Ƴancin tunani (wanda kuma ake kira ƴancin tunani ko ra'ayi) shine 'yancin mutum wajen amincewa ko yarda da wata ra'ayi, hujja, ko kuma tunani, nasa na kansa ba tare da ra'ayoyin wasu ba.[1]

Wikidata.svgYancin Tunani
Ƴancin Jama'a
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na Ƴancin Jama'a da intellectual freedom (en) Fassara
Bangare na psychology terminology (en) Fassara
"Idan ba tare da 'yancin tunani ba, ba za a iya zama kamar hikima ba, kuma babu wani abu kamar 'yancin jama'a ba tare da ƴancin yin magana ba", Benjamin Franklin, 1722

BayaniGyara

Kowane mutum na ƙoƙarin samun ƙwarewar fahimta ta hanyar haɓaka ilimi, ra'ayoyi, ƙa'idoji da tantance su dangane da muhallin sa. Wannan ƙwarewar fahimta yana ba da jin daɗi kuma yana maye gurbin jin rashin taimako. Baya ga kawo sauƙi ga kishin mutum, sabon ilimi da tunani kuma suna kawo sa rai a na gaba.[2]

'Yancin ra'ayi shine mafari kuma magabanci - don haka yana da alaƙa da - wasu 'yanci, game da 'yancin addini, 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki, da 'yancin nuna ra'ayi. Ko da yake 'yancin ra'ayi tsayayye ne dangane da sauran 'yanci da yawa, ba a buƙatar su ta wata hanya don aiki da wanzuwar su. Ka'idar 'yanci ko hakki baya bada damar haɗa shi, halalcinsa, ko kariya ta hanyar faɗakarwa ta falsafa. Haƙƙi ne mai matukar muhimmanci a yammacin duniya kuma kusan dukkanin kundin tsarin mulkin damokuradiyya suna kare wadannan haƙƙoƙi.

Misali, Kudirin Haƙƙoƙin ya ƙunshi sanannen dama a cikin Gyara na Farko da akayi mai cewa ba za a sanya dokokin da zasu katsalandan ga addini "ko haramta 'yanci ba." Alkalin Kotun Kolin Amurka Benjamin Cardozo ya yi bayani a Palko v. Connecticut (1937) cewa:

'Yancin ra'ayii shine mafi inganci daga mutane kuma hakki ne wanda ba'a iya kauce masa kuma wani muhimmin sashi ne na dokokin haƙƙin ɗan adam a duniya. Ba tare da wani gyaran fuska ba, alamomin da zasu tabbatar da gaskiyan wannan bayani na nan kunshe cikin tarihinmu, tsarin mulkinmu da kuma shari'ar mu.[3]

An lissafo 'Yancin tunani a a karkashin Mataki na 18; a wajen Yarjejeniyar Kare Hakkokin Bil Adama ta Duniya (UDHR), wacce ta ke daure bisa ka'ida kan kasashe membobi na yarjejeniyar kasa da kasa kan 'yancin jama'a da siyasa (ICCPR) cewa:

Kowani mutum yana da 'yancin yin tunani da fadin ra'ayoyinsa da yin addininsa daya hada da 'yancin canja addini yayi hakan shi kadai ko acikin mutane da 'yancin bayyana addininsa da karantarwarsa da bayyana ibadarsa. Kwamitin Kare Hakkokin Dan Adam na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ya ce wannan, “yana bambanta ‘yancin tunani, addini ko imani da ’yancin bayyana addini ko imani." Ba ya ƙyale kowane iyaka ko mene ne kan yancin tunani da lamiri ko kan ƴancin samun ko ɗaukar addini ko imani na zaɓin da mutum ya zaɓa. Ana kiyaye waɗannan 'yanci ba tare da wani sharadi ba."[4] Hakazalika, Mataki na 19 na UDHR ya ba da tabbacin cewa "Kowanne mutum yana da 'yancin fadin albarkacin bakinsa, wannan hakkin ya hada da 'yancin rike ra'ayi ba tare da tsangwama ba."

Tarihin ci gaba da danniyaGyara

Yana da wuyan gaske a tabbatar da abinda wani mutum yake tunani, hakan na sanya danniya mawuyaci. An bunƙasa manufar a cikin Littafi Mai-Tsarki, a cikin littafin Bulus na Tarsus (misali, “Mai yasa ra'ayin wani zai rika takure nawa ra'ayin [ sunaideseos ]?” 1 Korinthiyawa 10:29). [5]

 
Hoton Bronze na Giordano Bruno a Rome

Duk da cewa masana falsafa na Girka Plato da Socrates sun tattauna 'Yancin Tunani a takaice, har wayau dokokin Sarki Ashoka (ƙarni na 3 BC) an kiran dokar na farko da 'Yancin ra'ayi ko tunani.[6] A cikin al'adar Turawa, baya ga dokar yarda da addini ta Constantine I a Milan a shekara ta 313, masana falsafa Themistus, Michel de Montaigne, Baruch Spinoza, John Locke, Voltaire, Alexandre Vinet, da John Stuart Mill da masana tauhidi Roger Williams da Samuel Rutherford an dauke su manyan magoya bayan ra'ayin 'Yancin Tunani (ko 'yanci na ruhi a cikin kalmomin Roger Williams). [7]

Sarauniya Elizabeth ta I ta soke dokar tauye tunani a ƙarshen karni na goma sha shida, domin, a cewar Sir Francis Bacon, ba ta son bada wata kafa a cikin rayukan maza da tunaninsu na sirri.[8] A lokacin mulkinta, masanin falsafa, masanin lissafi, falaki, kuma masanin ilimin taurari "Giordano Bruno" ya sami mafaka a Ingila daga dokar yanke haddi na Italiya, inda ya buga littattafansa da yawa game da sararin samaniya da dama har ma da darussan da Cocin Katolika ta hana. Bayan ya fita daga kariyar Ingila, an ƙone a raye Bruno a Roma a matsayin wanda ya kafurce don ya ƙi yin watsi da ra'ayoyinsa. Don haka ne wasu ke ganin shi a matsayin shahidi na 'yancin tunani ko ra'ayi.[9]

Ignaz von Döllinger ya bayyana Oliver Cromwell a matsayin “mutum na farko daga cikin shahararrun mutanen duniya da suka kafa ƙa’idar addini guda ɗaya ta musamman, kuma ya tilasta ta har zuw aiya rayuwar sa: . . . Ka’idar ‘yancin kai da qin tilastawa acikin addini.” [10]

Haka zaika, ana iya iyakance 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki ta hanyar watsi da ra'ayi, tsare mutum, ko kona littattafai, ko farfaganda, kuma wannan yana hana 'yancin ra'ayi. Misalai masu tasiri na yakar 'yancin fadin albarkacin baki su ne yunkurin Soviet na binciken kwayoyin halitta don goyon bayan ka'idar da aka sani da Lysenkoism, wani gangami na kona littafi da mutanen Nazi na Jamus suka yi, da tsattsauran ra'ayi da aka yi a Cambodia a karkashin Pol Pot, iyakacin iyaka akan 'yancin furuci da gwamnatocin gurguzu na Jamhuriyar Jama'ar Sin da Cuba ko kuma na kama-karya irin na Augusto Pinochet na Chile da Francisco Franco a Spain suka kafa.

Hasashen Sapir-Whorf, wanda ya bayyana cewa tunani yana cikin harshe, zai goyi bayan da'awar cewa ƙoƙari na iyakance amfani da kalmomin harshe shine ainihin nau'i na ƙuntata 'yancin tunani.[ana buƙatar hujja]An bincika wannan a cikin littafin George Orwell na 1984, tare da ra'ayin nau'i na yaren Ingilishi da aka yi wanda ake zargi da rashin ikon kwatanta iyakance bayyana ra'ayoyin asali.

Haɓaka fasahohin neuroimaging na kwanan nan sun kara tayar da damuwa game da ƙungiyoyin da za su iya karantawa da kuma tauye tunani. Ko da yake batun yana da rikitarwa dangane da lamarin jiki da zuciya, waɗannan damuwowin sun zama sashin bincike da ke tasowa na neuroethics da neuroprivacy.

ManazartaGyara

  1. Main, T. F. (1967-06-01). "Knowledge, Learning and Freedom from Thought". Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry (in Turanci). 1 (2): 64–71. doi:10.3109/00048676709159167. ISSN 0004-8674. S2CID 144126437.
  2. Swaine, Lucas (2016-11-09). "Freedom of Thought as a Basic Liberty". Political Theory (in Turanci). 46 (3): 405–425. doi:10.1177/0090591716676293. ISSN 0090-5917. S2CID 151827391.
  3. Palko v. State of Connecticut, 302 U.S. 319(1937).
  4. "General Comment No. 22: The right to freedom of thought, conscience and religion (Art. 18) : . 30/07/93. CCPR/C/21/Rev.1/Add.4, General Comment No. 22. (General Comments)". United Nations Human Rights Website – Treaty Bodies Database. Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 1993-07-30. Retrieved 2007-10-21.
  5. Eugene J. Cooper, "Man's Basic Freedom and Freedom of Conscience in the Bible : Reflections on 1 Corinthians 8–10", Irish Theological Quarterly Dec 1975
  6. Luzzatti, Luigi (February 2006). Luigi Luzzatti, "The First Decree on Freedom of Conscience" p. 47 in God in Freedom. ISBN 978-1596054486. Retrieved 15 September 2014.
  7. Luzzatti, p. 91.
  8. Brimacombe, Peter (2000). All the Queen's Men: The World of Elizabeth I. Palgrave Macmillan. pp. 125. ISBN 0312232519.
  9. Arturo Labriola, Giordano Bruno: Martyrs of free thought no. 1
  10. A.D. Lindsay: The Essentials of Democracy (2 ed.), 1948.