A wiki ( /w ɪ k i / ( </img> / ) WIK -ee ) ne a hypertext bazawa hadin gwiwar editoci da kuma gudanar da kansa sauraro kai tsaye ta amfani da wani web browser. Wiki na yau da kullun yana ƙunshe da shafuka da yawa don batutuwa ko girman aikin kuma ana iya buɗe wa jama'a ko iyakance don amfani a cikin ƙungiya don kiyaye tushen ilimin ta na ciki.

Wikidata.svgWiki
infrastructure (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na yanar gizo da community project (en) Fassara
Based on (en) Fassara Yanar Gizo na Duniya
Start time (en) Fassara 25 ga Maris, 1995
Discoverer or inventor (en) Fassara Ward Cunningham (en) Fassara
Tarihin maudu'i history of wikis (en) Fassara
ACM Classification Code (2012) (en) Fassara 10003301
Gyara nuni da ke nuna yaren yin aikin MediaWiki
Interview with Ward Cunningham, inventor of the wiki

Wikis yana kunna software ta wiki, in ba haka ba ana sani da injunan wiki. A wiki engine, kasancewa wani nau'i na wani abun ciki gudanar da tsarin, ya bambanta da sauran yanar gizo na tushen tsarin irin blog software, a cewa abun ciki da aka halitta ba tare da wani a tsare mai ko shugaban, da kuma wikis da kadan muhimmi tsarin, kyale tsarin ya fito bisa ga bukatun masu amfani.[1] Yawancin injunan Wiki suna ba da izinin rubuta abun ciki ta amfani da harshe mai sauƙi kuma wani lokacin a gyara shi da taimakon edita mai wadataccen rubutu.[2] Akwai nau'ikan injunan wiki da yawa da ake amfani da su, duka ɗayansu da wani ɓangare na sauran software, kamar su tsarin sauro na kwaro. Wasu injunan wiki tushen buɗewa ne, yayin da wasu kuma abin mallakar su ne. Wasu suna ba da izinin sarrafawa kan ayyuka daban-daban (matakan samun dama); misali, haƙƙin gyara na iya ba da izinin canzawa, ƙarawa, ko cire abu. Wasu na iya ba da izinin shiga ba tare da tilasta ikon sarrafawa ba. Wasu ka'idoji za'a iya sanya su don tsara abun ciki.

Aikin encyclopedia na yanar gizo, Wikipedia, shine shahararren gidan yanar gizo na tushen wiki, kuma yana daya daga cikin rukunin yanar gizo da aka fi kallo a duniya, kasancewar an shiga cikin manyan mutane ashirin tun 2007.[3] Wikipedia ba wiki ɗaya bane amma tarin ɗaruruwan wikis ne, tare da kowane ɗayan takamaiman yare. Baya ga Wikipedia, akwai wasu dubunnan sauran wikis da ake amfani da su, na jama'a da masu zaman kansu, gami da wikis suna aiki azaman albarkatun sarrafa ilimin, kayan aikin sanarwa, gidajen yanar sadarwar jama'a, da intanet. Wikipedia na Ingilishi yana da tarin tarin labarai: ya zuwa Fabrairu 2020, yana da labarai sama da miliyan 6. Ward Cunningham, wanda ya kirkiro software na farko na wiki, WikiWikiWeb, da farko ya bayyana wiki a matsayin "mafi sauki kan layi wanda zai iya aiki."[4] " Wiki " (lafazi [wiki] [5] ) kalma ce ta Hawaii ma'ana "mai sauri."[6][7][8]

HalayeGyara

 
Ward Cunningham, mai kirkirar wiki.

Ward Cunningham da kuma marubuci marubuci Bo Leuf, a cikin littafinsu na Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web, sun bayyana ainihin mahimmancin ra'ayin na Wiki kamar haka:[9]

  • A wiki gayyata duk masu amfani-ba kawai masana-to edit wani page ko don ƙirƙirar sabuwar shafukan cikin wiki Web site, ta amfani kawai wani misali "a fili-vanilla" Web browser ba tare da wani karin add-kan .
  • Wiki na haɓaka ƙungiyoyi masu ma'ana tsakanin shafuka daban-daban ta hanyar ƙirƙirar haɗin yanar gizo cikin sauƙin fahimta da kuma nuna ko shafin da aka nufa ya kasance ko babu.
  • Wiki ba shafi ne da aka kirkira da kyau ba wanda masana da marubuta kwararru suka kirkira kuma aka tsara shi don baƙi na yau da kullun. Madadin haka, yana neman shigar da baƙo / mai amfani na yau da kullun a cikin tsarin ci gaba na ƙirƙirawa da haɗin gwiwa wanda ke canza yanayin gidan yanar gizon koyaushe.

Wiki yana bawa al'ummomin editoci da masu ba da gudummawa damar rubuta takardu tare. Duk abin da mutane ke buƙata don ba da gudummawa shi ne kwamfuta, samun Intanet , mashigin yanar gizo, da kuma fahimtar asali ta hanyar sauƙaƙan alama (misali, yaren MediaWiki ). A guda page a wiki website ake matsayin "wiki page", yayin da dukan tarin shafukan, wanda yawanci da kyau-juna ta hyperlinks, shi ne "da wiki". Wiki shine ainihin mahimman bayanai don ƙirƙirar, bincike, da bincike ta hanyar bayanai. Wiki yana ba da izinin layi, mai canzawa, mai rikitarwa, da kuma hanyar sadarwar rubutu, yayin da kuma bayar da damar jayayya ta edita, muhawara, da ma'amala game da abun ciki da tsarawa.[10] Tabbatacciyar halayyar fasaha ta wiki shine sauƙin da za'a iya ƙirƙira da sabunta shafuka. Gabaɗaya, babu bita ta mai gudanarwa ko mai tsaron ƙofa kafin karɓar gyare-gyare kuma don haka ya haifar da canje-canje akan gidan yanar gizon. Yawancin wikis suna buɗewa don canzawa ta yawancin jama'a ba tare da buƙatar rajistar asusun masu amfani ba. Za'a iya yin gyare-gyare da yawa a cikin lokaci na ainihi kuma sun bayyana kusan kai tsaye kan layi, amma wannan fasalin yana sauƙaƙa zagi da tsarin. Sabbin wiki masu zaman kansu suna buƙatar ingantaccen mai amfani don shirya shafuka, kuma wani lokacin ma don karanta su. Maged N. Kamel Boulos, Cito Maramba, da Steve Wheeler sun rubuta cewa bude wikis yana samar da tsarin Darwiniyanci na Zamani . "... saboda budewa da hanzari da za a iya gyara shafukan wiki, shafukan suna fuskantar tsarin zabin juyin halitta, ba kamar yadda dabi'a ke mahallin halittu masu rai ba. Jumlolin 'wadanda basu dace ba' da sashe an cika su da juyayi, an shirya su kuma an sauya su idan ba a ɗauke su da 'dacewa' ba, wanda hakan zai haifar da samuwar ingantaccen shafi da kuma dacewa. "[11]

GyarawaGyara

KewayawaGyara

Wasu wikis suna da maɓallin Shirya ko haɗin kai tsaye a kan shafin da ake kallo idan mai amfani yana da izinin gyara shafin. Wannan zai iya kai wa ga wani rubutu na tushen gyara page inda mahalarta za tsarin da kuma format wiki shafukan da taƙaitaccen aiki na bada harshe, wani lokacin da aka sani da Wikitext, Wiki markup ko Wikicode (shi kuma iya kai wa ga wata WYSIWYG gyara page. Ganin da sakin layi bayan tebur a ƙasa ). Misali, fara layin rubutu tare da taurari na iya ƙirƙirar jerin gwano . Salo da tsari na wikitexts na iya bambanta sosai tsakanin aiwatarwar wiki,  wasu daga cikinsu kuma suna ba da izinin alamun HTML .

DaidaitawaGyara

Wikis sun fi son gyaran rubutu mai sauƙi, tare da ƙananan taro kaɗan da sauƙi fiye da HTML don nuna salo da tsari. Kodayake iyakance damar shiga HTML da Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) na wikis yana iyakance ikon mai amfani don canza tsari da tsara abun cikin wiki, akwai wasu fa'idodi. Iyakantaccen damar zuwa CSS yana haɓaka daidaito a cikin gani da jin, kuma kasancewa da nakasassu na JavaScript yana hana mai amfani aiwatar da lambar da zata iya rage damar wasu masu amfani.

Mahimmin tsariGyara

Haɗin MediaWiki (lambar "bayan al'amuran" da aka yi amfani da ita don ƙara tsarawa zuwa rubutu) Daidaita HTML (wani nau'in lambar "a bayan fage" lambar da aka yi amfani da ita don ƙara tsarawa zuwa rubutu) Sakamakon da aka bayar (wanda mai kallo ya gani akan fuska)
"Take some more [[tea]]," the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly.

"I've had '''nothing''' yet," Alice replied in an offended tone, "so I can't take more."

"You mean you can't take ''less''," said the Hatter. "It's very easy to take ''more'' than nothing."
<p>"Take some more <a href="/wiki/Tea" title="Tea">tea</a>," the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly.</p>

<p>"I've had <b>nothing</b> yet," Alice replied in an offended tone, "so I can't take more."</p>

<p>"You mean you can't take <i>less</i>," said the Hatter. "It's very easy to take <i>more</i> than nothing."</p>
"Ku ɗauki karin shayi ," Hare Maris ya ce wa Alice, da gaske.

"Ba ni da komai tukuna," in ji Alice cikin raunin fushi, "don haka ba zan iya ɗaukar ƙari ba."

"Kana nufin ba za ka iya rage abu ba ," in ji Hatter. "Abu ne mai sauki a dauki fiye da komai."

Gyara ganiGyara

Wikis na iya samar da gyaran WYSIWYG ga masu amfani, galibi ta hanyar sarrafa JavaScript wanda ke fassara umarnin tsara hoto a cikin zane mai alama HTML ko wikitext. A cikin waɗannan aiwatarwar, alamar kirkirar sabon shafi, wanda aka yiwa alama na shafin ana samar dashi kuma aka ƙaddamar dashi zuwa ga sabar a bayyane, yana kiyaye mai amfani daga wannan ƙwarewar fasahar. Misalin wannan shine VisualEditor akan Wikipedia. WYSIWYG sarrafawa baya, duk da haka, koyaushe yana samar da duk kayan aikin da ke cikin wikitext, kuma wasu masu amfani sun gwammace kada suyi amfani da editan WYSIWYG. Saboda haka, yawancin waɗannan rukunin yanar gizon suna ba da wasu hanyoyi don shirya wikitext kai tsaye.

Tarihin sigarGyara

Wasu wikis suna adana rikodin canje-canje da aka yi wa shafukan wiki; sau da yawa, kowane nau'in shafin yana adana. Wannan yana nufin cewa marubuta na iya komawa zuwa tsohuwar tsohuwar shafin idan ya zama dole saboda an yi kuskure, kamar su abubuwan da aka share ba zato ba tsammani ko kuma an lalata shafin don haɗawa da rubutu mai ɓarna ko cutarwa ko wasu abubuwan da ba su dace ba.

Shirya takaitawaGyara

Yawancin aiwatar da wiki, kamar su MediaWiki, software da ke ba da iko ga Wikipedia, suna ba masu amfani damar kawo taƙaitaccen taƙaitaccen lokacin da suka gyara shafi. Wannan gajeran rubutu ne da ke taƙaita canje-canjen da suka yi (misali, "Gyara nahawu," ko "Kafaffen tsari a cikin tebur." ). Ba a saka shi a cikin babban rubutun labarin ba amma ana adana shi tare da wannan bita na shafin, yana ba masu amfani damar bayanin abin da aka yi da kuma dalilin da ya sa. Wannan yayi kama da saƙon log lokacin da ake yin canje-canje a cikin tsarin sarrafa sake dubawa . Wannan yana bawa sauran masu amfani damar ganin wane canje-canje aka yi ta wanene kuma me yasa, galibi a cikin jerin taƙaitawa, kwanan wata da sauran gajere, abubuwan da suka dace, jerin waɗanda ake kira "log" ko "tarihi."

KewayawaGyara

A cikin rubutun mafi yawan shafuka, yawanci akwai hanyoyin haɗin hypertext da yawa zuwa wasu shafuka a cikin wiki. Wannan nau'i na kewayawa ba layi ba ya fi "'yan qasar" zuwa wiki fiye da tsare-tsaren kewayawa da aka tsara. Hakanan masu amfani za su iya ƙirƙirar kowane adadin alamomi ko shafuka na abubuwan ciki, tare da rarrabuwar tsari ko kowane irin ƙungiyar da suke so. Wadannan iya kalubalantar don kula da "da hannu", kamar yadda mahara mawallafa da kuma masu amfani iya haifar da da kuma share pages a wani wucin gadi, unorganized hanya. Wikis na iya samar da hanyoyi ɗaya ko fiye don rarrabasu ko yiwa shafuka alama don tallafawa kula da irin waɗannan shafukan alamomin. Wasu wikis, gami da asali, suna da fasalin backlink, wanda ke nuna duk shafukan da suka danganci shafi da aka bayar. Hakanan yana yiwuwa galibi a cikin wiki don ƙirƙirar hanyar haɗi zuwa shafukan da ba su wanzu ba, a matsayin wata hanya don kiran wasu su raba abin da suka sani game da batun sabon wiki. Masu amfani da Wiki galibi suna iya "yiwa alama" shafuka tare da rukuni ko kalmomin shiga, don sauƙaƙa wa sauran masu amfani samun labarin. Misali, mai amfani da ke kirkirar sabon labari kan hawa keke na yanayi mai sanyi zai iya "yiwa" alamar wannan shafin a karkashin rukunin zirga-zirga, wasannin hunturu da keke. Wannan zai sauƙaƙa wa sauran masu amfani samun labarin.

Haɗawa da ƙirƙirar shafukaGyara

An ƙirƙiri hanyoyin haɗi ta amfani da takamaiman bayani, wanda ake kira "hanyar haɗi". Asali, yawancin wikis[ana buƙatar hujja] yi amfani da CamelCase don sunaye shafuka da ƙirƙirar hanyoyin haɗi. Ana samar da waɗannan ta hanyar amfani da kalmomin cikin jumla tare da cire sararin dake tsakaninsu (kalmar "CamelCase" ita kanta misali ce). Duk da yake CamelCase yana sauƙaƙe alaƙar, yana kuma haifar da haɗi a cikin sigar da ta kauce daga daidaitaccen rubutun. Don haɗi zuwa shafi mai taken kalma ɗaya, dole ne mutum ya riƙa cin gajiyar ɗayan haruffa a cikin kalmar (misali "WiKi" maimakon "Wiki"). Wikis na tushen CamelCase ana iya gane su nan take saboda suna da hanyoyi da yawa da sunaye kamar "TableOfContents" da "BeginnerQuestions." wiki na iya sanya alamar da ke bayyane na irin waɗannan hanyoyin "kyakkyawa" ta hanyar sake sanya sarari, kuma mai yiwuwa kuma ya koma zuwa ƙaramin harka. Wannan sake haɗin hanyar haɗin don inganta sake karantawa na anga, duk da haka, yana iyakance ne ta hanyar asarar bayanan sirri wanda ya haifar da juyawar CamelCase. Misali, "RichardWagner" ya kamata a fassara shi azaman "Richard Wagner", yayin da ya kamata a sanya "PopularMusic" a matsayin "mashahurin kiɗa". Babu wata hanya mai sauƙi don tantance waɗanne manyan haruffa ya kamata su kasance da manyan bakake. A sakamakon haka, wikis da yawa a yanzu suna da "haɗi kyauta" ta amfani da katako, kuma wasu suna kashe CamelCase ta tsohuwa.

NemanGyara

Yawancin wikis suna ba da aƙalla binciken taken, kuma wani lokacin bincike mai cikakken rubutu . Scaaƙƙarfan binciken ya dogara ne ko injin wiki yana amfani da ɗakunan bayanai. Wasu wikis, kamar PmWiki, suna amfani da fayilolin lebur .[12] Sigogin farko na MediaWiki sun yi amfani da fayilolin lebur, amma Lee Daniel Crocker ne ya sake rubuta shi a farkon shekarun 2000 (shekaru goma) don zama aikin tattara bayanai.[ana buƙatar hujja] Shigar da bayanan cikin gida yana da mahimmanci don bincika saurin sauri akan manyan wikis. A madadin haka, ana iya amfani da injunan bincike na waje kamar Google Search a wasu lokuta akan wikis tare da iyakantattun ayyukan bincike don samun ingantaccen sakamako.

TarihiGyara

 
Jirgin Wiki Wiki a Filin jirgin saman Honolulu

WikiWikiWeb shine wiki na farko.[13] Ward Cunningham ya fara kirkirar WikiWikiWeb a Portland, Oregon, a 1994, kuma ya girka ta a yanar gizo c2.com a ranar 25 ga watan Maris, 1995. Cunningham ne ya sanya masa suna, wanda ya tuna wani ma'aikacin ma'aikatar filin jirgin saman Honolulu da yake gaya masa ya dauki "Wiki Wiki Shuttle" motar da ke tafiya tsakanin tashar jirgin. A cewar Cunningham, "Na zabi wiki-wiki a matsayin mai neman hadin kai don 'hanzari' don haka na kauce wa sanya wadannan abubuwan cikin sauri-yanar gizo."[14][15]

Cunningham, a wani ɓangare, wahayi ne daga Apple HyperCard, wanda yayi amfani dashi. HyperCard, kodayake, mai amfani ne kawai.[16] Apple ya tsara tsarin da zai ba masu amfani damar ƙirƙirar "katunan katunan" kamala masu tallata hanyoyin tsakanin katunan daban. Cunningham ta haɓaka tunanin Vannevar Bush ta hanyar bawa masu amfani damar "yin tsokaci kan kuma sauya rubutun juna."[17] Cunningham ya ce ya raga sun danganta tare da mutane irin abubuwan da ya haifar da wani sabon adabi zuwa daftarin aiki shirye-shirye alamu, da kuma kayan doki mutane ta halitta sha'awar magana da gaya labaru da fasaha da zai ji dadi ga waɗanda ba a yi amfani da "mawallafa".[16]

Wikipedia ta zama sanannen rukunin wiki, wanda aka ƙaddamar a watan Janairun 2001 kuma ya shiga cikin shahararrun rukunin yanar gizo goma a cikin 2007. A farkon 2000s (shekaru goma), wikis an ƙara karɓuwa a cikin sha'anin azaman software na haɗin gwiwa. Abubuwan amfani na yau da kullun sun haɗa da sadarwa na aikin, intanet, da takaddun aiki, da farko don masu amfani da fasaha. Wasu kamfanoni suna amfani da wikis a matsayin software ɗin haɗin gwiwar su kawai kuma a matsayin maye gurbin intanet ɗin tsaye, kuma wasu makarantu da jami'o'i suna amfani da wikis don haɓaka ilimin rukuni. Zai yiwu a sami amfani da wikis a bayan katangar wuta fiye da Intanet ɗin jama'a. Ranar 15 ga watan Maris, 2007, an sanya kalmar wiki a cikin Dictionary ta Turanci ta Oxford.[18]

Wasu ma'anoniGyara

A ƙarshen 1990s da farkon 2000s, an yi amfani da kalmar "wiki" don koma wa ɗakunan yanar gizo masu daidaitaccen mai amfani da software da ke ba su iko; ma'anar karshen har yanzu ana amfani dashi lokaci-lokaci Mai kirkirar Wiki Ward Cunningham ya rubuta a shekarar 2014 [19] cewa bai kamata a yi amfani da kalmar "wiki" don koma wa shafin yanar gizo daya ba, a maimakon haka ya kasance ga tarin shafuka ko shafukan da ake iya amfani da su ta yadda shafin yanar gizo daya ba "wiki ba" amma "misalin wiki". Ya rubuta cewa batun tarayyar wiki, wanda za'a iya daukar nauyin shi kuma a iya shirya shi a wurare sama da daya ta yadda za a rarraba sigar rarraba sigar, yana nufin cewa "wiki" mai hankali guda daya ba shi da ma'ana.[20]

AiwatarwaGyara

Wiki software nau'ikan kayan aiki ne na hadin gwiwa wanda ke tafiyar da tsarin wiki, wanda ke ba da damar kirkirar shafukan yanar gizo da kuma shirya su ta hanyar amfani da burauzar gidan yanar gizo. Ana iya aiwatar dashi azaman jerin rubutun bayan sabar yanar gizo data kasance ko azaman sabar aikace-aikacen da ke gudana akan sabar yanar gizo ɗaya ko fiye. Ana adana abubuwan a cikin tsarin fayil, kuma ana adana canje-canje ga abun cikin a cikin tsarin sarrafa bayanai na dangantaka. Babban kayan aikin software shine MediaWiki, wanda ke gudanar da Wikipedia. A madadin, wikis na sirri suna gudana azaman aikace-aikacen keɓaɓɓu a kan kwamfuta ɗaya.

Hakanan za'a iya ƙirƙirar Wikis a kan "gonar wiki", inda mai gonar wiki ke aiwatar da software ta ɓangaren uwar garke. Hakanan wasu gonakin wiki zasu iya yin sirri, wikis mai kariya ta sirri. Gidajen wiki kyauta suna ɗauke da talla akan kowane shafi. Don ƙarin bayani, duba Kwatanta gonakin wiki.

Dogara da tsaroGyara

 
Rahoton kwatancen tarihi yana nuna canje-canje tsakanin bita biyu na shafi.

Wikis gabaɗaya an tsara shi tare da falsafar sauƙaƙa gyara kuskuren, maimakon sanya shi wahala yin su. Don haka, yayin da wikis ke buɗe sosai, suna ba da hanya don tabbatar da ingancin ƙarin abubuwan kwanan nan zuwa jikin shafukan. Mafi shahararren, a kusan kowane wiki, shine "Canje-canjen kwanan nan" - takamaiman jerin da ke nuna gyare-gyaren kwanan nan, ko jerin abubuwan gyara da aka yi a cikin lokacin da aka ba su.[21] Wasu wikis na iya tace jerin don cire ƙananan gyare-gyare da gyare-gyaren da aka yi ta rubutun shigo da atomatik (bot).[22] Daga rajistar canji, sauran ayyuka suna da sauki a mafi yawan wikis: tarihin bita yana nuna sigar shafin da ya gabata kuma fasalin ya bambanta canje-canje tsakanin bita biyu. Ta amfani da tarihin bita, edita na iya dubawa da dawo da labarin da ya gabata. Wannan yana ba marubucin babban iko don kawar da gyare-gyare. Za'a iya amfani da fasalin banbanci don yanke hukunci ko wannan ya zama dole. Mai amfani da wiki na yau da kullun na iya duba bambancin gyaran da aka jera a shafin "Canje-canjen Kwanan nan" kuma, idan gyara ne wanda ba za a amince da shi ba, nemi tarihin, ya dawo da bita na baya; wannan tsari ya fi sauƙi ko ƙasa da sauƙi, gwargwadon software na wiki da aka yi amfani da shi.[23]

 
Samar da tsaro

Idan aka rasa yin gyare-gyare marasa karɓa a shafin "canje-canje na kwanan nan", wasu injunan wiki suna ba da ƙarin sarrafa abun ciki. Ana iya sa masa ido don tabbatar da cewa shafi, ko saitin shafuka, suna kiyaye ingancin sa. Mutumin da ke son kula da shafuka za a gargaɗe shi da canje-canje ga shafukan, yana ba su damar tabbatar da ingancin sabbin bugu da sauri. Ana iya ganin wannan azaman babban marubuci ne kuma fasalin adawa edita.[24] Jerin abubuwan kallo shine aiwatarwa gama gari akan wannan. Wasu wikis ma suna aiwatar da "gyare-gyaren da aka sintiri", inda editocin da keɓaɓɓun takardun shaidarka na iya sanya alamar wasu gyare-gyare ba ɓarnata ba. Tsarin "tutar bita da aka buga" na iya hana gyara yin aiki kai tsaye har sai an sake nazarin su.[25]

Aminci da amincin abun cikiGyara

Masu sukar tsarin wiki a bayyane suna jayayya cewa waɗannan tsarin za a iya sauƙaƙe su da wasu mutane masu ɓarna (ɓarnata) ko kuma ta hanyar masu kyakkyawar ma'ana amma masu amfani da ƙwarewa waɗanda ke gabatar da kurakurai a cikin abin, yayin da masu faɗakarwa ke tabbatar da cewa al'ummar masu amfani na iya kama irin sharri ko kuskure abun ciki kuma gyara shi Lars Aronsson, masanin tsarin bayanai, ya taƙaita takaddama kamar haka: "Yawancin mutane lokacin da suka fara koyo game da batun wiki, suna ɗaukar cewa gidan yanar gizon da kowa zai iya shirya shi nan da nan zai zama mara amfani ta hanyar shigar da abubuwa masu halakarwa. Yana sauti kamar miƙa gwangwani mai fesawa kusa da bangon kankare mai ruwan toka. Abinda kawai zai iya haifar shine rubutu mara kyau da alama mai sauƙi kuma yawancin ayyukan fasaha ba za a daɗe ba. Duk da haka, da alama yana aiki sosai.”[13] Babban matsayin edita a fannin likitanci da kuma ilimin kimiyyar kiwon lafiya, wanda masu amfani da shi galibi ke amfani da mujallolin da aka yi nazari game da su ko kuma litattafan jami'a a matsayin tushe, sun haifar da ra'ayin ƙwararrun wikis na ƙwararru.[26] Wasu wikis suna ba da damar mutum ya haɗa zuwa takamaiman sigar labarai, wanda ya kasance da amfani ga ƙungiyar kimiyya, a cikin wannan ƙwararrun masu duba ƙwararrun takwarorin na iya yin nazarin labarai, haɓaka su da samar da hanyoyin haɗi zuwa amintaccen sigar wannan labarin.[27] Noveck ya nunar da cewa "mambobin kungiyar wiki sun amince da mahalarta, wadanda ke da wata bukata ta kiyaye ingancin kayan aikin, bisa ci gaba da halartar su." A kan batutuwa masu rikitarwa waɗanda ke ƙarƙashin yin rikitarwa, marubucin wiki na iya ƙuntata edita ga masu amfani da ke rajista.[28]

TsaroGyara

Budaddiyar falsafar wiki - bawa kowa damar shirya abun ciki - baya tabbatar da cewa duk manufar edita tana da tarbiya. Misali, lalata abubuwa (sauya abun da wiki ya kunsa zuwa wani abu mai tayar da hankali, kara maganganun banza, cire mugunta abubuwanda ke kunshe cikin kundin bayanai, ko kuma kara wasu bayanan da basu dace ba, kamar bayanan karya) na iya zama babbar matsala. A kan manyan shafukan yanar gizo na wiki, irin su waɗanda Gidauniyar Wikimedia ke gudanarwa, ɓarnatar da abubuwa na iya ɓacewa na wani lokaci. Wikis, saboda yanayin buɗewar su, suna da saukin kamuwa da ganganci, da aka sani da "trolling". Wikis sukan ɗauki tsarin tsaro mai laushi ga matsalar ɓarnatar da abubuwa, yana mai sauƙaƙewar lalacewa maimakon yunƙurin hana ɓarna. Manyan wikis galibi suna amfani da ingantattun hanyoyin, kamar bot ɗin da ke gano kai tsaye da kuma juya ɓarna da haɓaka JavaScript waɗanda ke nuna haruffa waɗanda aka ƙara su a cikin kowane gyara. Ta wannan hanyar, ana iya iyakance ɓarna ga "ƙaramin ɓarna" ko "ɓarnatar da lalata", inda haruffan da aka ƙara / kawar da su kaɗan ne da cewa bots ba su gano su kuma masu amfani ba sa mai da hankali sosai a kansu.[29]  Misali na bot da ke dawo da barna a Wikipedia shine ClueBot NG. ClueBot NG na iya sake gyara, sau da yawa a cikin mintina, idan ba sakan ba. Bot din yana amfani da ilmantarwa na injiniya a madadin abubuwan tarihi.[30]

Adadin lalata abubuwa da wiki ya karɓa ya dogara da yadda wiki yake buɗe. Misali, wasu wikis suna ba wa masu amfani mara rajista, wanda aka gano ta adiresoshin IP ɗin su, don shirya abun ciki, yayin da wasu suka iyakance wannan aikin ga masu amfani da rajista kawai. Yawancin wikis suna ba da izinin gyara ba tare da asusun ba.[31]

Hakanan shirya yaƙe-yaƙe na iya faruwa yayin da masu amfani suke maimaita wani shafi zuwa sigar da suke so. A wasu lokuta, masu gyara tare da ra'ayoyi mabanbanta game da abin da abun ciki ya kamata ya bayyana ko kuma wane salon fasali za a yi amfani da shi zai canza kuma ya sake sauya fasalin juna. Wannan yana haifar da cewa shafin ya kasance "maras tabbas" ne daga mahangar masu amfani da gaba ɗaya, saboda duk lokacin da babban mai amfani yazo shafin, zai iya zama daban. Wasu software na wiki suna bawa mai gudanarwa damar dakatar da irin waɗannan yaƙe-yaƙe ta hanyar kulle shafi daga ci gaba da gyara har sai an yanke shawara kan wane nau'in shafin zai fi dacewa.[10] Wasu wikis suna cikin matsayi mafi kyau fiye da wasu don sarrafa halaye saboda tsarin mulki da ke akwai a wajen wiki. Misali, malamin kwaleji na iya kirkirar abubuwan karfafa gwiwa ga dalibai su nuna halin kansu a wiki aji da suke gudanarwa ta hanyar takaita yin gyara ga masu amfani da shiga da kuma nuna cewa duk gudummawar ana iya gano su ga masu bayar da gudummawar. Hakanan za'a iya magance mummunan hali a ƙarƙashin manufofin jami'a.[12]

Mai yiwuwar ɓarnatarwar malwareGyara

Malware kuma na iya zama matsala ga wikis, yayin da masu amfani zasu iya ƙara hanyoyin haɗi zuwa shafukan yanar gizo masu karɓar lambar ƙeta. Misali, an gyara labarin Wikipedia na Jamusanci game da Tsutsa na Blaster don haɗawa da haɗin hyperlink zuwa yanar gizo mai cutarwa. Masu amfani da tsarin Microsoft Windows mai rauni waɗanda suka bi hanyar haɗin yanar gizon za su kamu da cutar.[10]Meauna shine amfani da software wanda ke hana masu amfani adana wani gyara wanda ya ƙunshi hanyar haɗi zuwa shafin da aka lissafa a cikin jerin sunayen shafuka masu ƙeta. [32]

Al'ummaGyara

Aikace-aikaceGyara

File:EnglishWikipedia 29June2017.png
Shafin farko na Wikipedia na Turanci

Wikipedia na Turanci shine mafi girman tushen masu amfani a tsakanin wikis akan Yanar Gizon Duniya[33] kuma yana kan gaba a cikin manyan 10 a cikin duk shafukan yanar gizo dangane da zirga-zirga.[34] Sauran manyan wikis sun hada da WikiWikiWeb, Memory Alpha, Wikivoyage, da Susning.nu, tushen ilimin yaren Sweden. Misalai na wiki na likitanci da kiwon lafiya sun hada da Ganfyd, bayanin likitanci na hadin gwiwar kan layi wanda kwararrun likitocin suka shirya kuma aka gayyato masana masana ba likita. [11] Yawancin al'ummomin wiki masu zaman kansu ne, musamman a cikin kamfanoni. Ana amfani dasu sau da yawa azaman takaddun ciki don tsarin gida da aikace-aikace. Wasu kamfanoni suna amfani da wikis don bawa abokan ciniki damar taimakawa samar da takaddun software.[35] Wani bincike da aka yi game da masu amfani da wiki na kamfanoni ya gano cewa za a iya raba su zuwa "masu hada abubuwa" da "masu karawa" na abubuwan da ke ciki. Tasirin gudummawar Synthesizers ya fi shafa da tasirin su ga sauran masu amfani da wiki, yayin da yawan adadin masu bayar da gudummawar ya fi shafa ta hanyar samun damar aiwatar da aikin su na gaggawa.[36] Daga nazarin dubunnan tura wiki, Jonathan Grudin ya kammala nazarin masu ruwa da tsaki da ilimantarwa suna da mahimmanci ga tura wiki cikin nasara.[37]

A shekarar 2005, Gartner Group, lura da yadda shaharar wikis ke karuwa, sun kiyasta cewa zasu zama kayan aikin hadin kai a cikin akalla kashi 50% na kamfanoni nan da shekara ta 2009.[38] [ yana bukatar sabuntawa ] Ana iya amfani da Wikis don gudanar da aikin.[39][40] an kuma yi amfani da Wikis a cikin ƙungiyar ilimi don rarrabawa da watsa labarai a kan iyakokin hukumomi da ƙasashen duniya.[41] A waɗancan saitunan, an same su da amfani ga haɗin kai kan rubutun tallafi, tsarin dabaru, takaddun sassan, da aikin kwamiti.[42] A tsakiyar shekarun 2000s, ci gaban da ake samu tsakanin masana'antu game da haɗin kai ya ɗorawa masu tarbiya nauyi don sa ɗaliban ƙwarewa a aikin haɗin gwiwa, wanda hakan ke ƙara ba da sha'awa ga wikis da ake amfani da shi a aji.[10]

Wikis sun sami ɗan amfani a cikin aikin lauya da cikin gwamnati. Misalan sun hada da Intellipedia na Hukumar Leken Asiri ta Tsakiya, wanda aka tsara don rabawa da tattara bayanan sirri, DKospedia, wanda Civilungiyar Civilancin Yanci ta usedasar ta Amurka ta yi amfani da shi don taimakawa tare da nazarin takardu game da shigar da fursunoni a cikin Guantánamo Bay;[43] da kuma wiki na Kotun ofaukaka Statesara ta Amurka game da Keɓaɓɓu na Bakwai, sun kasance suna sanya dokokin kotu da ba masu aiki damar yin tsokaci da yin tambayoyi. Ofishin Patent da Trademark Office yana aiki da Peer-to-Patent, wiki don bawa jama'a damar yin haɗin gwiwa akan nemo fasahar da ta dace da gwajin aikace-aikacen haƙƙin mallaka. Queens, New York tayi amfani da wiki don baiwa allowan ƙasa damar haɗa kai akan zane da kuma tsara wurin shakatawa na gida. Makarantar Lawell Law School ta kafa kamus na shari'a na wiki da ake kira Wex, wanda ƙarancin wanda zai iya yin gyare-gyare ya kawo cikas ga ci gabansa.[28]

A cikin yanayin ilimin, anyi amfani da wikis a matsayin haɗin gwiwar aiki da tsarin tallafi na bincike.[44][45]

City wikisGyara

A birnin wiki (ko gida wiki) ne a wiki amfani da wani ilmi tushe da kuma zamantakewa cibiyar sadarwa don takamaiman Gwargwadon wuri.[46][47][48]Kalmar 'birni wiki' ko kuma ta yi daidai da harshen waje (misali Jamusanci 'Stadtwiki') wani lokaci ana amfani dashi don wikis waɗanda ke rufe ba kawai birni ba, amma ƙaramin gari ko kuma duk yanki. Wiki na birni ya ƙunshi bayani game da takamaiman al'amuran abubuwa, ra'ayoyi, mutane da wurare. Mafi yawan waɗannan bayanan bazai dace da encyclopedias kamar Wikipedia ba (misali, labarai akan duk wata hanyar sayar da kayayyaki a cikin gari), amma yana iya dacewa da wiki tare da ƙarin abubuwanda aka sarrafa da masu kallo. Wiki na gari yana iya ƙunsar bayani game da batutuwa masu zuwa, wanda zai iya ko ba zai dace da ilimin wiki na gaba ɗaya ba, kamar:

  • Cikakkun bayanai game da cibiyoyin jama'a kamar gidajen jama'a, sanduna, masauki ko cibiyoyin zaman jama'a
  • Sunan mai shi, lokacin buɗewa da ƙididdiga don takamaiman shago
  • Bayanan kididdiga game da takamaiman hanyar cikin gari
  • An ɗanɗano dandano na ice cream a parlour ɗin ice cream na gida
  • Tarihin rayuwar wani shugaban karamar hukuma da sauran mutane

WikiNodesGyara

Visualization of the collaborative work in the German wiki project Mathe für Nicht-Freaks

WikiNodes shafuka ne akan wikis waɗanda ke bayyana wikis masu alaƙa. Yawancin lokaci ana tsara su a matsayin maƙwabta da wakilai. Wiki na maƙwabta wiki ne kawai wanda zai iya tattauna abubuwan da ke ciki ko kuma in ba haka ba ya zama mai ban sha'awa. Wiki wakili wiki ne wanda ya yarda a samar da wasu abubuwa da aka wakilta a wiki.[49] Hanya ɗaya ta neman wiki a kan takamaiman batun ita ce bi hanyar sadarwa ta hanyar wiki-node daga wiki zuwa wiki; wani kuma shine ya dauki shafin "yawon bude ido" na Wiki, misali: Wikipedia's Tour Bus Stop .

MahalartaGyara

Nau'ikan asali huɗu na masu amfani waɗanda ke shiga wikis sune mai karatu, marubuci, mai kula da wiki da mai sarrafa tsarin. Mai kula da tsarin shine ke da alhakin sanyawa da kuma kiyaye injin wiki da kuma uwar garken gidan yanar sadarwar. Mai gudanarwa na wiki yana kula da abubuwan wiki kuma ana samar dashi ƙarin ayyuka game da shafuka (misali kariya ta shafi da sharewa), kuma zai iya daidaita haƙƙin samun masu amfani ta, misali, toshe su daga yin gyara.[50]

Dalilan girmaGyara

Nazarin wikis ɗari da yawa ya nuna cewa adadi mai yawa na masu gudanarwa don girman abun ciki da aka ba na iya rage haɓaka;[51] cewa samun damar sarrafa ƙayyade gyara ga masu amfani da ke da riba na rage haɓaka; cewa rashin irin wannan damar sarrafawar yakan haifar da sabon rajistar mai amfani; kuma wannan babban tsarin na gwamnati (watau admins / user) ba su da wani tasiri a kan abubuwan da ke ciki ko karuwar jama'a.[52]

TarukaGyara

Tarurruka masu aiki da tarurruka game da batutuwan da suka shafi wiki sun haɗa da:

  • Taron Atlassian, taron shekara-shekara don masu amfani da software na Atlassian, gami da Confluence.[53]
  • OpenSym (wanda ake kira da WikiSym har zuwa shekarar 2014), taron ilimi wanda aka keɓe don bincike game da wikis da buɗe haɗin kai.
  • SMWCon, taron shekara-shekara na masu amfani da masu haɓaka Semantic MediaWiki.[54]
  • TikiFest, taron da aka saba gudanarwa don masu amfani da masu haɓaka Tiki Wiki CMS Groupware.[55]
  • Wikimania, taron shekara-shekara wanda aka keɓe don bincike da aiwatar da ayyukan Gidauniyar Wikimedia kamar Wikipedia.

Tsoffin abubuwan da suka shafi wiki sun hada da:

  • RecentChangesCamp (2006 - 2012 ), rashin daidaituwa kan batutuwan da suka shafi wiki.
  • RegioWikiCamp (2009–2013), rashin daidaiton taron shekara-shekara kan "regiowikis", ko wikis kan biranen da sauran yankuna.[56]

DokokiGyara

Wikis galibi suna da ƙa'idodin ƙa'idodin ƙa'idodin mai amfani. Misali Wikipedia, tana da jerin manufofi da jagororin da aka taƙaita a cikin ginshiƙanta guda biyar: Wikipedia encyclopedia ne; Wikipedia tana da ra'ayin tsaka tsaki; Wikipedia kyauta ne; Ya kamata 'yan Wikipedians suyi ma'amala cikin ladabi da ladabi, kuma Wikipedia ba ta da tsayayyun dokoki. Yawancin wikis sun karɓi jerin dokoki. Wani malami ya kafa doka don wiki na aji, "Wiki ga wasu kamar yadda za ku so wiki a wurinku".[12]

Yanayin dokaGyara

Haɗin marubuta na haɗin gwiwa, wanda masu amfani daban-daban ke shiga cikin gyara, gyara, da tattara samfurin da aka gama, na iya haifar da editoci su zama masu haya a cikin abin da ya shafi haƙƙin mallaka, ta yadda ba zai yuwu a sake bugawa ba tare da izinin duk masu mallakar su ba, wasu daga cikinsu ba za a iya sanin asalinsu ba saboda ɓata suna ko kuma gyara suna.[10] Inda mutane suka ba da gudummawa ga aikin gama gari kamar encyclopedia, to amma, babu ikon mallakar haɗin gwiwa idan gudummawar ta bambanta kuma ta bambanta.[57] Duk da yawancin wikis na bin diddigin gudummawar kowane mutum, aikin bayar da gudummawa ga shafin wiki har yanzu ana iya cewa yana ɗaya daga cikin gyara tare, gyare-gyare, ko tattarawa, wanda zai haifar da mallakar haɗin gwiwa. Wasu batutuwan haƙƙin mallaka ana iya ragewa ta hanyar amfani da lasisin buɗe abun ciki. Shafi na 2 na lasisin Rikodin Kyauta na GNU ya haɗa da takamaiman tanadi don sake neman wiki; Hakanan lasisin Creative Commons sanannu ne. Lokacin da ba a kayyade lasisi ba, lasisin lasisi don karantawa da ƙara abun ciki zuwa wiki ana iya ɗauka ya wanzu bisa larurar kasuwanci da yanayin asalin wiki, kodayake tushen doka don irin wannan lasisin ba zai wanzu a cikin duka ba yanayi.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Wikis da masu amfani da su na iya zama abin dogaro ga wasu ayyukan da ke faruwa akan wiki. Idan mai amfani da wiki ya nuna halin ko-in-kula kuma ya yi watsi da sarrafawa (kamar hana masu keta hakkin haƙƙin mallaka) da zai iya yi don dakatar da keta haƙƙin mallaka, za a iya ɗaukarsa yana da ƙeta doka, musamman ma idan ana amfani da wiki ne musamman don keta haƙƙin mallaka ko samun kuɗi kai tsaye fa'ida, kamar kudaden shiga na talla, daga ayyukan keta doka.[10] A Amurka, wikis na iya cin gajiyar Sashe na 230 na Dokar Kwatancen Sadarwa, wanda ke kare shafukan yanar gizo da ke aikin ''Samaritan Mai Kyau'' na kayan aiki masu cutarwa, ba tare da wata bukata kan inganci ko yawan irin wannan aikin 'yan sanda ba.[58] Har ila yau, an yi jayayya, cewa aiwatar da wiki na wasu dokoki, irin su nuna wariya, tabbatar da gaskiya, samun abin dogaro, da kuma manufofin bincike-na asali, na iya haifar da haɗarin doka.[59] Lokacin da batanci ya faru a kan wiki, bisa ka'ida, duk masu amfani da wiki za a iya daukar nauyinsu, saboda kowane daga cikinsu yana da ikon cire ko gyara kayan batanci daga "wallafar." Abin jira a gani shi ne ko za a dauki wikis a matsayin mafi kusanci da mai ba da sabis na intanet, wanda galibi ba shi da alhaki saboda rashin ikonsa game da abubuwan da aka buga, fiye da mai bugawa.[10] An ba da shawarar cewa masu alamun kasuwanci su kula da irin bayanin da aka gabatar game da alamun kasuwancin su akan wikis, tunda kotuna na iya amfani da waɗannan abubuwan a matsayin shaidar dangane da fahimtar jama'a. Joshua Jarvis ya ce, "Da zarar an gano bayanan da ba su dace ba, mai alamar kasuwanci zai iya shirya shigarwar kawai."[60]

Duba kumaGyara


 

Kara karantawaGyara

  • Ebersbach, Anja (2008), Wiki: Web Collaboration, Springer Science+Business Media, ISBN 978-3-540-35150-4
  • Leuf, Bo; Cunningham, Ward (April 13, 2001), The Wiki Way: Quick Collaboration on the Web, Addison–Wesley, ISBN 978-0-201-71499-9
  • Mader, Stewart (December 10, 2007), Wikipatterns, John Wiley & Sons, ISBN 978-0-470-22362-8
  • Tapscott, Don (April 17, 2008), Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything, Portfolio Hardcover, ISBN 978-1-59184-193-7

Hanyoyin haɗin wajeGyara

ManazartaGyara

  1. Mitchell, Scott (July 2008), Easy Wiki Hosting, Scott Hanselman's blog, and Snagging Screens, MSDN Magazine, archived from the original on March 16, 2010, retrieved March 9, 2010
  2. "wiki", Encyclopædia Britannica, 1, London: Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., 2007, archived from the original on April 24, 2008, retrieved April 10, 2008
  3. Alexa Top Sites, archived from the original on March 2, 2015, retrieved December 1, 2016
  4. Cunningham, Ward (June 27, 2002), What is a Wiki, WikiWikiWeb, archived from the original on April 16, 2008, retrieved April 10, 2008
  5. The realization of the Hawaiian /w/ phoneme varies between [w] and [v], and the realization of the /k/ phoneme varies between [k] and [t], among other realizations. Thus, the pronunciation of the Hawaiian word wiki varies between ['wiki], ['witi], ['viki], and ['viti]. See Hawaiian phonology for more details.
  6. "Hawaiian Words; Hawaiian to English". mauimapp.com. Archived from the original on September 14, 2008. Retrieved September 19, 2008.
  7. Hasan, Heather (2012), Wikipedia, 3.5 million articles and counting, New York : Rosen Central, p. 11, ISBN 9781448855575, archived from the original on October 26, 2019, retrieved August 6, 2019
  8. Andrews, Lorrin (1865), A dictionary of the Hawaiian language to which is appended an English-Hawaiian vocabulary and a chronological table of remarkable events, Henry M. Whitney, p. 514, archived from the original on August 15, 2014, retrieved June 1, 2014
  9. Leuf & Cunningham 2001. See Ward Cunningham's site "Archived copy". Archived from the original on April 30, 2002. Retrieved 2002-04-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 10.3 10.4 10.5 10.6 Black, Peter; Delaney, Hayden; Fitzgerald, Brian (2007), Legal Issues for Wikis: The Challenge of User-generated and Peer-produced Knowledge, Content and Culture (PDF), 14, eLaw J., archived from the original (PDF) on December 22, 2012
  11. 11.0 11.1 Boulos, M. N. K.; Maramba, I.; Wheeler, S. (2006), "Wikis, blogs and podcasts: a new generation of Web-based tools for virtual collaborative clinical practice and education", BMC Medical Education, 6: 41, doi:10.1186/1472-6920-6-41, PMC 1564136, PMID 16911779
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Naomi, Augar; Raitman, Ruth; Zhou, Wanlei (2004). "Teaching and learning online with wikis". Proceedings of Beyond the Comfort Zone: 21st ASCILITE Conference: 95–104. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.133.1456. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  13. 13.0 13.1 Ebersbach 2008
  14. Cunningham, Ward (November 1, 2003). "Correspondence on the Etymology of Wiki". WikiWikiWeb. Archived from the original on March 17, 2007. Retrieved March 9, 2007.
  15. Cunningham, Ward (February 25, 2008). "Wiki History". WikiWikiWeb. Archived from the original on June 21, 2002. Retrieved March 9, 2007.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Bill Venners (October 20, 2003). "Exploring with Wiki: A Conversation with Ward Cunningham, Part I". artima developer. Archived from the original on February 5, 2015. Retrieved December 12, 2014.
  17. Cunningham, Ward (July 26, 2007). "Wiki Wiki Hyper Card". WikiWikiWeb. Archived from the original on April 6, 2007. Retrieved March 9, 2007.
  18. Template:Cite dictionary
  19. @. "The plural of wiki is wiki. See forage.ward.fed.wiki.org/an-install-of-wiki.html" (Tweet). Retrieved March 18, 2019 – via Twitter.CS1 maint: numeric names: authors list (link)
  20. "Smallest Federated Wiki". wiki.org. Archived from the original on September 28, 2015. Retrieved September 28, 2015.
  21. Ebersbach 2008
  22. Ebersbach 2008
  23. Ebersbach 2008
  24. Ebersbach 2008
  25. Goldman, Eric, "Wikipedia's Labor Squeeze and its Consequences", Journal on Telecommunications and High Technology Law, 8
  26. Barsky, Eugene; Giustini, Dean (December 2007). "Introducing Web 2.0: wikis for health librarians" (PDF). Journal of the Canadian Health Libraries Association. 28 (4): 147–150. doi:10.5596/c07-036. ISSN 1708-6892. Archived (PDF) from the original on April 30, 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2011.
  27. Yager, Kevin (March 16, 2006). "Wiki ware could harness the Internet for science". Nature. 440 (7082): 278. Bibcode:2006Natur.440..278Y. doi:10.1038/440278a. PMID 16541049.
  28. 28.0 28.1 Noveck, Beth Simone (March 2007), "Wikipedia and the Future of Legal Education", Journal of Legal Education, 57 (1), archived from the original on July 3, 2014Template:Paywall
  29. "Security". Assothink. Archived from the original on January 6, 2014. Retrieved February 16, 2013.
  30. Hicks, Jesse (February 18, 2014). "This machine kills trolls". The Verge. Archived from the original on August 27, 2014. Retrieved September 7, 2014.
  31. Ebersbach 2008
  32. Meta.wikimedia.org
  33. "List of largest (Media)wikis". S23-Wiki. April 3, 2008. Archived from the original on August 25, 2014. Retrieved December 12, 2014.
  34. "Alexa Top 500 Global Sites". Alexa Internet. Archived from the original on March 2, 2015. Retrieved April 26, 2015.
  35. Müller, C.; Birn, L. (September 6–8, 2006). "Wikis for Collaborative Software Documentation" (PDF). Proceedings of I-KNOW '06. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 6, 2011. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  36. Majchrzak, A.; Wagner, C.; Yates, D. (2006), "Corporate wiki users: results of a survey", Proceedings of the 2006 international symposium on Wikis, Symposium on Wikis, pp. 99–104, doi:10.1145/1149453.1149472, ISBN 978-1-59593-413-0, S2CID 13206858
  37. Grudin, Jonathan (2015). "Wikis at work: Success factors and challenges for sustainability of enterprise wikis – Microsoft Research". Research.microsoft.com. Archived from the original on September 4, 2015. Retrieved June 16, 2015.
  38. Conlin, Michelle (November 28, 2005), "E-Mail Is So Five Minutes Ago", Bloomberg BusinessWeek, archived from the original on October 17, 2012
  39. "HomePage". Project Management Wiki.org. Archived from the original on August 16, 2014. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
  40. "HomePage". Project Management Wiki.org. Archived from the original on August 16, 2014. Retrieved May 8, 2012.
  41. Wanderley, M. M.; Birnbaum, D.; Malloch, J. (2006). "SensorWiki.org: a collaborative resource for researchers and interface designers". NIME '06 Proceedings of the 2006 Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression. IRCAM – Centre Pompidou: 180–183. ISBN 978-2-84426-314-8.
  42. Lombardo, Nancy T. (June 2008). "Putting Wikis to Work in Libraries". Medical Reference Services Quarterly. 27 (2): 129–145. doi:10.1080/02763860802114223. PMID 18844087. S2CID 11552140.
  43. "SusanHu's FOIA Project UPDATE". Archived from the original on May 30, 2013. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
  44. Au, C. H. (December 2017). "Wiki as a research support system — A trial in information systems research". 2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management (IEEM): 2271–2275. doi:10.1109/IEEM.2017.8290296. ISBN 978-1-5386-0948-4. S2CID 44029462.
  45. Au, Cheuk-hang. "Using Wiki for Project Collaboration – with Comparison on Facebook" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on April 12, 2019.
  46. Andersen, Michael (November 6, 2009) "Welcome to Davis, Calif.: Six lessons from the world’s best local wiki Archived ga Augusta, 8, 2013 at the Wayback Machine." Niemen Journalism Lab. Niemen Foundation/Harvard University
  47. McGann, Laura (June 18, 2010) "Knight News Challenge: Is a wiki site coming to your city? Local Wiki will build software to make it simple Archived ga Yuni, 25, 2013 at the Wayback Machine." Niemen Journalism Lab. Niemen Foundation/Harvard University
  48. Wired: Makice, Kevin (July 15, 2009). Hey, Kid: Support Your Local Wiki Archived ga Afirilu, 27, 2015 at the Wayback Machine
  49. "Frequently Asked Questions". WikiNodes. Archived from the original on August 10, 2007.
  50. Cubric, Marija (2007). "Analysis of the use of Wiki-based collaborations in enhancing student learning". University of Hertfordshire. Archived from the original on May 15, 2011. Retrieved April 25, 2011. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  51. Roth, C.; Taraborelli, D.; Gilbert, N. (2008). "Measuring wiki viability. An empirical assessment of the social dynamics of a large sample of wikis" (PDF). The Centre for Research in Social Simulation: 3. Archived (PDF) from the original on October 11, 2017. Figure 4 shows that having a relatively high number of administrators for a given content size is likely to reduce growth. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  52. Roth, C.; Taraborelli, D.; Gilbert, N. (2008). "Measuring wiki viability. An empirical assessment of the social dynamics of a large sample of wikis" (PDF). The Centre for Research in Social Simulation. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 16, 2012. Retrieved November 9, 2018. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  53. "Atlassian Summit homepage". Summit.atlassian.com. Archived from the original on June 13, 2011. Retrieved June 20, 2011.
  54. "SMWCon homepage". Semantic-mediawiki.org. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved June 20, 2011.
  55. "TikiFest homepage". Tiki.org. Archived from the original on June 30, 2011. Retrieved June 20, 2011.
  56. "European RegioWikiSociety homepage". Wiki.regiowiki.eu. June 10, 2011. Archived from the original on August 13, 2009. Retrieved June 20, 2011.
  57. Redwood Music Ltd v. B Feldman & Co Ltd, RPC 385, 1979 Missing or empty |title= (help)
  58. Walsh, Kathleen M.; Oh, Sarah (February 23, 2010). "Self-Regulation: How Wikipedia Leverages User-Generated Quality Control Under Section 230". Archived from the original on January 6, 2014. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  59. Myers, Ken S. (2008), "Wikimmunity: Fitting the Communications Decency Act to Wikipedia", Harvard Journal of Law and Technology, The Berkman Center for Internet and Society, 20: 163, SSRN 916529
  60. Jarvis, Joshua (May 2008), "Police your marks in a wiki world", Managing Intellectual Property, No. 179 (179): 101–103, archived from the original on March 4, 2016