Maria Tecla Artemisia Montessori ( /ˌ m ɒ n t ɪ s ɔːr i / MON -tiss- OR -ee, Italian:  ; Agusta 31, 1870 - May 6, 1952) yar Italiya ce, kwararriyar likita ce kuma malama wacce akafi sani da falsafar ilimin da ake kira da sunan ta, kuma tayi rubuce-rubuce a kan kimiyya pedagogy . Tun tana ƙarama, Montessori ta karya shinge na jinsi da fata yayin da ta shiga aji a makarantar fasaha ta yara duka, tare da fatan zama injiniya. Ba da daɗewa ba ta canza zuciya kuma ta fara makarantar likita a Jami'ar Sapienza na Rome, inda ta sami digiri - tare da karramawa - a cikin 1896. Har yanzu ana amfani da hanyar koyarwarta a makarantu da yawa na gwamnati da masu zaman kansu a duk faɗin duniya.

Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Maria Montessori
Maria Montessori (portrait).jpg
head teacher (en) Fassara

Rayuwa
Haihuwa Chiaravalle, Marche (en) Fassara, 31 ga Augusta, 1870
ƙasa Italiya
Kingdom of Italy (en) Fassara
Mutuwa Noordwijk (en) Fassara, 6 Mayu 1952
Yan'uwa
Yara
Karatu
Makaranta Sapienza University of Rome (en) Fassara
Matakin karatu Doctor of Sciences (en) Fassara
Harsuna Italiyanci
Faransanci
Ɗalibai
Sana'a
Sana'a psychologist (en) Fassara, philosopher (en) Fassara, inventor (en) Fassara, likita, pedagogue (en) Fassara, psychiatrist (en) Fassara, lecturer (en) Fassara da mathematician (en) Fassara
Employers Sapienza University of Rome (en) Fassara
Kyaututtuka
Ayyanawa daga
Kayan kida piano (en) Fassara
Imani
Addini Cocin katolika

Maria Montessori.

Rayuwa da aikiGyara

Haihuwa da iyaliGyara

An haifi Montessori a ranar 31 ga Agusta, 1870 a Chiaravalle, Italiya. Mahaifinta, shine Alessandro Montessori, dan shekara 33 a lokacin, ma'aikaci ne na Ma'aikatar Kudi da ke aiki a masana'antar sarrafa taba. Mahaifiyarta, Renilde Stoppani, 'yar shekaru 25, ta sami ilimi sosai a lokutan kuma ita ce jikanyar masanin ilimin ɗabi'ar Italiyanci kuma masanin burbushin halittu Antonio Stoppani.[1] [2] Duk da cewa ba ta da wani mashawarta ta musamman, amma tana da kusanci da mahaifiyarta wacce take ƙarfafa ta. Hakanan tana da kyakkyawar alaƙa da mahaifinta, duk da cewa ya ƙi yarda da zaɓin da ta yi don ci gaba da karatun ta. [3]

1883–1896: KaratuGyara

Farkon karatuGyara

Iyalin Montessori sun koma Florence a cikin shekarar 1873 sannan Kuma sun koma zuwa Rome a 1875 saboda aikin mahaifinta. Montessori ta shiga makarantar sakandaren gwamnati tun yana da shekara 6 a 1876. Rana ta farkon makaranta ba ta "da muhimmanci sosai", [4] ko da yake an ba ta takaddun shaida don kyawawan halaye a aji na 1 da na "lavori donneschi", ko "akan aikin mata", a shekara mai zuwa. [5]

Makarantar sakandareGyara

A cikin shekarar 1883 [6] ko 1884, [7] tana da shekaru 13, Montessori ta shiga makarantar sakandare na fasaha, Regia Scuola Tecnica Michelangelo Buonarroti, inda ta karanci Italiyanci, da ilmin lissafi, algebra, lissafi, geometry, tarihin, labarin ƙasa, da kuma kimiyyar lissafi. . Ta yi digiri a 1886 tare da kyakkyawan maki da sakamakon jarrabawa. A waccan shekarar, tana da shekaru 16, ta ci gaba a makarantar horar da fasaha Regio Istituto Tecnico Leonardo da Vinci, tana karatun Italiyanci, lissafi, tarihi, labarin kasa, lissafi da kayan ado, kimiyyar lissafi, sunadarai, Botany, zoology, da kuma harsunan waje guda biyu. Ta yi kokari sosai a kimiyya kuma musamman ma da a ilmin lissafi.

Tun da farko ta yi niyyar ta ci gaba da karatun injiniya ne bayan kammala karatu, wanda baƙon abu ne ga yarinya mace a lokacinta da inda take. Koyaya, har zuwa lokacin da ta kamala karatu a 1890 lokacin tana yar shekara 20, tare da takardar shedar digiri a kimiyyar lissafi, ta yanke shawarar yin karatun likitanci, hakan shine mafi kyawun tsarin da aka bayar game da ka'idojin al'adu a lokacin. [8]

Jami'ar Rome — makarantar likitanciGyara

Montessori ta yi gaba tare da niyyar yin karatun likita. Ta yi bayyana ga ga Guido Baccelli, malamin farfesa na asibitin koyarwa a Jami’ar Rome, amma ansata karaya. Ban da haka, a shekarar 1890, ta shiga jami'ar Rome a karatun digiri a fannin kimiyyar kere-kere, ta wuce jarrabawar digiri a fannin kere-kere, zoology, kimiyyar lissafi, ilimin kimiya, ilimin dabi'a, ilmin kimiya da dabi'a, da kuma samun digirin digirgir a shekarar 1892. . Wannan digiri, tare da ƙarin karatu a cikin Italiyanci da Latin, sun cancanci ta shiga ƙungiyar ilimin likita a Jami'ar a 1893. [9]

Ta gamu da kiyayya da cin-zarafi daga wasu daliban likitoci da furofesoshi saboda jinsin ta amatsayin ya mace. Saboda kasancewarta aji tare da maza a gaban tsirara ana ganin bai dace ba, an sai aka sat ita kadai a inda ta aikin akan gawa a sirrin ta ita kadai, bayan awanni. Ta koma ga shan taba taba zuwa fuska da m wari da formaldehyde . [10] Montessori ta lashe lambar yabo ta ilimi a shekarar farko, kuma a shekarar 1895 ta sami matsayin matsayin mataimaki na asibiti, samun gogewar farko a asibiti. A cikin shekaru biyu da ta gabata ta karanci ilimin likitancin yara da kuma ilimin halin ƙwaƙwalwa, kuma ta yi aiki a ɗakin likitan yara da sabis na gaggawa, ta zama ƙwararre a fannin likitan yara. Montessori ya sauke karatu daga Jami'ar Rome a 1896 a matsayin likita na likita. An buga wannan rubutun a cikin 1897 a cikin mujallar Policlinico . Ta sami aiki a matsayin mataimaki a asibitin jami’ar kuma ta fara gudanar da wani aiki mai zaman kansa. [11] [12]

1896-1901: Farkon aiki da iyaliGyara

Daga 1896 zuwa 1901, Montessori tayi aiki tare da bincike akan abin da ake kira "phrenasthenic" yara - a cikin magangar zamani, yara suna fuskantar wani nau'i na jinkiri na hankali, rashin lafiya, ko tawaya. Har ila yau, ta fara tafiya, karatu, magana, da kuma bugawa a cikin gida da kuma duniya, tana zuwa matsayin mashahurin mai fafutukar kare hakkin mata da ilimi ga yara masu nakasa. [13]

A ranar 31 ga Maris, 1898, ta haifi ɗa guda ɗaya - ɗa mai suna Mario Montessori (Maris 31, 1898 - 1982)..[14] Mario Montessori an haife sshine ne saboda kaunar da ke tsakaninta da Giuseppe Montesano, wani kwararren likita wanda ya kasance tare da ita a makarantar Orthophrenic na Rome. Idan Montessori ta yi aure, ana tsammanin ta daina aiki da fasaha; maimakon yin aure, Montessori ta yanke shawarar ci gaba da ayyukanta da karatunta. Montessori ta so ta ci gaba da kasancewa tare da mahaifin ɗanta a ɓoye a cikin yanayin cewa ko ɗayansu ba zai auri wani ba. Lokacin da mahaifin ɗanta ya ƙaunace ta kuma daga baya yayi aure, ya bar Montessori tana jin anya ci amanarta kuma ta yanke shawarar barin asibitin jami'ar kuma ta sanya ɗanta cikin kulawa tare da dangin da ke zaune a ƙauyen zaɓuka don rasa 'yan shekarun farko na rayuwarsa. Ta kuduri cewa nan gaba za ta sake saduwa da ɗanta a lokacin ƙuruciyarsa, inda ta tabbatar da cewa shi babban mataimaki ne a binciken ta. [3][15]


Aiki tare da yara masu nakasar kwakwalwaGyara

Bayan kammala karatunta na digiri daga Jami'ar Rome a 1896, Montessori ta ci gaba da bincikenta a asibitin likitocin na jami'ar, kuma a cikin 1897 an karbe ta a matsayin mataimakiya ta son rai a can. A matsayin wani ɓangare na aikinta, ta ziyarci asylums a Rome inda ta lura da yara masu nakasa kwakwalwa, abubuwan lura waɗanda suke da asali ga aikinta na ilimi a nan gaba. Ta kuma karanta da kuma nazarin ayyukan likitocin ƙarni na 19 da masu ba da ilimi Jean Marc Gaspard Itard da Édouard Séguin, waɗanda suka yi tasiri sosai ga aikinta. Maria ta sami sha'awar ra'ayoyin Itard kuma ta kirkiro wani tsari na musamman da aka tsara don amfani da su ga ilimin yau da kullun na yara masu nakasa. Lokacin da ta gano ayyukan Jean Itard da Édouard Séguin sun ba ta sabon shugabanci a cikin tunani kuma sun rinjaye ta ta mai da hankali kan yara masu matsalar ilmantarwa. Hakanan a cikin 1897, Montessori ya bincika darussan Jami'a a cikin kayan koyarwa da karanta "duk manyan ayyuka akan ka'idar ilimi na shekaru dari biyu da suka gabata". An bayyana Montessori amatsayin mace mai kamar maza wacce keda kokari da jajircewa [16]

Jawabin ga jama'aGyara

A cikin 1897 Montessori ta yi magana game da alhakin jama'a game da ɓacin rayuwar yara a Majalisar ofasa ta Medicine a Turin. A shekara ta 1898, ta rubuta kasidu da yawa kuma ta sake yin magana a Taron Farko na Turin, inda ta bukaci da a samar da ajujuuwa na musamman a makarantu ga yara masu matsalar nakasassu, da kuma horar da malamai ga masu koyar da su. [17] A shekara ta 1899 Montessori an nada shi a matsayin mai bada shawara ga majalissar kasa da aka kafa don kare 'Ya'yan da aka yi ritaya, sannan aka gayyace shi zuwa lacca kan hanyoyin musamman na ilimi ga yaran da ke da nakasassu na ilimi a makarantar horar da malamai na Kwalejin Rome. A waccan shekarar, Montessori ta yi rangadin karatun ba da ilimi, na makonni biyu, ga manyan masu sauraro, a gaban manyan jama'a. [18] Ta shiga cikin kwamitin kungiyar na kasa kuma an nada ta a matsayin malama a fagen tsabta da ilmin dabbobi a daya daga cikin kwalejojin horar da malamai na mata a Italiya. [19]

Makarantar OrthophrenicGyara

A 1900 Leagueungiyar openedasa ta buɗe Scuola Magistrale Ortofrenica, ko Makarantar Orthophrenic, wani "makaranta na medico-pedagogical Institute" don horar da malamai a ilmantar da yara masu matsalar ƙwaƙwalwa tare da aji mai haɗe da ɗakin karatun. An nada Montessori a matsayin babban darakta. [20] malamai 64 suka yi rajista a cikin aji na farko, suna nazarin ilimin halayyar dan adam, ilmin jikin mutum da ilimin halittar jiki na tsarin jijiya, ma'aunin cututtukan dabbobi, abubuwan da ke haifar da halaye na rashin hankali, da kuma hanyoyin musamman na koyarwa. A cikin shekaru biyun da ta yi a makarantar, Montessori ta kirkiro hanyoyin da kayan aiki, wanda da suke iya karba daga baya don amfani da su tare da manyan yara. [21]

Makarantar ta kasance nasara ce nan da nan, inda ta jawo hankalin jami’an gwamnati daga sassan ilimi da lafiya, da shugabannin al’umma, da kuma manyan mutane a fannonin ilimi, ilimin halin kwakwalwa, da kuma ilmin dabbobi na Jami’ar Rome. [22] Yaran da ke cikin dakin karatun an jawo su ne daga makarantun talakawa amma ana daukar su “marasa-ilimi” saboda rashi. Wasu daga cikin waɗannan yaran daga baya sun wuce gwaje-gwaje na jama'a waɗanda aka ba wa abin da ake kira a '' al'ada '' da yara kamar kowa. [23]

A cikin shekarar 1901, Montessori ta bar Makarantar Orthophrenic da ayyukanta na sirri, kuma a cikin 1902 ta shiga makarantar digiri na Falsafa a Jami'ar Rome. (Falsafa a wancan lokacin wandya hada da yawancin abin da ake tunanin yanzu shine ilimin halin dan adam. ) Ta karanci ilimin falsafa da ilimin halin kirki, tarihin falsafa, da ilimin halin dan Adam irin wannan, amma ba ta sauke karatu ba. Ta kuma ci gaba da bincike mai zurfi a cikin ilmin kimiya na mutumtaka da falsafar ilimi, da gudanar da lura da binciken gwaji a makarantun firamare, sannan ta sake nazarin aikin Itard da Séguin, tare da fassara littattafansu zuwa Italiyanci na rubutun hannu. A wannan lokacin ta fara tunanin daidaita hanyoyin ta na ilimantar da yara masu nakasassu ga ilimin duniya, ta kasance mace mai kula sosai martabar mutane. [24]

Aikin Montessori yana haɓaka abin da ta kira daga baya "kimiyyar pedagogy" ya ci gaba a cikin shekaru masu zuwa. Har yanzu a cikin 1902, Montessori ta gabatar da rahoto a babban taron koyarwa na kasa na biyu a Naples. Ta buga labarai biyu a kan hanyar koyarwa a cikin 1903, kuma biyu a shekara mai zuwa. A shekara ta 1903 da 1904, ta yi binciken ilimin ɗan adam tare da yaran childrenan makarantar, kuma a cikin 1904 ta sami digiri a matsayin malami mai ƙwaƙwalwa a fannin ilimin alaƙa na Jami'ar Rome. An nada ta don yin karatu a cikin makarantar Pedagogic a Jami'ar kuma ta ci gaba da kasancewa a cikin matsayi har zuwa 1908. An buga jawabinta amatsayin littafi mai suna Pedagogical Anthropology a 1910. [25]

1906-1911: Casa dei Bambini da yaduwar ra'ayoyin MontessoriGyara

A cikin shekarar 1906 aka gayyaci Montessori data kula da kulawa akan ilimin kungiyar gungun yara na iyayen da ke aiki a wani sabon ginin gidaje don iyalai masu karamin karfi a gundumar San Lorenzo a Rome. Montessori ta kasance mai sha'awar amfani da ayyukanta da hanyoyin ta don yara masu tunani a cikin al'ada, kuma ta yarda. [26] Sunan Casa dei Bambini, ko Gidan Yara, an ba da shine ga Montessori, kuma Casa ta farko an buɗe e a ranar 6 ga Janairu, 1907, tana rajistar yara 50 ko 60 tsakanin shekaru biyu zuwa uku da shida ko bakwai. [27]

A farko, an shirya aji mai dauke da teburin malami da allo, da murhu, da kananan kujeru, da kujeru, da teburin rukunin yara, tare da akwatin kulle dakin kula da kayan da Montessori ta kirkira a Makarantar Orthophrenic. Ayyukan yara sun haɗa da kulawa ta mutum kamar sutura da sanya rigar ciki, kula da yanayi kamar ƙura da sharewa, da kuma kula da lambun. Hakanan an nuna wa yaran amfani da kayan da Montessori ta bunkasa. [28] Montessori da kanta, sun yi aiki da koyarwa, bincike, da sauran ayyukan ƙwararru, ta kula da lura da aikin aji, amma ba koyar da yara kai tsaye. An ba da koyarwar yau da kullun da kulawa, a ƙarƙashin jagorancin Montessori, ta hannun mai ginin gidan. [29]

A cikin wannan aji na farko, Montessori ta lura da halayen ɗalibai a cikin waɗannan ƙananan yara waɗanda suka kafa tushen tsarin karatun ta. Ta lura da jerin abubuwan da ta lakanci maida hankali da zurfafawa da yawaitawa, da maimaituwa kan tsari a cikin muhalli. Da aka ba su zaɓi na ayyukan kyauta, yaran sun nuna sha'awar ayyuka masu kyau da kayan Montessori fiye da kayan wasan yara da aka tanada masu, kuma abin mamaki ba su da ɗanɗano da sauran lada. Da shigewar lokaci, ta ga wata dabara ta ba da kai. [30]

Dangane da abubuwan da ta lura, Montessori ta aiwatar da ayyuka da yawa wadanda suka zama alamomin falsafar ilimi da kuma tsarinta. Ta maye gurbin manyan kayan daki da teburin kananan yara da kujeru masu haske wanda yaran zasu iya motsawa, tare da sanya kayan kananan yara a kanannan katako. Ta kara fadada ayyuka masu amfani kamar su shan ruwa da kuma kulawa ta mutum domin hadawa da wasu darussan motsa jiki don kula da yanayi da kai, gami da shirya fure, wanke hannu, motsa jiki, kula da dabbobi, da dafa abinci. [31] Ta kuma hada manyan bangarorin bude kofa a cikin dakin karfafa yara su zo su tafi yadda suka ga dama a cikin bangarorin dakin daban-daban da kuma darussan da ke cikin dakin. A cikin littafinta [32] ta baiyana misalin darajojin ranar hunturu da aka fara, wadanda suka fara daga 09:00   ni kuma na kammala a karfe 04:00 na yamma.

  • 9-10. Entofar shiga. Gaisuwa. Dubawa game da tsabta na mutum. Darasi na rayuwa mai amfani; taimaka wa juna ya cire ya kuma sanya kayan maye. Haye saman ɗakin ganin duk abin da ke turɓaya kuma cikin tsari. Harshe: Lokacin tattaunawa: Yara suna ba da labarin abubuwan da suka faru kafin ranar. Darasi na Addini.
  • 10-11. Darasi na hankali. Manyan darussan da aka katse ta gajeren lokacin hutu. Nomenclature, Sense bada.
  • 11–11: 30. Hanyoyin motsa jiki mai sauƙi: motsawa na yau da kullun an yi da alheri, matsayin al'ada na jiki, tafiya, tafiya a layi, gaisuwa, motsawa don kulawa, sanya abubuwa cikin ladabi.
  • 11: 30-12. Luncheon: Sallar gajeru.
  • 12-1. Wasannin kyauta.
  • 1-2. Wasannin da aka jagoranta, idan zai yiwu, a cikin iska. A wannan lokacin yaran sun girma tare da ayyukan darussan rayuwa, tsabtace dakin, turbaya, sanya kayan cikin tsari. Janar dubawa don tsabta: Tattaunawa.
  • 2-3. Aikin hannu. Yin kwaikwayo na Clay, ƙira, da sauransu.
  • 3-4. Cikakken kayan motsa jiki da waƙoƙi, in ya yiwu a buɗe sararin samaniya. Darasi don bunkasa abubuwanda ake tunani: Ziyara, da kulawa, tsirrai da dabbobi.

Ta ji ajikinta cewa ta hanyar yin aiki da yara zaisa ukai ga iya isa ga sabon matakan samun mulkin kai kuma ya zama mai himma don kai sabon matakan fahimta. Montessori ta kuma yi imani da cewa sanin kowane ɗayan kowane mutum da kuma kula da su hakan zai samar da ingantaccen ilimi da ingantaccen damar a cikin kowane ɗan yaro. [32] Ta ci gaba da daidaitawa da kuma gyara kayan da ta kirkira a baya, canza ko cire darussan da yaran da ba su zaɓa ba kdaoyaushe. Hakanan an danganta da abubuwan lura da ita, Montessori tayi gwaji tare da baiwa yara damar zaban kayan, aikin da bai katse ba, da kuma 'yancin motsi da aiki a cikin iyakokin da yankin ya tsara. Ta fara ganin 'yancin kai a matsayin manufar ilimi, da kuma matsayin malamin a matsayin mai sanya ido da kuma darektan ci gaban ilimin rayuwar yara. [31]

Yada ilimin Montessori a ItaliyaGyara

Casa dei Bambini na farko ya kasance nasara, sannan aka buɗe na biyu a Afrilu 7, 1907. Yaran da ke cikin shirye-shiryenta sun ci gaba da nuna natsuwa, kulawa, da kamun kai da kansu, kuma manyan makarantu sun fara jawo hankulan manyan malamai, 'yan jarida da kuma jama'a. [33] A ƙarshen shekara ta 1907, Montessori ta fara gwajin kayan koyarwa don rubutu da karatu — haruffa da aka yanke daga sandpaper da aka hau kan allon, almakashi masu yanke ƙauna, da katunan hoto tare da alamomi. -A-an shekaru huɗu zuwa biyar suna aiki tare da kayan kuma cikin sauri suka sami ƙwarewa a rubuce da karatu fiye da abin da ake tsammani na shekarunsu. Wannan ya jawo hankalin jama'a ga aikin Montessori. [34] Wasu ƙarin Case dei Bambini an buɗe su a cikin 1908, kuma a cikin 1909 Italiya da Switzerland sun fara maye gurbin hanyoyin Froebellian zuwa ta Montessori a cikin gidajen-marayu da kananan makarantu. [35]

A cikin shekarar 1909, Montessori ta dauki darasi na farko na horar da malamai a sabuwar hanyar ta a Città di Castello, Italiya. A wannan shekarar, ta bayyana abubuwan lura da kuma hanyoyin ta a cikin wani littafi mai suna Il Metodo della Pedagogia Scientifica Applyato All'Educazione Infantile Nelle Case Dei Bambini ( Hanyar Ilimin Kimiyya na ilimin kimiyya da Aiwatar da Ilimin Ilimin Yara a Gidajen Yara ). [36] An yi ƙarin horo na biyu a Rome a 1910, kuma na uku a Milan a 1911. Darajar Montessori da aikinta sun fara yaduwa a cikin ƙasashen duniya kuma, a kusa da wannan lokacin ta daina aikinta na likita don ba da lokaci mafi yawa ga aikinta na ilimi, da inganta hanyoyinta, da horar da malamai. [37] A shekara ta 1919 ta yi murabus daga matsayinta na Jami’ar Rome, saboda aikinta na ilimi yana ƙara karɓar dukkan lokacinta da sha'awarta.

1909-1915: Girmamawa a duniya da haɓakar ilimin MontessoriGyara

Tun daga farkon 1909, aikin Montessori ya fara jawo hankalin masu sa ido na duniya da baƙi. Ayyukanta suna yaduwa cikin ƙasashen duniya, kuma suna yaduwa cikin sauri. A karshen shekarar 1911, Montessori ta sami karɓar gudanar da ilimin Montessori a makarantun gwamnati a Italiya da Switzerland, kuma an shirya shi don ayi a Burtaniya. [38] Ya zuwa 1912, makarantun Montessori sun buɗe a Paris da kuma sauran biranen Yammacin Turai, kuma ana shirin yi a Argentina, Australiya, China, Indiya, Japan, Koriya, Mexico, Switzerland, Syuriya, Amurka, da New Zealand. Shirye-shiryen jama'a a London, Johannesburg, Rome, da Stockholm sun karbi hanyar a tsarin tsarin makarantunsu. [39] An kafa ƙungiyoyin Montessori a cikin Amurka (Kwamitin Montessori American) da United Kingdom (Montessori Society for the United Kingdom). [40] A cikin 1913 aka gudanar da Koyar da horo na Kasa da Kasa na farko a Rome, tare da na biyu a shekara ta 1914. [41]

An fassara ayyukan Montessori sosai kuma an buga su a wannan lokaci. Il Metodo della Pedagogia Scientifica an buga shi a Amurka amatsayin The Montessori Hanyar: Ilimin ilimin kimiyya kamar yadda aka Aiwatar da Ilimin Yara a cikin Gidajen Yara (wato The Montessori Method: Scientific Pedogogy as Applied to Child Education in the Children Houses), inda ya zama mafi yawan siyarwa. [42] Bugun Burtaniya da Switzerland suka biyo baya. An buga bita na Italiyanci wanda aka sake bugawa a cikin 1913. Buga da Rashanci da Yaren mutanen Poland sun fito a cikin 1913 kuma fitowar Jaridun, Jafana, da Romaniyan a cikin 1914, sai kuma Spanish (1915), Dutch (1916), da kuma Danish (1917). An buga Pedagogical Anthropology a cikin Ingilishi a 1913. [43] A shekara ta 1914, Montessori ta buga, cikin Ingilishi, Doctor Montessori's Handbook, jagorar mai amfani ga kayan aikin da ta bunkasa. [44]

Montessori a AmurkaGyara

A cikin shekarar 1911 da 1912, Ayyukan Montessori aikin sun shahara kuma sunyadu a cikin Amurka, musamman a cikin jerin kasidu a cikin mujallar McClure, kuma an buɗe makarantar Montessori ta Arewa ta farko a watan Oktoba 1911, a Tarrytown, New York . Mawallafin Alexander Graham Bell da matarsa sun zama masu ba da izini ga hanyar kuma an buɗe makaranta ta biyu a gidansu Kanada. [45] Hanyar Montessori ta sayar da sauri ta hanyar bugu shida. [42] Montwararren Montessori na Amurka ne ya ɗauki nauyin ba da horo na farko na ƙasa da ƙasa a Rome a 1913, kuma 67 daga cikin ɗalibai 83 sun fito daga Amurka. [46] Ya zuwa 1913 akwai makarantun Montessori sama da 100 a cikin ƙasar. [47] Montessori ta tafi Amurka a cikin Disamba 1913 a cikin yawon shakatawa na makonni uku wanda ya haɗa da fina-finan ɗakunan karatun Turai, haɗuwa tare da manyan mutane masu ban sha'awa a duk inda ta yi tafiya. [48]

Montessori ta dawo Amurka a 1915, wanda kungiyar Ilimi ta Nationalasa ta dauki nauyi kuma ta ba da sanarwar gudummawa don nuna ayyukanta ataron Bayanai na Panama-Pacific a San Francisco, California, kuma don ba da horo na uku na ƙasa. An saka aji a gilashin gilashin a yayin Exposition, kuma dubun dubatar masu kallo sun zo ganin aji na ɗalibai 21. mahaifin Montessori ya mutu a watan Nuwamba 1915, kuma ta koma Italiya. [49]

Kodayake Montessori da tsarinta na koyar da ilimi sun shahara sosai a Amurka, amma ba tare da hamayya da jayayya ba. William heard Kilpatrick, malamin Falsafa na Amurka kuma mai neman canji a fannin ilimi John Dewey, ya rubuta littafin suka ga tsarin da mahimmancin da aka yi wa lakabi da Motar Montessori, wanda ke da babban tasiri. Kungiyar Kan Rana ta wasan Kwando ta ƙasa ta kasance mai mahimmanci. Masu sukar sunyi zargin cewa hanyar Montessori ta wuce gona da iri, da tsauraran matakai, tawakkali kan koyar da hankali, kuma ya rage karancin tunani, mu'amala tsakanin mutane, da wasa. [50] Bugu da kari, dagewar Montessori game da tsauraran matakan fadada tsarinta, horar da malamai, samarwa da kuma amfani da kayan, da kuma kafa makarantu ya zama sanadiyyar rikici da jayayya. Bayan da ta fita a shekarar 1915, tsarin Montessori a Amurka ya rarrabu, kuma Montessori ilimin ya kasance abin sakaci a cikin tsarin karatua a Amurka har zuwa 1952. [51]

1915–1939: Kara ci gaba na ilimin MontessoriGyara

A shekara ta 1915, Montessori ta koma Turai inda ta zauna a Barcelona, Spaniya. A cikin shekaru 20 masu zuwa Montessori tayi balaguro da yin darussai a Turai kuma ta bada darussan koyar da malamai. Ilimin Montessori ta sami ci gaba mai yawa a Spain, Netherlands, United Kingdom, da Italiya.

Spain (1915-1936)Gyara

Lokacin da ta dawo daga Amurka, Montessori ta ci gaba da ayyukanta a Barcelona, inda karamin shirin da gwamnatin ta Catalonia ta dauki nauyin farawa a 1915 ta ci gaba a cikin Escola Montessori, tana bauta wa yara daga shekaru uku zuwa goma, da kuma Laboratori i Seminari de Pedagogia, bincike, horo, da kwalejin koyarwa. An ba da horo na huɗu na ƙasa a can a 1916, ciki har da kayan aiki da hanyoyi, ci gaba a cikin shekaru biyar da suka gabata, don koyar da ilimin nahawu, ilmin lissafi, da ilimin lissafi ga yara na makarantar firamare tun daga shekara shida zuwa goma sha biyu. [52] A shekara ta 1917, Montessori ta buga littafinta na farko a L'autoeducazionne nelle Scuole Elementari (Ilmi a cikin Makarantar Elementary), wanda ya fito a Turanci a matsayin Advanced Montessori Method . [53] A kusan 1920, ƙungiyar 'yancin cin gashin kanta ta Catalan ta fara neman Montessori da ta ɗauki matakin siyasa kuma ta ba da sanarwa a bainar jama'a ta amince da' yancin Catalan, kuma ta ƙi. An cire tallafin hukuma daga shirye-shiryenta. [54] A 1924, sabon mulkin kama karya na soja ya rufe makarantar model ta Montessori a Barcelona, kuma Montessori ilimin ya ragu a Spain, duk da cewa Barcelona ta kasance gidan Montessori na shekaru goma sha biyu masu zuwa. A shekara ta 1933, a karkashin Jamhuriyyar Sifen ta biyu, gwamnatin ta dauki nauyin sabon horo, sannan aka sake samun tallafin gwamnati. A shekara ta 1934, ta buga littattafai guda biyu a Spain, Psicogeometrica da Psicoarithemetica . [55] Koyaya, tare da fara yakin basasa na Spain a 1936, yanayin siyasa da zamantakewa sun sa Montessori barin Spain dindindin. [56]

Netherlands (1917-1919)Gyara

A cikin shekarar 1917, Montessori ta karantar a Amsterdam, kuma an kafa Netherlands Montessori Society. [57] Ta dawo ne a shekarar 1920 don bayar da jawabai daban-daban a Jami'ar Amsterdam . [58] Shirye-shiryen Montessori sun bunƙasa a cikin Netherlands, kuma zuwa tsakiyar 1930s akwai makarantun Montessori sama da 200 a cikin ƙasar. [59] A cikin 1935 hedkwatar Montungiyar Montessori Internationale, ko AMI, ta koma dindindin zuwa Amsterdam. [60]

Kasar Burtaniya (1919-191936)Gyara

Karantarwar Montessori ya hadu tare da himma da jayayya a Ingila tsakanin 1912 da 1914. [61] A shekara ta 1919, Montessori ta zo Ingila a karon farko kuma ta ba da horo na kasa da kasa wanda aka karbe shi da babbar sha'awa. Ilimin Montessori ya ci gaba da yaduwa a Burtaniya, kodayake ƙungiyar ta sami wasu gwagwarmaya game da amincin da rarrabuwa wanda ya gudana a Amurka. [62] Montessori ya ci gaba da ba da horo a Ingila duk sauran shekara guda har zuwa farkon Yaƙin Duniya na II. [63]

Italiya (1922-1934)Gyara

A cikin 1922, an gayyaci Montessori zuwa Italiya a madadin gwamnati don ba da darussan laccoci kuma daga baya duba makarantun Montessori na Italiya. Daga baya a wannan shekarar gwamnatin Fasito ta Benito Mussolini ta hau kan mulki a Italiya. A watan Disamba, Montessori ta dawo Italiya don shirin jerin darussan horarwa na shekara-shekara a karkashin tallafin gwamnati, kuma a shekarar 1923, ministan ilimi Giovanni Gentile ya bayyana cikakken goyon bayansa ga makarantun Montessori da horar da malamai. [64] A cikin 1924 Montessori ya sadu da Mussolini, wanda ya ba da cikakkiyar goyon baya ga ilimin Montessori a zaman wani ɓangare na shirin ƙasa. [65] Preungiyoyin pre-war na magoya bayan Montessori, Societa gli Amici del Metodo Montessori (kungiyar Abokan Montessori Method) ta zama kungiyar Opera Montessori (Montessori Society) tare da amintattun gwamnati, kuma a 1926 Mussolini ya zama shugaban girmamawa na ƙungiyar. [66] A cikin 1927 Mussolini ya kafa kwalejin horar da malamin Montessori, kuma ya zuwa 1929 gwamnatin Italiya ta tallafa wa cibiyoyin Montessori da yawa. [67] Koyaya, daga 1930, Montessori da gwamnatin Italiya sun shiga rikici game da tallafin kudi da kuma akida, musamman bayan lafuzan Montessori kan Lafiya da Ilimi. [68] A cikin 1932 ita da ɗanta Mario an sanya su a ƙarƙashin sa ido akan siyasa. [69] A ƙarshe, a cikin 1933, ta yi murabus daga Opera Montessori, kuma a 1934 ta bar Italiya. Gwamnatin Italiya ta kawo karshen ayyukan Montessori a cikin kasar a cikin 1936. Montessori ta cigaba da karbuwa a kasashe da dama a fadin duniya inda ta rika zuwa kasashe tana karantar da muteane akan hayar karantarwar ta.. [70]

Sauran ƙasasheGyara

Montessori ta karantar a Vienna a 1923, kuma an buga laccocin ta kamar Il Bambino a Famiglia, an buga shi a Turanci a 1936 a matsayin The Child in the Family . Tsakanin shekarar 1913 zuwa 1936 an kuma kafa makarantun Montessori da al'ummomi a Faransa, Jamus, Switzerland, Belgium, Rasha, Serbia, Kanada, India, China, Japan, Indonesia, Australia, da New Zealand. [71]

Kungiyar Montessori InternationaleGyara

A cikin 1929, an yi taron farko na Montessori na kasa da kasa a Elsinore, Denmark, tare da haɗin Fifth Conference na New Education Fellowship. A wannan taron, Montessori da ɗanta Mario sun kafa Montungiyar Montessori Internationale ko AMI "don sa ido kan ayyukan makarantu da al'ummomi a duk faɗin duniya kuma su kula da horar da malamai." [72] Har ila yau, AMI ta sarrafa haƙƙin wallafa ayyukan Montessori da kuma samar da kayan aikin Montessori didactic. Masu tallafawa na farkon na AMI sun haɗa da Sigmund Freud, Jean Piaget, da Rabindranath Tagore . [73]

Zaman lafiyaGyara

A cikin 1932, Montessori ta yi magana game da zaman lafiya da Ilimi a Babban Taro na Montessori na biyu a Nice, Faransa; Ofishin Kasa da Kasa ne, ya buga laccon shi a Geneva, Switzerland. A cikin 1932, Montessori ta yi jawabi a taron kira kan Zaman Lafiya ta Duniya a Geneva, Switzerland, kan taken zaman lafiya da Ilimi. [74] Montessori ta gudanar da taron zaman lafiya daga 1932 zuwa 1939 a Geneva, Brussels, Copenhagen, da Utrecht, wadanda daga baya aka buga su cikin Italiyanci kamar Educazione e Pace, kuma a Turanci a matsayin Education and Peace . [75] A shekara ta 1949, da kuma sake sata a cikin 1950 da kuma a 1951, Montessori ta zama cikin wanda za'a ba lambar yabo ta zaman lafiya ta Nobel, inda aka karɓi jimlar mutane guda shida.[76]

Laren, Netherlands (1936-1939)Gyara

A cikin 1936 Montessori da iyalinta sun bar Barcelona zuwa Ingila, kuma ba da daɗewa ba suka ƙaura zuwa Laren, kusa da Amsterdam. Montessori da ɗanta Mario sun ci gaba da sabbin kayan abubuwa a nan, gami da fasahar murƙushewa, alamomin nahawu, da katunan notanclature. [77] Dangane da tashe tashen hankula na soja a cikin Turai, Montessori ta ƙara maida hankalinta ga taken zaman lafiya. A shekara ta 1937, an gudanar da babban taro na kasa da kasa na Montessori na 6 a kan taken "Ilimi don Zaman Lafiya", kuma Montessori ta yi kira da "kimiyyar zaman lafiya" kuma ta yi magana game da matsayin ilimin yara kamar yadda mabuɗi don sake fasalin jama'a. [78] A cikin 1938, theungiyar Theosophical Society ta gayyaci Montessori zuwa Indiya don ba da horo, kuma a 1939 ta bar Netherlands tare da ɗanta da abokin aiki Mario. [79]

1939-1946: Montessori a IndiyaGyara

Sha'awar Montessori ta kasance a Indiya tun 1913, lokacin da ɗalibin Indiya ya halarci karatun farko na ƙasa a Rome, kuma ɗalibai a cikin shekarun 1920 zuwa 1930 sun dawo Indiya don fara makarantu da inganta ilimin Montessori. An kafa Kungiyar Montessori ta Indiya a cikin 1926, kuma an fassara Il Metodo cikin Gujarati da Hindi a 1927. [80] Ya zuwa 1929, mawakiyar Indiya Rabindranath Tagore ta kafa makarantu da yawa "Tagore-Montessori" a Indiya, kuma an ba da wakilci sosai a fannin ilimin Indiya a Montessori a Majalisar Dinkin Duniya a 1929. [81] Montessori ita da kanta tana da haɗin kai da ƙungiyar Theosophical Society tun daga 1907. Yunkurin Theosophical, wanda aka himmatu don ilimantar da talakawa na Indiya, an jawo shi zuwa ilimin Montessori a matsayin mafita guda. [82]

Kwarewa a IndiyaGyara

Montessori ya ba da horo a Kungiyar Theosophical Society a Madras a cikin 1939, kuma ya yi niyyar ba da jawabai a jami'o'i daban-daban, sannan ya koma Turai. [83] Koyaya, lokacin da Italiya ta shiga yakin duniya na II a gefen Jamusawa a cikin 1940, Burtaniya ta saka duk Italiyanci a Burtaniya da mulkinta a matsayin baƙon makiyi. A zahiri kawai Mario Montessori ya kasance mai ɗaukar hoto, yayin da Montessori kanta aka kulle ta da cibiyar ta Theosophical Society, kuma Mario ya sake saduwa da mahaifiyarsa bayan watanni biyu. Montessoris ya ci gaba da zama a Madras da Kodaikanal har zuwa 1946, kodayake an ba su damar yin tafiya dangane da laccoci da darussan.

Kayan karatun boko, ilimin kwalliya, da haihuwa zuwa ukuGyara

A cikin shekarun rayuwarta a Indiya, Montessori da ɗanta Mario sun ci gaba da haɓaka hanyar karatun ta. Kalmar "ilimin ilimin halittar jiki" an gabatar dashi don bayyana tsarin kula da yara masu shekaru daga shida zuwa shekaru goma sha biyu wanda ya jaddada jituwa ga dukkanin abubuwan duniyar duniyar. Yara sunyi aiki kai tsaye tare da tsirrai da dabbobi a cikin mahallinsu na al'ada, kuma Montessoris ta haɓaka darussan, zane-zane, zane-zane, da samfuri don amfani tare da ƙananan yara na farko. An ƙirƙiri abu don ilimin dabbobi, ilmin dabbobi, da labarin ƙasa. Tsakanin 1942 zuwa 1944 an haɗa waɗannan abubuwan a cikin babban tafarki don aiki tare da yara daga shekaru shida zuwa sha biyu. Wannan aikin ya haifar da littattafai guda biyu: Ilimi don Sabon Duniya da Don Ilmantar da Humanan Adam . [84]

Yayin da yake cikin Indiya, Montessori ta lura da yara da matasa na kowane zamani, kuma sun juya zuwa karatun ƙuruciya. A cikin 1944 ta ba da laccoci iri-iri a kan shekaru uku na farko na rayuwa, da kuma makarantar horarwa da gwamnati ta amince da su a Sri Lanka. An tattara waɗannan laccoci ne a shekara ta 1949 a cikin littafin Me Kamata Ya Kamata Ku Yi Game da Yaran ku . [85]

A cikin 1944 an ba Monttorois wasu 'yanci motsi kuma sun yi tafiya zuwa Sri Lanka. A cikin 1945 Montessori ta halarci taron farko na Indiya Montessori a Jaipur, kuma a cikin 1946, tare da yaƙe-yaƙe, ita da iyalinta sun koma Turai. [86]

1946-1952: Shekarun ƙarsheGyara

A cikin 1946, lokacin tana da shekaru 76, Montessori ta dawo Amsterdam, amma ta kwashe shekaru shida masu zuwa tafiya Turai da Indiya. Ta ba da horo a Landan a 1946, kuma a 1947 ta bude cibiyar koyar da horo a can, Cibiyar Montessori. Bayan 'yan shekaru wannan cibiyar ta sami' yancin kanta daga Montessori kuma ta ci gaba a matsayin Cibiyar Horarwa ta St. Nicholas . Hakanan a cikin 1947, ta koma Italiya don sake kafa Opera Montessori kuma ta ba wasu ƙarin horo biyu. Daga baya a wannan shekarar ta dawo Indiya inda ta ba da horo a Adyar da Ahmedabad . Wadannan darussan sun haifar da littafin The Absorbent Mind, wanda Montessori ya ba da bayanin ci gaban yaro tun daga haihuwa har zuwa gaba da gabatar da manufar Tsarin Haɓaka Goma na huɗu. A cikin 1948, an sake buga Il Metodo kuma aka buga shi cikin Ingilishi kamar yadda Discovery of the Yara . A cikin 1949 ta ba da horo a Pakistan kuma aka kafa essungiyar Montessori Pakistan. [87]

A cikin 1949 Montessori ta dawo Turai kuma ta halarci Babban Taro na Montessori na 8 a Sanremo, Italiya, inda aka nuna salon aji. A wannan shekarar, an fara koyar da horo na farko don haihuwa zuwa shekaru uku, wanda ake kira Scuola Assistenti all'infanzia (Montessori School for Assistants to Infancy). [88] An ba ta lambar yabo ta Nobel Peace Prize . An kuma bai wa Montessori lambar girmamawa ta Faransa, Darakta ta Dutch of Orange Nassau, kuma ya samu lambar girmamawa ta Jami’ar Amsterdam. A cikin 1950 ta ziyarci Scandinavia, wakilcin Italiya a taron UNESCO a Florence, wanda aka gabatar a yayin horo na 29 na kasa da kasa a Perugia, ya ba da horo na kasa a Rome, an buga bugu na biyar na Il Metodo tare da sabon taken La Scoperta del Bambino ( The Discovery na Yara ), kuma an sake nada shi don lambar yabo ta zaman lafiya ta Nobel. A cikin 1951 ta shiga cikin Taro na 9 na kasa da kasa na Montessori a London, ta ba da horo a Innsbruck, an zabe ta a karo na uku don lambar yabo ta zaman lafiya ta Nobel. Montessori ya mutu bayan cutar malali a ranar 6 ga Mayu, 1952, yana da shekara 81 a Noordwijk aan Zee, Netherlands. [89]

LegacyGyara

 
Montessori akan tambarin 1970 na Indiya

An nuna makarantun Maria Montessori da Montessori akan tsabar kudi da banki na Italiya, sannan akan tambura na Netherlands, Indiya, Italiya, Maldives, Pakistan da Sri Lanka. [90] A shekarar 2020, Lokaci ya zabi Montessori a matsayin daya daga cikin Manyan Mata 100 na shekarar, wani lamunin wanda ya baiwa kyautar Kyautar Shekara.[91]


Hanyar karatuGyara

{{en:Main|Montessori education}}

Tasirin farkoGyara

Tunanin Jeaness Gaspard Itard, Édouard Séguin, Friedrich Fröbel, da Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi, dukkansu sun ba da fifikon bincike da halayyar ilimi. [92] [93] Aiki na farko na Montessori tare da yara masu nakasa, a cikin School na Orthophrenic a cikin 1900-11901, sun yi amfani da hanyoyin Itard da Séguin, horar da yara a cikin ayyukan jiki kamar tafiya da kuma amfani da cokali, horar da hankalinsu ta hanyar bayyanar da gani, kamshi, da gogewa mai ban tsoro, da kuma gabatar da haruffa a sikelin tactile. [94] Wadannan ayyukan sun haɓaka cikin kayan Montessori "Sensorial". [95]

Ilimin kimiyyaGyara

Montessori ta dauki aikinta a cikin Makarantar Orthophrenic da kuma karatun ta na gaba-gaba da aikin bincike a makarantun firamare a matsayin "tsarin ilimin kimiyya", ra'ayi ne na yanzu a cikin karatun ilimi a lokacin. Ta yi kira ba wai kawai lura da auna dalibai ba, har ma da samar da sabbin hanyoyin da za su canza su. "Ilimin kimiya, sabili da haka, shine wanda, yayin da aka danganta da kimiyya, aka gyara da inganta mutum." [96] Bugu da kari, ilimi kansa yakamata ya canza shi ta hanyar kimiyya: "Sabbin hanyoyin da idan ana tafiyar dasu akan layin kimiyya, yakamata su canza makarantar gaba daya da hanyoyin ta, yakamata su samar da sabon tsarin ilimi." [97]

Casa dei BambiniGyara

Aiki tare da yara marasa nakasassu a cikin Casa dei Bambini a cikin 1907, Montessori ta fara kirkirar karatun kanta. Abubuwa masu mahimmanci na ka'idodinta na ilimi sun samo asali daga wannan aikin, wanda aka bayyana a cikin Hanyar The Montessori a cikin 1912 da kuma cikin Discovery of the Yara a 1948. An kafa tushenta ne bisa lura da yara a 'yanci don aiwatar da yardar kaina a cikin yankin da aka shirya don biyan bukatunsu. [98] Montessori ya kammala da cewa aikin yara a cikin wannan yanayi ya nuna wani shiri na ciki na ci gaba, kuma matsayin da ya dace na malamin shine ya cire wani cikas ga wannan cigaban halitta tare da samar da damar hakan don ci gaba da bunkasa. [99]

Don haka, an shigar da ɗakunan makarantar ɗakunan yara masu yara, "ayyukan rayuwa" masu amfani kamar su sharewa da teburin wanka, da kayan koyarwa waɗanda Montessori ta bunkasa kanta. An bai wa yara 'yancin zaɓan da kuma tafiyar da ayyukansu, a nasu wuraren da bin sha'awar kansu. A cikin waɗannan yanayin, Montessori ta sanya abubuwan lura da yawa waɗanda suka zama tushen aikinta. Da farko, ta lura da sanya hankali sosai a cikin yara da kuma maimaitawa ta hanyar abubuwan da aka zaɓa. Har ila yau, ta lura da irin mummunan halin da yaran ke yi na yin odar yankin nasu, da daidaita tebur da shelves da yin odar kayayyakin. Yayinda yara suka zaɓi wasu ayyukan akan wasu, Montessori ta gyara kayan da ta basu. Bayan wani lokaci, yaran sun fara nuna abin da ta kira "ladabi mara lafiyan". [100]

Karin ci gaba da ilimin Montessori a yauGyara

Montessori ta ci gaba da bunkasa tsarinta da tsarinta na ci gaban ɗan adam yayin da take fadada ayyukanta tare da faɗaɗawa ga yara mazan. Ta ga halayen mutane kamar yadda kowa ke bi da shi, halaye na asali a cikin ilimin halayyar ɗan adam wanda ɗanta da mai ba da gudummawa Mario Montessori ya bayyana a matsayin "sha'awar ɗan adam" a cikin 1957. Bugu da kari, ta lura lokuta daban-daban, ko "jirage", a cikin ci gaban mutum, daga haihuwa zuwa shekaru shida, daga shida zuwa goma sha biyu, daga sha biyu zuwa goma sha takwas, daga goma sha takwas zuwa ashirin da huɗu. Ta ga halaye daban-daban, yanayin koyo, da kuma ci gaban ci gaban da ke aiki a kowane daga cikin wadannan jirage, ta kuma yi kira da a samar da hanyoyin da suka shafi ilimi a kowane lokaci. A cikin tsawon rayuwarta, Montessori ta kirkiro da hanyoyin karatun da kayan kayan jirgi na jirgi biyu na farko, daga haihuwa zuwa shekaru goma sha biyu, kuma ta yi rubutu da lectures game da jirage uku da na huxu. Mariya ta kirkiro wasu aji 4000 na Montessori a duk faɗin duniya kuma an fassara littattafarta cikin yaruka da yawa don horar da sababbin masu ilimi. An shigar da hanyoyin nata a cikin daruruwan makarantu na gwamnati da masu zaman kansu a duk faɗin Amurka. [101]

Hanyar MontessoriGyara

Daya daga cikin ayyukan Montessori dayawa shine hanyar Montessori . Wannan hanya ce ta ilimi ga yara masu karamin karfi wanda ke karfafa ci gaban shirin yaro da iyawar halitta, musamman ta hanyar wasan kwaikwayo. Wannan hanyar ta ba yara damar haɓaka yadda suke so kuma ya samar wa masu ilimi sabbin fahimtar ci gaban yara. Littafin Montessori, The Montessori Hanyar, ya gabatar da hanya daki-daki. Malamai masu bin wannan ƙirar sun kafa mahalli na musamman don biyan bukatun ɗalibai a cikin ƙungiyoyi masu haɓaka shekaru uku masu tasowa: shekaru 2-2.5, shekaru 2.5-6, da kuma shekaru 6-12. Studentsaliban suna koyo ta hanyar ayyukan da suka shafi bincike, jan hankali, tsari, maimaitawa, ƙauracewa, da sadarwa. Malamai suna ƙarfafa yara a cikin shekaru biyu na farko don amfani da hankalinsu don ganowa da sarrafa kayan a cikin yanayin da suke ciki. Yara a ƙarshen zamani sunyi ma'amala tare da tsararren ra'ayi dangane da sabon ikon tunani, hangen nesa, da kerawa. [102]

AyyukaGyara

Montessori ta buga littattafai da kasidu da kasidu da dama a lokacin rayuwarta, galibi cikin Italiyanci, amma wani lokacin farko a Turanci. A cewar Kramer, "manyan ayyukan da aka buga kafin shekarar 1920 ( The Montessori Hanyar, Pedagogical Anthropology, Advanced Montessori Method — spontaneous Aiki a Ilimi da Montessori Elementary Material ), an rubuta ta cikin Italiyanci sannan kuma aka fassara ta ƙarƙashin kulawarta." [103] Koyaya, da yawa daga cikin ayyukanta daga baya an rubuto su ne daga laccocin ta, galibi a fassara, kuma daga baya ne aka buga su a littafin littattafai.[104]

An ba da manyan ayyukan Montessori a nan saboda tsarinsu na farko, tare da manyan bita da fassara.

  • (1909) Il Metodo della Pedagogia Scientifica applicato all'educazione infantile nelle Case dei Bambini
    • bita a cikin 1913, 1926, da 1935; Bita da sake magana a cikin 1950 a matsayin La Scoperta del bambino
    • (1912) Ingilishi na Turanci: Hanyar Montessori: Harshen Ilimin kimiyya kamar yadda ake Amfani da Ilimin Yara a cikin Gidajen Yara
    • (1948) Bita da haɓaka Ingilishi wanda aka bayar azaman The Discovery of the Yara
    • (1950) Aka sake fasalta kuma aka sake bugawa cikin Italiyanci kamar La Scoperta del bambino
  • (1910) Antropologia Pedagogica
    • (1913) Buga na Ingilishi: Pedagogical Anthropology
  • (1914) Littafin Jagora na kansa Dr. Montessori
    • (1921) Itace Italiyanci: Manuale di pedagogia kimiya
  • (1916) L'autoeducazione nelle scuole elementari
    • (1917) Buga na Ingilishi: Hanyar Advanced Montessori, Vol. Ni: Aiki Na Zamani A Ilimi; Fitowa II: The Montessori Elementary Material.
  • (1922) I bambini viventi nella Chiesa
    • (1929) Ingilishi Ingilishi: Yaron a cikin Ikilisiya, littafin farko na Maria Montessori game da dokar Ka'aba ta Katolika tun daga matsayin yarinyar.
  • (1923) Das Kind in der Familie (Jamusanci)
    • (1929) Ingilishi Ingilishi: Yaro a Iyali
    • (1936) Buga na Italiyanci: Il bambino a cikin famiglia
  • (1934) Psico Geométria (Mutanen Espanya)
    • (2011) Ingilishi na Turanci: Psychogeometry
  • (1934) Psico Aritmética
    • (1971) Buga na Italiyanci: Psicoaritmetica
  • (1936) L'Enfant (Faransa)
    • (1936) Buga na Ingilishi: Asirin Childan Yara
    • (1938) Il segreto dell'infanzia
  • (1948) De l'enfant à l'adolescent
    • (1948) Buga na Ingilishi: Daga Yarinya Zuwa Jariri
    • (1949) Dall'infanzia all'adolescenza
  • (1949) Educazione e taki
    • (1949) Ingilishi na Turanci: Salama da Ilimi
  • (1949) Formazione dell'uomo
    • (1949) Ingilishi na Turanci: Tsarin Mutum
  • (1949) Rashin Ingantaccen Zuciya
    • (1952) La mente del bambino. Mente assorbente
  • (1947) Ilimi don Sabon Duniya
    • (1970) Buga na Italiya: Educazione per un mondo nuovo
  • (1947) Domin Ilmantar da Abubuwan Dan Adam
    • (1970) Buga na Italiyanci: Ku zo educare il potenziale umano

ManazartaGyara

  1. "Highlights from 'Communications 2007/1'". Association Montessori Internationale. Archived from the original on December 14, 2007. 
  2. Kramer, 24; Trabalzini, 13
  3. 3.0 3.1 Flaherty, T.
  4. Trabalzini 7
  5. Kramer 27
  6. Kramer 31
  7. Trabalzini 8
  8. Kramer 32–33; Trabalzini 7–8
  9. Kramer 34–35; Trabalzini 9–10
  10. Kramer 40–41
  11. Kramer 47–50
  12. Montessori is often described as the first woman doctor in Italy, but in fact Ernestina Paper earned a medical degree in Florence in 1877 and practiced medicine beginning in 1878. (Trabalzini 14)
  13. Kramer 52–58; Trabalzini 16–23
  14. "Mario Montessori". Sweetwater Montessori School. Retrieved August 31, 2012. 
  15. Ball, Laura. "Maria Montessori". Psychology's Feminist Voices. 
  16. Kramer 58–61; Standing 28; Trabalzini 16–17
  17. Trabalzini 18–19; Kramer 73
  18. Kramer 78
  19. Kramer 84–85
  20. Kramer 86; Trabalzini 21
  21. Kramer 90
  22. Kramer 87
  23. Kramer 91; Trabalzini 23–24
  24. Kramer 92, 94–95; Trabalzini 39
  25. Kramer 95–97; Trabalzini 39–41
  26. Kramer 110; Trabalzini 49, 52
  27. Kramer 111
  28. Trabalzini 53
  29. Kramer 111–112
  30. Kramer 113–116; Trabalzini 40–47
  31. 31.0 31.1 Kramer 115–121; Trabalzini 54–56
  32. 32.0 32.1 Montessori, M.
  33. Kramer 123–125; Standing 53–54; Trabalzini 56
  34. Kramer 126–131; Standing 47–50
  35. Kramer 135–136
  36. Kramer 137; Trabalzini 57
  37. Kramer 147, 150, 155; Standing 58–61; Trabalzini 103–104
  38. Kramer 155
  39. Kramer 176
  40. Kramer 172, 155
  41. Trabalzini 107–108
  42. 42.0 42.1 Kramer 167
  43. Trabalzini 106–107
  44. Kramer 174; Trabalzini 103–104
  45. Kramer 159, 162–5
  46. Kramer 172
  47. Kramer 181
  48. Kramer 186–202
  49. Kramer 212–215
  50. Kramer 227–229
  51. Kramer 230–231
  52. Kramer 246–250
  53. Kramer 249–250; Trabalzini 119–120
  54. Kramer 269–270
  55. Trabalzini 160
  56. Kramer 331–333
  57. Kramer 251
  58. Kramer 267
  59. Kramer 323
  60. Kramer 305
  61. Kramer 235–245
  62. Kramer 272
  63. Kramer 294
  64. Kramer 280–281
  65. Kramer 282; Trabalzini 127
  66. Kramer 283, 285
  67. Kramer 302–304
  68. Kramer 326; Trabalzini 156–7
  69. Trabalzini 158
  70. Trabalzini 158–160
  71. Kramer 246; Standing 64
  72. Kramer 305–306
  73. Kramer 311
  74. Trabalzini 157
  75. Kramer 330; Trabalzini 173
  76. "Nomination Database – Peace". Nobelprize.org. 
  77. Kramer 337; Trabalzini 161
  78. Kramer 339; Trabalzini 162
  79. Kramer 340–341; Trabalzini 165
  80. Kramer 342
  81. Kramer 306–307
  82. Kramer 341–342
  83. Trabalzini 165
  84. Kramer 345–346; Trabalzini 167–168
  85. Kramer 348; Trabalzini 168
  86. Kramer 348
  87. Kramer 348–355; Trabalzini 169–170
  88. Trabalzini 170
  89. Kramer 360–367; Trabalzini 170–172
  90. Montessori. colnect.com
  91. "Maria Montessori: 100 Women of the Year". Time. March 5, 2020. 
  92. Kramer 59–67
  93. Montessori (1938), 17–23
  94. Kramer 76
  95. Lillard 16
  96. Montessori (1938) 28
  97. Montessori (1938) 1–3, 28–29
  98. Montessori (1938) 62
  99. Montessori (1938) 62, 76–77
  100. Montessori (1936) 126–138
  101. Lillard, P. (1996). Montessori today: a comprehensive approach to education from birth to adulthood. New York: Pantheon Books.
  102. Hainstock, Elizabeth G. (1997). The Essential Montessori: An introduction to the woman, the writings, the method, and the movement. New York: the Penguin Group.
  103. Kramer 356
  104. "A Montessori Bibliography". Montessori Family Alliance (in en-US). July 13, 2017. 

citationsGyara