da mutanen da yake wakilta. Ballmer ya kuma jaddada bukatar ci gaba da bin sabbin fasahohi koda kuwa yunƙurin farko bai faɗi ba, yana mai bayyana ainihin ƙoƙarin da aka yi da Windows a matsayin misali.
 
Hedikwatar Hukumar Tarayyar Turai, wacce ta sanya wa Microsoft cin tara da yawa

An sake shi a watan Janairun 2007, na gaba na Windows, Vista, ya mai da hankali ne kan fasali, tsaro da kuma sabon tsarin amfani da mai suna Aero . Microsoft Office 2007, wanda aka fitar a lokaci guda, ya nuna fasalin mai amfani da " Ribbon " wanda ya kasance babban rashi ne daga magabata. Salesarfin kasuwancin da ke da ƙarfi ya taimaka wajen samar da riba a cikin 2007. Tarayyar Turai ta sake sanya tarar of 899 miliyan ($ 1.4 biliyan) for Microsoft ta rashin yarda da Maris 2004 hukunci a kan Fabrairu 27, 2008, yana mai cewa kamfanin ya zargi abokan hamayyar m farashin for key bayanai game da workgroup da Backoffice sabobin. Microsoft ya bayyana cewa yana bin ka’idoji kuma “wadannan tarar an yi su ne kan batutuwan da suka gabata da aka warware”. 2007 kuma ya ga ƙirƙirar cibiyoyi da yawa a Microsoft, suna bin matakan kamfanonin sabar kamar Sun da IBM.

Gates ya yi ritaya daga matsayinsa na Cif Software Architect a ranar 27 ga Yunin, 2008, yanke shawara da aka sanar a watan Yuni 2006, yayin da yake riƙe da wasu mukamai da suka shafi kamfanin ban da kasancewa mai ba da shawara ga kamfanin kan muhimman ayyuka. Azure Services Platform, shigar kamfanin cikin kasuwar sarrafa kwamfuta ta Windows, wanda aka ƙaddamar a ranar 27 ga Oktoba, 2008. A ranar 12 ga Fabrairu, 2009, Microsoft ya sanar da aniyarsa ta buɗe jerin shagunan sayar da kayayyakin Microsoft, kuma a ranar 22 ga Oktoba, 2009, Shagon Microsoft na farko da aka buɗe a Scottsdale, Arizona ; a wannan ranar an fitar da Windows 7 a hukumance ga jama'a. Windows 7 ta fi mai da hankali kan sake sabunta Vista tare da sauƙin amfani da fasalolin haɓaka abubuwa, maimakon sake aikin Windows mai yawa.

A yayin da masana'antar wayoyin zamani ta bunkasa a karshen shekarun 2000, Microsoft ta yi ta kokarin ci gaba da kasancewa tare da abokan hamayyar ta wajen samar da tsarin zamani na wayoyin zamani, inda ya koma bayan kamfanin Apple da Google wadanda ke daukar nauyin Android a Amurka. [5] A sakamakon haka, a cikin 2010 Microsoft ta sake fasalin babban aikin babbar wayar salula, Windows Mobile, ya maye gurbin ta da sabon Windows Phone OS wanda aka fitar a watan Oktoba na shekarar. Ya yi amfani da sabon yare mai amfani da keɓaɓɓen mai amfani, wanda aka sanya wa suna "Metro", wanda ya yi amfani da fitattun sifofi masu sauƙi, rubutu da zane-zane, ta amfani da ma'anar ƙarancin aiki. Microsoft ya aiwatar da sabuwar dabara ga masana'antar software, yana samar da daidaitaccen kwarewar mai amfani a duk wayoyin zamani ta amfani da Windows Phone OS. Ya ƙaddamar da ƙawance tare da Nokia a cikin 2011 kuma Microsoft ya yi aiki tare da kamfanin don haɓaka Windows Phone, [6] amma ya kasance abokan tarayya tare da Windows Mobile OEM HTC na dogon lokaci. [7] Microsoft memba ne na kafuwar Open Networking Foundation da aka fara a ranar 23 ga Maris, 2011. Abokan kafa sune Google, Networking na HP, Yahoo!, Kamfanin sadarwa na Verizon, Deutsche Telekom da wasu kamfanoni 17. Wannan ƙungiya mai zaman kanta tana mai da hankali ne kan samar da tallafi don ƙaddamar da ƙididdigar girgije mai suna Sadarwar Sadarwar Software. An ƙaddamar da shirin ne don saurin haɓaka ta hanyar sauye-sauyen software cikin hanyoyin sadarwar sadarwa, hanyoyin sadarwar mara waya, cibiyoyin bayanai da sauran wuraren sadarwar.

2011–2014: Windows 8 / 8.1, Xbox One, Outlook.com, da Surface na'urorinGyara

 
Surface Pro 3, wani ɓangare na jerin Surface na laplets ta Microsoft

Bayan fitowar Windows Phone, Microsoft ya gudanar da sake yin rajistar kayan aikinta a hankali a cikin shekarar 2011 da 2012, tare da alamun tambari, kayayyaki, aiyuka da gidajen yanar sadarwar da ke dauke da ka'idoji da dabarun yaren Metro . Microsoft ya gabatar da Windows 8, wani tsarin aiki wanda aka tsara shi don baiwa kwamfutoci da kwamfutocin hannu iko, a Taipei a watan Yunin 2011. An saki samfoti mai tasowa a ranar 13 ga Satumba, wanda aka maye gurbinsa da samfurin samfoti a ranar 29 ga Fabrairu, 2012, kuma aka sake shi ga jama'a a cikin Mayu. An gabatar da Surface ne a ranar 18 ga watan Yuni, ya zama kwamfuta ta farko a tarihin kamfanin da Microsoft ta kera kayan aikinta. A ranar 25 ga Yuni, Microsoft ya biya US $ 1.2 biliyan don siyan hanyar sadarwar Yammer . A ranar 31 ga Yuli, sun ƙaddamar da sabis ɗin gidan yanar gizo na Outlook.com don yin gogayya da Gmail . A ranar 4 ga Satumba, 2012, Microsoft ya saki Windows Server 2012 .

A watan Yulin 2012, Microsoft ya sayar da kaso 50% na kamfanin na MSNBC, wanda ya yi aiki tare da hadin gwiwar kamfanin NBC tun daga 1996. A ranar 1 ga Oktoba, Microsoft ya sanar da aniyarsa ta ƙaddamar da aikin labarai, wani ɓangare na sabon salon MSN, tare da Windows 8 a cikin watan. A ranar 26 ga Oktoba, 2012, Microsoft suka ƙaddamar da Windows 8 da Microsoft Surface . Kwana uku bayan haka, Windows Phone 8 aka ƙaddamar. Don jimre dammar karuwar bukatar kayayyaki da aiyuka, Microsoft ta bude wasu "shagunan hutu" a fadin Amurka don taimakawa yawan "Shagon bulo-da-turmi" na Shagunan Microsoft da aka bude a 2012. A ranar 29 ga Maris, 2013, Microsoft suka ƙaddamar da Patent Tracker.

A August 2012, New York City Police Department sun baiyana bude kofar sanya hannun jari da Microsoft domin samar da Domain Awareness System domin amfanin Police surveillance in New York City.

 
The Xbox One console, released in 2013

The Kinect, a motion-sensing input device made by Microsoft and designed as a video game controller, first introduced in November 2010, was upgraded for the 2013 release of the Xbox One video game console. Kinect's capabilities were revealed in May 2013: an ultra-wide 1080p camera, function in the dark due to an infrared sensor, higher-end processing power and new software, the ability to distinguish between fine movements (such as a thumb movement), and determining a user's heart rate by looking at their face. Microsoft filed a patent application in 2011 that suggests that the corporation may use the Kinect camera system to monitor the behavior of television viewers as part of a plan to make the viewing experience more interactive. On July 19, 2013, Microsoft stocks suffered their biggest one-day percentage sell-off since the year 2000, after its fourth-quarter report raised concerns among the investors on the poor showings of both Windows 8 and the Surface tablet. Microsoft suffered a loss of more than US$32 billion.

Dangane da kasuwancin PC ɗin da ke balaga, a cikin Yuli 2013, Microsoft ya ba da sanarwar cewa zai sake tsara kasuwancin zuwa sabbin ɓangarorin kasuwanci guda huɗu, wato Operating System, Apps, Cloud, and Devices. Duk sassan da suka gabata za a narkar da su cikin sabbin rukunoni ba tare da an rage yawan ma’aikata ba. A ranar 3 ga Satumba, 2013, Microsoft ta amince ta sayi sashin wayar hannu ta Nokia akan dala 7 biliyan, bin Amy Hood tana ɗaukar matsayin CFO.

2014–2020: Windows 10, Microsoft Edge, HoloLensGyara

 
Satya Nadella ta gaji Steve Ballmer a matsayin Shugaba na Microsoft a watan Fabrairu 2014

A ranar 4 ga Fabrairu, 2014, Steve Ballmer ya sauka daga mukamin Shugaba na Microsoft kuma Satya Nadella ce ta gaje shi, wanda a baya ya jagoranci sashen Cloud da Enterprise na Microsoft. A wannan ranar, John W. Thompson ya ɗauki matsayin shugaba, a madadin Bill Gates, wanda ya ci gaba da shiga a matsayin mai ba da shawara kan fasaha. Thompson ya zama shugaba na biyu a tarihin Microsoft. A ranar 25 ga Afrilu, 2014, Microsoft ta sayi Na'urorin Nokia da Sabis na $ 7.2 biliyan. An sake sunan wannan sabon reshen na kamfanin Microsoft Mobile Oy. A ranar 15 ga Satumba, 2014, Microsoft ta sayi kamfanin haɓaka wasan bidiyo Mojang, wanda aka fi sani da Minecraft, akan $ 2.5 biliyan. A ranar 8 ga Yuni, 2017, Microsoft ta sayi Hexadite, wani kamfanin tsaro na Isra’ila, a kan $ 100 miliyan.

A ranar 21 ga Janairu, 2015, Microsoft ta ba da sanarwar sakin fararen allo na farko, Microsoft Surface Hub . A ranar 29 ga Yuli, 2015, Windows 10 an sake shi, tare da ɗan uwan uwar garken sa, Windows Server 2016, wanda aka saki a watan Satumba na 2016. A cikin Q1 2015, Microsoft shine na uku mafi girman wayoyin hannu, yana siyar da 33 miliyoyin raka'a (7.2% na duka). Yayin da babban rinjaye (aƙalla 75%) daga cikinsu ba sa gudanar da kowane sigar Windows Phone - waɗancan wayoyin ba Gartner ne ke rarrabe su azaman wayoyin komai da ruwanka – a cikin lokaci guda 8 miliyoyin wayoyin salula na Windows (2.5% na duk wayoyin salula) duk masana'antun ne suka yi (amma galibi ta Microsoft). Rabon Microsoft na kasuwar wayoyin salula na Amurka a cikin Janairu 2016 ya kai kashi 2.7%. A lokacin bazara na shekarar 2015 kamfanin ya yi asarar $ 7.6 biliyoyin da ke da alaƙa da kasuwancin ta wayar hannu, ta kori ma'aikata 7,800.

A ranar 1 ga Maris, 2016, Microsoft ta ba da sanarwar hadewar komfutocin PC da Xbox, tare da Phil Spencer ya ba da sanarwar cewa aikace -aikacen Universal Windows Platform (UWP) za su zama abin da za a mayar da hankali ga wasan Microsoft a nan gaba. A ranar 24 ga Janairu, 2017, Microsoft ya nuna Intune don Ilimi a taron fasahar fasaha na BETT 2017 a London . Intune don Ilimi shine sabon aikace-aikacen tushen girgije da sabis na sarrafa kayan aiki don ɓangaren ilimi. A watan Mayun 2016, kamfanin ya sanar da cewa yana sallamar ma'aikata 1,850, tare da daukar nakasa da sake fasalin dala $ 950 miliyan. A watan Yunin 2016, Microsoft ta sanar da wani aiki mai suna Microsoft Azure Information Protection. Yana da nufin taimakawa kamfanoni su kare bayanan su yayin da yake tafiya tsakanin sabobin da na'urori. A cikin Nuwamba 2016, Microsoft ya shiga Gidauniyar Linux a matsayin memba na Platinum yayin Haɗin Microsoft (); taron mai tasowa a New York. Kudin kowane memba na Platinum shine $ 500,000 a shekara. Wasu manazarta sun ɗauki wannan abin da ba a zata ba shekaru goma da suka gabata, duk da haka, kamar yadda a cikin 2001 babban jami'in Steve Ballmer ya kira Linux "kansa". Microsoft yana shirin ƙaddamar da samfotin Intune don Ilimi “a cikin makwanni masu zuwa”, tare da jadawalin jadawalin jadawalin bazara na 2017, wanda aka saka farashi akan $ 30 a kowace na’ura, ko ta hanyar yarjejeniyar lasisin girma.

 
Nokia Lumia 1320, Microsoft Lumia 535 da Nokia Lumia 530, wadanda dukkansu suna aiki akan daya daga cikin tsarin aiki na Windows Phone da aka daina aiki yanzu.

A cikin Janairu 2018, Microsoft ya yi facin Windows 10 don yin lissafin matsalolin CPU da suka shafi matsalar tsaro ta Intel ta Meltdown . Alamar ta haifar da batutuwa tare da injunan Microsoft Azure masu dogaro da gine -ginen CPU na Intel. A ranar 12 ga Janairu, Microsoft ta saki PowerShell Core 6.0 don tsarin aikin macOS da Linux . A watan Fabrairun 2018, Microsoft ta kashe tallafin sanarwa don na'urorin Windows Phone ɗin su wanda ya ƙare sabunta firmware na na'urorin da aka daina. [8] A cikin Maris 2018, Microsoft ya tuno Windows 10 S don canza shi zuwa yanayin don tsarin aikin Windows maimakon tsarin aiki na daban da na musamman. A cikin Maris kamfanin ya kuma kafa jagororin da ke toshe masu amfani da Office 365 daga amfani da ƙazanta a cikin takardu masu zaman kansu. [8] A cikin Afrilu 2018, Microsoft ta saki lambar tushe don Mai sarrafa Fayil na Windows a ƙarƙashin lasisin MIT don murnar cikar shirin shekara 20. A watan Afrilu kamfanin ya kara nuna niyyarsa ta rungumi dabarun budewa ta hanyar sanar da Azure Sphere a matsayin tushen sa na tsarin aikin Linux . [8] A watan Mayu 2018, Microsoft ta yi haɗin gwiwa tare da hukumomin leken asirin Amurka 17 don haɓaka samfuran sarrafa girgije. A aikin da aka An Kwafa "Azure gwamnatin", kuma yana da dangantaka da hadin gwiwa ciniki Tsaro Lantarki (JEDI) kula shirin. [8] A ranar 4 ga Yuni, 2018, Microsoft bisa hukuma ta sanar da siyan GitHub akan $ 7.5 biliyan, yarjejeniyar da aka rufe a ranar 26 ga Oktoba, 2018. A ranar 10 ga Yuli, 2018, Microsoft ya bayyana dandalin Surface Go ga jama'a. Daga baya a cikin watan ya canza Kungiyoyin Microsoft zuwa kyauta . [8] A watan Agusta na 2018, Microsoft ta saki wasu ayyuka guda biyu da ake kira Microsoft AccountGuard da Kare Dimokuradiyya. Hakanan ya bayyana dacewa Snapdragon 850 don Windows 10 akan ginin ARM . [8]

 
Apollo 11 dan sama jannati Buzz Aldrin ta amfani da Microsoft HoloLens gauraye gaskiyar magana a watan Satumba 2016

A watan Agusta 2018, Toyota Tsusho ya fara haɗin gwiwa tare da Microsoft don ƙirƙirar kayan aikin kiwon kifi ta amfani da Microsoft Azure suite don fasahar Intanet na abubuwa (IoT) da suka shafi sarrafa ruwa. Masu bincike daga Jami’ar Kindai suka haɓaka shi, kayan aikin famfon ruwa suna amfani da hankali na wucin gadi don ƙidaya yawan kifaye a kan mai ɗaukar kaya, bincika adadin kifayen, da cire tasirin kwararar ruwa daga bayanan da kifin ke bayarwa. Takamaiman shirye -shiryen kwamfuta da ake amfani da su a cikin aikin sun faɗi ƙarƙashin Koyar da Injin Azure da dandamalin Azure IoT Hub. A watan Satumba 2018, Microsoft ta daina Skype Classic . A ranar 10 ga Oktoba, 2018, Microsoft ta shiga cikin Community Network Invention Network duk da cewa ta mallaki sama da 60,000 na haƙƙin mallaka. A watan Nuwamba 2018, Microsoft ta amince ta samar da na’urorin kai magana na Microsoft na HoloLens 100,000 ga sojojin Amurka don “kara yawan mutuwa ta hanyar inganta iya ganowa, yanke hukunci da shiga gaban abokan gaba.” A cikin Nuwamba 2018, Microsoft ya gabatar da Inganta Tabbatar da Multi-Factor na Azure don Microsoft Azure. A cikin Disamba 2018, Microsoft ta sanar da Project Mu, sigar buɗe tushen tushen Babban Haɗin Firmware Interface (UEFI) wanda aka yi amfani da shi a samfuran Microsoft Surface da Hyper-V. Aikin yana inganta ra'ayin Firmware azaman Sabis . A cikin wannan watan, Microsoft ta ba da sanarwar buɗe tushen aiwatar da Fom ɗin Windows da Gidauniyar Gabatarwar Windows (WPF) wanda zai ba da damar ƙarin motsi na kamfanin zuwa ga sakin gaskiya na manyan mahimman hanyoyin da aka yi amfani da su wajen haɓaka aikace -aikacen tebur na Windows da software. Disamba kuma ya ga kamfanin ya daina aikin Microsoft Edge don fifita tallafin baya na Chromium don masu binciken su. [9]

20 ga Fabrairu, 2019 Kamfanin Microsoft ya ce zai ba da AccountGuard sabis na tsaro na yanar gizo ga sabbin kasuwanni 12 a Turai ciki har da Jamus, Faransa da Spain, don rufe gibin tsaro da kare abokan ciniki a sararin siyasa daga kutse. A watan Fabrairun 2019, daruruwan ma’aikatan Microsoft sun nuna rashin amincewarsu da cinikin yakin kamfanin daga $ 480 miliyoyin kwangila don haɓaka lasifikan kai na gaskiya ga Sojojin Amurka .

2020 -gabatar: Sayi, Xbox Series X/S, Windows 11Gyara

A ranar 26 ga Maris, 2020, Microsoft ta ba da sanarwar cewa tana siyan Tabbatattun Hanyoyin Sadarwa na kusan $ 1.35 biliyan. Sakamakon barkewar cutar COVID-19, Microsoft ta rufe dukkan shagunan saida kayan ta har abada saboda matsalolin lafiya. A ranar 22 ga Yuli, 2020, Microsoft ya ba da sanarwar shirin rufe sabis na Mixer, yana shirin ƙaura abokan haɗin gwiwa zuwa Wasannin Facebook . A Yuli 31, 2020, an bayar da rahoton cewa Microsoft ya tattaunawa don saya TikTok bayan da trump gwamnati da umarnin ByteDance zuwa divest ikon mallakar daga cikin aikace-aikace ga Amurka A Agusta 3, 2020, bayan da hasashe a kan yarjejeniyar, Donald trump ya fa cewa Microsoft na iya siyan aikace -aikacen, duk da haka yakamata a kammala shi zuwa 15 ga Satumba, 2020 kuma ya kamata Ma'aikatar Baitulmalin Amurka ta karɓi wani kaso idan za ta wuce. A ranar 5 ga Agusta, 2020, Microsoft ta dakatar da gwajin yawo na xCloud na na'urorin iOS . A cewar Microsoft, makomar xCloud akan iOS har yanzu ba a sani ba kuma tana iya fita daga hannun Microsoft. Apple ya sanya tsauraran iyaka kan "abokan cinikin tebur mai nisa" wanda ke nufin aikace-aikacen kawai an ba su izinin haɗi zuwa na'urar mai masaukin mai amfani ko na'ura wasan bidiyo mallakar mai amfani. A ranar 21 ga Satumba, 2020, Microsoft ta sanar da aniyarta ta mallakar ZeniMax Media na kusan $ 7.5 biliyan, tare da tsammanin yarjejeniyar za ta kasance a cikin rabin rabin shekarar kasafin kudi na 2021. A ranar 9 ga Maris, 2021, an kammala siyan kayan kuma ZeniMax Media ya zama wani ɓangare na Microsoft's Xbox Game Studios division. Jimlar farashin yarjejeniyar ta kai dala biliyan 8.1. A ranar 22 ga Satumba, 2020, Microsoft ta ba da sanarwar cewa tana da lasisi na musamman don amfani da janareta harshe na wucin gadi na OpenAI na GPT-3. Siffar da ta gabata ta GPT-3, da ake kira GPT-2, ta yi kanun labarai don kasancewa “masu haɗarin sakin jiki” kuma tana da fa'idodi da yawa, gami da ƙirar gidajen yanar gizo, rubuta magunguna, amsa tambayoyi da rubutun rubutu. A ranar 10 ga Nuwamba, 2020, Microsoft ta saki kayan wasan bidiyo na Xbox Series X da Xbox Series S.

A ranar 24 ga Yuni, 2021, Microsoft ta sanar da Windows 11 yayin raye raye. Sanarwar ta zo da rudani bayan da Microsoft ta sanar Windows 10 zai zama sigar karshe ta tsarin aiki. An shirya za a sake shi a Fall 2021.

Harkokin kamfanoniGyara

 

Yan kwamitin gudanarwaGyara

Kwamitin daraktoci ne wanda galibin kamfanonin waje ne ke gudanar da kamfanin, kamar yadda aka saba ga kamfanonin da ke kasuwanci a bainar jama'a. Membobin kwamitin gudanarwa tun daga watan Yuli 2020 sune Satya Nadella, Reid Hoffman, Hugh Johnston, Teri List-Stoll, Sandi Peterson, Penny Pritzker, Charles Scharf, Arne Sorenson, John W. Stanton, John W. Thompson, Emma Walmsley da Padmasree Warrior . Ana zaɓar membobin kwamitin kowace shekara a taron masu hannun jari na shekara -shekara ta amfani da tsarin ƙuri'a mafi rinjaye. Akwai kwamitoci guda huɗu a cikin kwamitin da ke kula da ƙarin takamaiman al'amura. Waɗannan kwamitocin sun haɗa da Kwamitin Binciken, wanda ke kula da batutuwan lissafin kuɗi tare da kamfanin da suka haɗa da dubawa da rahoto; Kwamitin diyya, wanda ya amince da diyya ga Shugaba da sauran ma'aikatan kamfanin; Kwamitin Gudanarwa da Zabe, wanda ke gudanar da harkokin kamfanoni daban -daban ciki har da nadin kwamitin; da Kwamitin Ka'idoji da Kwamitin Manufofin Jama'a, wanda ya haɗa da al'amuran doka/ƙin amincewa, tare da tsare sirri, kasuwanci, amincin dijital, hankali na wucin gadi, da dorewar muhalli.

A ranar 13 ga Maris, 2020, Gates ya ba da sanarwar cewa zai bar kwamitin daraktocin Microsoft da Berkshire Hathaway domin ya mai da hankali kan kokarin sa na alheri. A cewar Haruna Tilley na The Wall Street Journal wannan "yana nuna alamar tashi mafi girma daga cikin ɗakin kwana a masana'antar fasaha tun bayan rasuwar abokin hamayya da abokin haɗin gwiwa na Apple Inc. Steve Jobs ."

Shugabannin zartarwaGyara

  1. Bill Gates (1975 - 2000)
  2. Steve Ballmer (2000 - 2014)
  3. Satya Nadella (2014- yanzu)

Mai kudiGyara

 
Jadawalin tarihin shekaru biyar na Nasdaq a ranar 17 ga Yuli, 2013

Lokacin Microsoft tafi jama'a da kuma kaddamar da farko jama'a hadaya (IPO) a 1986, da bude stock farashin da aka $ 21. bayan ranar ciniki, farashin ya rufe akan $ 27.75. Tun daga watan Yuli na 2010, tare da rabe -raben tara na kamfanin, duk wani hannun jarin IPO zai ninka da 288; idan mutum zai sayi IPO a yau, idan aka yi rabe -raben da sauran abubuwan, zai ci kusan 9 cents. :235–236 Farashin hannun jari ya hau a 1999 a kusan $ 119 ($ 60.928, daidaitawa don rarrabuwa). Kamfanin ya fara bayar da rabon a ranar 16 ga Janairu, 2003, yana farawa da cibi takwas a kowane kaso na shekarar kasafin kudi sannan ya biyo bayan ragin kashi goma sha shida a kowace shekara a shekara mai zuwa, yana sauyawa daga ribar shekara zuwa kashi uku a 2005 tare da kashi takwas a kowane rabo. kwata-kwata da kuma biya na musamman sau ɗaya na dala uku kowane rabon kashi na biyu na shekarar kasafin kuɗi. [10] Kodayake kamfanin yana da ƙarin haɓakawa na biyan kuɗi, farashin hannun jarin Microsoft ya ci gaba da tsayawa tsawon shekaru. [11]

Standard & Poor's da Moody's Investors Service duk sun ba Microsoft ƙimar AAA, wanda aka ƙiyasta kadarorinsa akan $ 41. biliyan idan aka kwatanta da $ 8.5 kawai biliyan a cikin bashin da ba a tsare ba. Sakamakon haka, a cikin watan Fabrairu na shekarar 2011 Microsoft ta saki wani haɗin kamfani wanda ya kai $ 2.25 biliyan tare da ƙarancin rancen kuɗi idan aka kwatanta da jarin gwamnati . A karon farko cikin shekaru 20 Apple Inc. ya zarce Microsoft a cikin ribar Q1 2011 da kudaden shiga kwata -kwata saboda raguwar tallace -tallace na PC da ci gaba da manyan asara a Sashin Sabis na Layi na Microsoft (wanda ya ƙunshi injin bincikensa Bing ). Ribar Microsoft ta kasance $ 5.2 biliyan, yayin da ribar Apple Inc. ta kasance $ 6 biliyan, akan kudaden shiga na $ 14.5 biliyan $ 24.7 biliyan bi da bi. Sashin Sabis na kan layi na Microsoft yana ci gaba da yin asara tun 2006 kuma a cikin Q1 2011 ya yi asarar $ 726 miliyan. Wannan ya biyo bayan asarar $ 2.5 biliyan na shekarar 2010.

A ranar 20 ga Yuli, 2012, Microsoft ta buga asarar farko ta kwata kwata, duk da samun kudaden shiga na kwata da na kasafin kuɗi, tare da asarar $ 492 miliyan saboda rubutaccen garin da ya danganci kamfanin talla aQuantive, wanda aka saya akan $ 6.2 biliyan baya a 2007. Tun daga watan Janairun 2014, babban kasuwancin Microsoft ya tsaya kan $ 314B, ya mai da shi kamfani na 8 mafi girma a duniya ta hanyar babban kasuwa. A ranar 14 ga Nuwamba, 2014, Microsoft ya wuce ExxonMobil don zama kamfani na biyu mafi ƙima ta hanyar ƙimar kasuwa, bayan Apple Inc. Jimlar darajar kasuwar ta wuce $ 410B - tare da farashin hannun jarin ya kai dala 50.04 rabon, mafi girma tun farkon 2000. A cikin 2015, Reuters ya ba da rahoton cewa Microsoft Corp yana da albashi a ƙasashen waje na $ 76.4 biliyoyin da Hukumar Harajin Cikin Gida ba ta karba ba . A karkashin dokar Amurka, kamfanoni ba sa biyan harajin samun kudin shiga kan ribar da ke kasashen waje har sai an shigo da ribar cikin Amurka.

Shekara Kudin shiga



</br> cikin mil. US $
Duka riba



</br> cikin mil. US $ [12]
Jimlar Kadarori



</br> cikin mil. US $ [12]
Ma'aikata [12]
2005 39,788 12,254 70,815 61,000
2006 44,282 12,599 69,597 71,000
2007 51,122 14,065 63,171 79,000
2008 60,420 17,681 72,793 91,000
2009 58,437 14,569 77,888 93,000
2010 62,484 18,760 86,113 89,000
2011 69,943 23,150 108,704 90,000
2012 73,723 16,978 121,271 94,000
2013 77,849 21,863 142,431 99,000
2014 86,833 22,074 172,384 128,000
2015 93,580 12,193 174,472 118,000
2016 91,154 20,539 193,468 114,000
2017 96,571 25,489 250,312 124,000
2018 110,360 16,571 258,848 131,000
2019 125,843 39,240 286,556 144,106
2020 143,015 44,281 301,311 163,000

A watan Nuwamba 2018, kamfanin ya lashe $ 480 miliyoyin kwangilar soja tare da gwamnatin Amurka don kawo ingantacciyar fasahar lasifikan kai (AR) a cikin repertoires na sojojin Amurka. Kwangilar na shekara biyu na iya haifar da bin umarnin sama da lasifikan kai 100,000, bisa ga takardun da ke bayyana tsarin yin siyarwar. Ofaya daga cikin lamuran alamar kwangilar don haɓaka haƙiƙanin fasaha da alama ikon sa ne na ba da damar “yaƙe -yaƙe 25 ba tare da jini ba kafin yaƙin farko”, yana ba da shawarar cewa ainihin horo na yaƙi zai zama muhimmin al'amari na haɓaka kai na gaskiya.

ƘungiyoyiGyara

Microsoft kasuwanci ne na duniya. Don haka, tana buƙatar rassan da ke cikin duk kasuwannin ƙasa da ta zaɓa don girbi. Misali shine Microsoft Canada, wanda ta kafa a 1985. Sauran ƙasashe suna da irin wannan shigarwa, don ribar ribar da aka samu har zuwa Redmond da rarraba rabon ga masu hannun jarin MSFT.

 
Windows 8 Kaddamar da Taro a Akihabara, Tokyo a ranar 25 ga Oktoba, 2012

A shekara ta 2004, Microsoft ta ba kamfanonin bincike damar yin bincike mai zaman kansa idan aka kwatanta jimlar kuɗin mallaka (TCO) na Windows Server 2003 zuwa Linux ; Kamfanonin sun kammala cewa kamfanoni sun sami Windows mafi sauƙin gudanarwa fiye da Linux, don haka waɗanda ke amfani da Windows za su gudanar da sauri wanda ke haifar da ƙarancin farashi ga kamfanin su (watau ƙananan TCO). Wannan ya haifar da raƙuman karatu masu alaƙa; binciken da Yankee Group ya kammala cewa haɓakawa daga sigar Windows Server zuwa wani yana kashe ɗan ƙaramin farashin sauyawa daga Windows Server zuwa Linux, kodayake kamfanonin da aka bincika sun lura da ƙarin tsaro da amincin sabobin Linux da damuwa game da kulle su cikin amfani da Microsoft. samfurori. Wani binciken, wanda Labarin Ci gaban Labarai na Open Source ya fitar, ya yi iƙirarin cewa binciken na Microsoft "ya kasance mai tsufa kuma mai gefe ɗaya" kuma binciken su ya kammala cewa TCO na Linux ya yi ƙasa saboda masu gudanar da Linux suna sarrafa ƙarin sabobin a matsakaita da sauran dalilai.

A matsayin wani ɓangare na kamfen ɗin "Samun Gaskiya", Microsoft ya haskaka . Dandalin ciniki na NET Framework wanda ya haɓaka tare da haɗin gwiwa tare da Accenture don Kasuwar Hannun Jari ta London, yana mai cewa ya samar da dogaro na "tara tara". Bayan shan wahala na tsawan lokaci da rashin dogaro Kasuwar Hannun Jari ta London ta sanar a 2009 cewa tana shirin yin watsi da mafita ta Microsoft da canzawa zuwa tushen Linux a 2010.

A cikin 2012, Microsoft ya yi hayar wani ɗan siyasa mai suna Mark Penn, wanda The New York Times ta kira shi "sananne don bulldozing" abokan hamayyarsa na siyasa a matsayin Babban Mataimakin Shugaba, Talla da Dabara. Penn ya ƙirƙiri jerin tallace -tallace marasa kyau waɗanda ke niyya ɗaya daga cikin manyan masu fafatawa da Microsoft, Google . Tallace -tallacen, da ake kira "Scroogled", suna ƙoƙarin yin ƙarar cewa Google yana "murƙushe" masu amfani tare da sakamakon binciken da aka yi amfani da su don fifita masu talla na Google, cewa Gmel ta keta sirrin masu amfani da ita don sanya sakamakon talla da ya shafi abun cikin imel ɗin su da sakamakon siyayya, wanda ke fifita samfuran Google. Littattafan fasaha kamar TechCrunch sun kasance masu sukar kamfen ɗin talla, yayin da ma'aikatan Google suka rungume shi.

Korar ma'aikataGyara

A watan Yulin 2014, Microsoft ta sanar da shirin korar ma’aikata 18,000. Microsoft ya dauki mutane 127,104 aiki tun daga ranar 5 ga Yuni, 2014, yana mai yin hakan game da raguwar ma’aikata kashi 14 cikin dari kamar yadda babbar Microsoft ta dakatar. Wannan ya haɗa da ƙwararrun ma'aikata 12,500 da ma'aikata. A baya, Microsoft ya kawar da ayyukan 5,800 a cikin 2009 daidai da Babban koma bayan tattalin arziki na 2008 - 2017. A watan Satumbar 2014, Microsoft ta sallami mutane 2,100, ciki har da mutane 747 a yankin Seattle – Redmond, inda kamfanin ke da hedikwata. Wannan harbe -harben ya zo ne a matsayin guguwar sallamar da aka sanar a baya. Wannan ya kawo jimlar adadin sama da 15,000 daga cikin 18,000 da ake tsammanin ragewa. [13] A cikin Oktoba 2014, Microsoft ya bayyana cewa kusan an yi shi tare da kawar da ma'aikata 18,000, wanda shine mafi girman aikin da aka taɓa yi. A watan Yulin 2015, Microsoft ta sanar da rage wasu ayyukan 7,800 a cikin watanni masu zuwa. A watan Mayun 2016, Microsoft ta sanar da rage wasu ayyuka 1,850 galibi a bangaren wayar salula ta Nokia. Sakamakon haka, kamfanin zai yi rikodin nakasa da cajin sake fasalin kusan $ 950 miliyan, wanda kusan $ 200 miliyan za su danganta da biyan kuɗaɗe.

Gwamnatin AmurkaGyara

Microsoft provides information about reported bugs in their software to intelligence agencies of the United States government, prior to the public release of the fix. A Microsoft spokesperson has stated that the corporation runs several programs that facilitate the sharing of such information with the U.S. government.[14] Following media reports about PRISM, NSA's massive electronic surveillance program, in May 2013, several technology companies were identified as participants, including Microsoft.[15] According to leaks of said program, Microsoft joined the PRISM program in 2007.[16] However, in June 2013, an official statement from Microsoft flatly denied their participation in the program:

++

A cikin watanni shida na farko a 2013, Microsoft ta karɓi buƙatun da suka shafi asusun 15,000 zuwa 15,999. A watan Disamba na 2013, kamfanin ya ba da sanarwa don ƙara jaddada gaskiyar cewa suna ɗaukar sirrin abokan cinikin su da kariyar bayanai da mahimmanci, har ma suna cewa "ɓarkewar gwamnati mai yuwuwar yanzu na iya zama ' ci gaba mai ɗorewa ,' tare da ingantattun ƙwayoyin cuta da hare -haren yanar gizo". Sanarwar ta kuma nuna farkon shirye-shiryen kashi uku don haɓaka ɓoyewar Microsoft da ƙoƙarin nuna gaskiya. A ranar 1 ga Yuli, 2014, a matsayin wani ɓangare na wannan shirin sun buɗe na farko (da yawa) Microsoft Transparency Center, wanda ke ba da "gwamnatoci masu halarta da ikon yin duba lambar tushe don manyan samfuranmu, tabbatar wa kansu amincin software, da tabbatar da can ba “ kofofin baya bane .” Microsoft ya kuma yi jayayya cewa yakamata Majalisar Dokokin Amurka ta samar da ƙaƙƙarfan ƙa'idodin tsare sirri don kare bayanan masu amfani.

A watan Afrilun 2016, kamfanin ya kai karar gwamnatin Amurka, yana mai cewa umarnin sirri ya hana kamfanin bayyana wa abokan ciniki sammacin da ya sabawa haƙƙin kamfanin da na abokan ciniki. Microsoft ya musanta cewa ya sabawa tsarin mulki ga gwamnati ta haramta Microsoft daga sanar da masu amfani da ita cewa gwamnati na neman imel da sauran takardu, kuma Kwaskwarimar ta huɗu ta yi hakan don haka mutane ko 'yan kasuwa na da' yancin sanin ko gwamnati na bincike ko kwace dukiyarsu. A ranar 23 ga Oktoba, 2017, Microsoft ta ce za ta yi watsi da karar sakamakon sauye -sauyen manufofi da Ma'aikatar Shari'a ta Amurka (DoJ) ta yi. DoJ ya "canza dokokin buƙatun bayanai kan faɗakar da masu amfani da Intanet game da hukumomin da ke samun bayanan su."

Shaidar kamfaniGyara

Al'adar kamfanoniGyara

Bayanan fasaha don masu haɓakawa da labarai don mujallu daban -daban na Microsoft kamar Microsoft Systems Journal (MSJ) ana samun su ta hanyar Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN). MSDN kuma tana ba da biyan kuɗi don kamfanoni da daidaikun mutane, kuma ƙarin biyan kuɗi mafi tsada galibi yana ba da damar zuwa sigar beta na software na Microsoft. A cikin Afrilu 2004, Microsoft ta ƙaddamar da rukunin al'umma don masu haɓakawa da masu amfani, mai taken Channel 9, wanda ke ba da wiki da dandalin Intanet . Wani rukunin yanar gizon da ke ba da shirye -shiryen bidiyo na yau da kullun da sauran ayyuka, On10.net, an ƙaddamar da shi a ranar 3 ga Maris, 2006. Ana bayar da tallafin fasaha na kyauta ta hanyar ƙungiyoyin labarai na Usenet na kan layi, da CompuServe a baya, ma'aikatan Microsoft ke sa ido; ana iya samun ƙungiyoyin labarai da yawa don samfur ɗaya. Abokan hulɗa ko ma'aikatan Microsoft za su iya zaɓar zaɓaɓɓen matsayi don Matsayin Mafi Kyawun Kwararru na Microsoft (MVP), wanda ke ba su damar samun wani matsayi na zamantakewa na musamman da damar samun kyaututtuka da sauran fa'idodi.

An lura da ƙamus ɗin sa na ciki, ana amfani da kalmar '' cin abincin karen ku '' don bayyana manufar yin amfani da fitarwa da sigar beta na samfuran a cikin Microsoft a ƙoƙarin gwada su a cikin yanayin "na zahiri". Wannan yawanci ana gajarta shi zuwa "abincin kare" kawai kuma ana amfani dashi azaman suna, fi'ili, da adjective. Wani bit na jargon, FYIFV ko FYIV ( "Fuck Kai, ba ni da [Cikakke] jarin"), da ake amfani da wani ma'aikaci ya nuna su ne financially m, kuma za a iya kauce wa aikin kowane lokaci da suke so.

Microsoft babban abokin hamayya ne na h -1B visa, wanda ke bawa kamfanoni a Amurka damar daukar wasu ma'aikatan kasashen waje aiki. Bill Gates ya yi iƙirarin cewa hular da ke kan takardar visa ta H1B tana da wahalar ɗaukar ma'aikata ga kamfanin, yana mai cewa "Tabbas zan kawar da hular H1B" a 2005. Masu sukar visa ta H1B suna jayayya cewa sassauta iyakokin zai haifar da karuwar rashin aikin yi ga jama'ar Amurka saboda ma'aikatan H1B da ke aiki don ƙarancin albashi. The Human Rights Gangamin Corporate Daidaitan Index, wani rahoto na yadda m kungiyar deems kamfanin manufofin LGBT ma'aikata, rated Microsoft kamar yadda 87% daga 2002 zuwa 2004, kuma kamar yadda 100% daga 2005 zuwa 2010, bayan da suka yarda jinsi magana.

A watan Agustan 2018, Microsoft ta aiwatar da manufa ga duk kamfanonin da ke ba da masu kwangilar don buƙatar makonni 12 na biyan kuɗi na iyaye ga kowane ma'aikaci. Wannan yana faɗaɗa akan tsohon abin da ake buƙata daga 2015 wanda ke buƙatar kwanaki 15 na hutu da aka biya da kuma rashin lafiya kowace shekara. A cikin 2015, Microsoft ta kafa tsarin hutun iyaye don ba da izinin makonni 12 don hutu na iyaye tare da ƙarin makonni 8 ga iyayen da suka haihu.

MuhalliGyara

A cikin 2011, Greenpeace ta fitar da rahoto wanda ke ƙididdige manyan manyan samfura goma a cikin ƙididdigar girgije akan tushen wutar lantarki don cibiyoyin bayanan su . A lokacin, cibiyoyin bayanai sun cinye har zuwa 2% na duk wutar lantarki ta duniya kuma ana hasashen wannan adadin zai ƙaru. Phil Radford na Greenpeace ya ce "muna damuwa cewa wannan sabon fashewar a cikin amfani da wutar lantarki na iya kulle mu cikin tsofaffi, gurɓataccen hanyoyin makamashi maimakon tsabtataccen makamashi da ake da shi a yau," kuma yayi kira ga "Amazon, Microsoft da sauran shugabannin bayanan. -Dole ne masana'antar fasaha ta rungumi makamashi mai tsabta don sarrafa cibiyoyin bayanan su na girgije. " A cikin 2013, Microsoft ya amince ya sayi wutar lantarki da aikin iska na Texas ya samar don sarrafa ɗayan cibiyoyin bayanan sa. An saka Microsoft a matsayi na 17 a cikin Jagorar Greenpeace ga Greener Electronics (Fitowa ta 16) wacce ke matsayin masu kera na'urorin lantarki 18 bisa ga manufofinsu kan sunadarai masu guba, sake amfani da canjin yanayi. Lokaci na Microsoft don fitar da ƙarar wuta (BFRs) da phthalates a duk samfuran shine 2012 amma ƙudurinsa na kawar da PVC ba a bayyane yake ba. Tun daga watan Janairun 2011, ba shi da samfuran da ba su da cikakkiyar kyauta daga PVC da BFRs.

Babban harabar Microsoft ta Amurka ta karɓi takaddar azurfa daga shirin Jagoranci a Makamashi da Tsarin Muhalli (LEED) a cikin 2008, kuma ta girka filayen hasken rana sama da 2,000 a saman gine -ginenta a harabar Silicon Valley, tana samar da kusan kashi 15 na jimlar kuzarin da ake buƙata. ta wurare a watan Afrilu 2005. Microsoft yana yin amfani da madadin hanyoyin wucewa. Ya ƙirƙiri ɗayan manyan motocin bas masu zaman kansu na duniya, "Mai Haɗawa", don jigilar mutane daga wajen kamfanin; don zirga-zirgar harabar harabar, “Haɗin Jirgin Sama” yana amfani da manyan motoci na matasan don adana mai. Kamfanin ya kuma tallafa wa jigilar jama'a na yanki, wanda Sound Transit da King County Metro suka bayar, a matsayin abin ƙarfafawa. [17] A watan Fabrairun 2010, duk da haka, Microsoft ta ɗauki matakin hana ƙara ƙarin zirga-zirgar jama'a da manyan abubuwan hawa (HOV) zuwa Route 520 na jihar da gadar da ke shawagi ta haɗa Redmond zuwa Seattle; kamfanin bai so ya sake jinkirta ginin ba. Microsoft ta kasance lamba ta 1 a cikin jerin Mafi kyawun Ayyuka na Ƙasashen Duniya ta Babban Wuri zuwa Cibiyar Aiki a 2011. A cikin Janairu 2020, kamfanin ya yi alƙawarin cirewa daga muhallin duk carbon ɗin da ya fito tun lokacin da aka kafa shi a 1975. A ranar 9 ga Oktoba, 2020, Microsoft ya sanya aikinsu daga manufofin gida na dindindin. A cikin Janairu 2021, kamfanin ya ba da sanarwar a shafin Twitter don shiga cikin Yarjejeniyar Cibiyar Ba da Lamuni ta Yanayi, wanda ke ɗaukar kayan aikin girgije da masana'antun cibiyoyin bayanai don isa tsaka -tsakin yanayi a Turai nan da 2030.

HedikwatarGyara

 
Harabar yamma ta harabar Microsoft Redmond

Babban hedikwatar kamfani, wanda ba a san shi ba kamar harabar Microsoft Redmond, yana a One Microsoft Way a Redmond, Washington. Microsoft da farko ya koma harabar harabar harabar harabar a ranar 26 ga Fabrairu, 1986, makonni kafin kamfanin ya fito fili ranar 13 ga Maris. Tun daga lokacin hedkwatar ta sami fa'idodi da yawa tun lokacin da aka kafa ta. An kiyasta ya ƙunshi sama da 8 miliyan ft 2 (750,000 m 2 ) sararin ofis da ma'aikata 30,000 - 40,000. Ƙarin ofisoshin suna cikin Bellevue da Issaquah, Washington (ma'aikata 90,000 a duk duniya). Kamfanin yana shirin haɓaka Mountain View, California, harabar harabar ta a babban sikelin. Kamfanin ya mamaye wannan harabar tun 1981. A cikin 2016, kamfanin ya sayi harabar kadada 32, tare da shirye-shiryen gyara da fadada shi da kashi 25%. Microsoft yana aiki da hedikwatar Gabas ta Gabas a Charlotte, North Carolina .

Shagunan tutociGyara

 
Shagon flagship na Microsoft na Toronto

A ranar 26 ga Oktoba, 2015, kamfanin ya buɗe wurin siyar da shi a Fifth Avenue a Birnin New York. Wurin yana fasalin kantin gilashi mai hawa biyar kuma yana da murabba'in 22,270. Kamar yadda kowane jami'in kamfani, Microsoft ya kasance yana neman wurin da aka fi samun tuta tun 2009. Wuraren siyarwar kamfanin wani ɓangare ne na babban dabarun don taimakawa haɓaka haɗin gwiwa tare da masu amfani da ita. Bude shagon yayi daidai da kaddamar da littafin Surface da Surface Pro 4. A ranar 12 ga Nuwamba, 2015, Microsoft ta buɗe kantin sayar da tutoci na biyu, wanda ke cikin Pitt Street Mall na Sydney.

Gyara

Microsoft ya karɓi abin da ake kira " Pac-Man Logo," wanda Scott Baker ya tsara, a cikin 1987. Baker ya bayyana "Sabuwar tambarin, a cikin nau'in rubutun italic ɗin Helvetica, yana da rauni tsakanin o da s don jaddada ɓangaren" taushi "na sunan kuma isar da motsi da saurin." Dave Norris ya gudanar da kamfen na wargi na ciki don ceton tsohuwar tambarin, wanda kore ne, a cikin manyan manya, kuma ya nuna harafin O, wanda ake yiwa lakabi da blibbet, amma an watsar. Alamar Microsoft mai taken "Ƙarfin ku. Sha'awar mu. " - a ƙarƙashin babban sunan kamfani - ya dogara ne akan taken Microsoft da aka yi amfani da shi a 2008. A cikin 2002, kamfanin ya fara amfani da tambarin a Amurka kuma a ƙarshe ya fara kamfen na talabijin tare da taken, an canza shi daga layin farko na " Ina kuke son zuwa yau? " A lokacin taron MGX mai zaman kansa (Microsoft Global Exchange) a cikin 2010, Microsoft ya bayyana alamar kamfanin na gaba, "Kasance Abin Gaba." Suna kuma da taken/taken taken "Yin shi duka yana da ma'ana."

A ranar 23 ga Agusta, 2012, Microsoft ta buɗe sabon tambarin kamfani a buɗe shagon Microsoft na 23 a Boston, yana nuna jujjuyawar kamfanin daga salon salo zuwa ƙirar zamani mai tayal, wanda yake amfani/zai yi amfani da shi akan Windows. Dandalin waya, Xbox 360, Windows 8 da Office Suites masu zuwa. Sabuwar tambarin ya haɗa da murabba'i huɗu tare da kalolin tambarin Windows na yanzu wanda aka yi amfani da su don wakiltar manyan samfuran Microsoft guda huɗu: Windows (shuɗi), Ofishin (ja), Xbox (kore) da Bing (rawaya). Alamar tayi kama da buɗe ɗayan tallan don Windows 95 .

TallafawaGyara

Kamfanin shine mai daukar nauyin rigar wasan kwallon kwando ta kasar Finland a EuroBasket 2015 .

KyautatawaGyara

A lokacin cutar ta COVID-19, shugaban Microsoft, Brad Smith, ya ba da sanarwar cewa rukunin farko na kayayyaki, gami da tabarau na kariya 15,000, ma'aunin zafi da sanyio na infrared, murfin likitanci, da rigunan kariya, an ba da gudummawa ga Seattle, tare da ƙarin agajin da zai zo nan ba da jimawa ba.

Duba kumaGyara

  • Jerin software na Microsoft
  • Jerin saka hannun jari ta Kamfanin Microsoft
  • Jerin hadewa da saye da Microsoft
  • Ƙungiyoyin injiniyan Microsoft
  • Yarjejeniyar Kasuwancin Microsoft

ManazartaGyara

==

  1. Edwards, Benj (August 24, 2020)."
  2. Chew, Jonathan (August 24, 2015).
  3. Wild, Chris (August 24, 2015)."
  4. https://news.microsoft.com/2007/08/22/a-microsoft-milestone-hardware-celebrates-25-years-of-proven-success/
  5. https://money.cnn.com/2010/10/11/technology/windows_phone_7/index.htm
  6. https://www.marketingweek.com/nokia-to-partner-with-microsoft-under-new-structure/
  7. https://www.theverge.com/2012/9/19/3356676/htc-microsoft-windows-phone-8-marketing-partnership
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named auto
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named R1BDM
  10. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named stocksheet
  11. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named dividendfaq
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named :2
  13. By Alex Wilhelm, TechCrunch.
  14. "U.S. Agencies Said to Swap Data With Thousands of Firms". Bloomberg. Archived from the original on January 12, 2015. Retrieved March 10, 2017.
  15. Neal, Ryan W. (July 11, 2013). "Snowden Reveals Microsoft PRISM Cooperation: Helped NSA Decrypt Emails, Chats, Skype Conversations". International Business Times. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013. Retrieved November 15, 2013.
  16. Greenwald, Glenn; MacAskill, Ewen (June 7, 2013). "NSA Prism program taps in to user data of Apple, Google and others". The Guardian. Guardian News and Media Limited. Archived from the original on August 18, 2006. Retrieved April 26, 2014.
  17. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named news1
  18. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named wherego1
  19. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named potentialpassion1
  20. "Microsoft Unveils a New Look". Microsoft. August 2012. Archived from the original on August 25, 2012. Retrieved August 23, 2012.

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Hanyoyin wajeGyara

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