Ƴancin Faɗar Albarkacin Baki

  'Yancin faɗar albarkacin baki ƙa'ida ce da ke tallafawa ƴancin mutum ko al'umma don bayyana ra'ayoyinsu ba tare da tsoron ramuwar gayya ba, ko takunkumin doka. Kalmar 'yanci faɗar albarkacin baki galibi ana amfani da ita dai-dai amma, a ma'anar doka, ya haɗa da kowane aiki na neman, karɓar, da kuma ba da bayani ko ra'ayoyi, ba tare da la'akari da matsakaicin da ake amfani da shi ba.

Wikidata.svgƳancin Faɗar Albarkacin Baki
civil liberties (en) Fassara, civil and political rights (en) Fassara da cultural rights (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na Intellectual freedom (en) Fassara
Hannun riga da restrictions to free speech (en) Fassara
Eleanor Roosevelt da Sanarwar Kare Hakkin Dan-Adam ta Duniya (1948) —Shafi na 19 ya ce "Kowa na da 'yancin yin ra'ayi da kuma fadin albarkacin bakinsa; wannan' Ƴancin ya kunshi 'yancin gudanar da ra'ayoyinsa ba tare da tsangwama ba da kuma neman, karba da kuma bayar da bayanai da ra'ayoyi ta hanyar ko wanne kafofin watsa labarai kuma ba tare da la'akari da iyakoki ba ".
Mai magana a Ginin Masu Magana a Landan, shekara ta 1974

A dama zuwa yancin faɗar albarkacin baki da aka gane a matsayin wani mutum dama a karkashin labarin 19 na Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) da kuma gane a duniya kare hakkin dan adam dokar a cikin International Wa'adi on Civil da kuma siyasa Rights (ICCPR). Mataki na 19 na dokar ta (UDHR) ta ce "kowa na da 'yancin gudanar da ra'ayi ba tare da tsangwama ba" kuma "kowa na da' yancin fadin albarkacin bakinsa; wannan 'yancin na kunshe da' yancin neman, karba da kuma bayar da bayanai da ra'ayoyi iri daban-daban, ba tare da la'akari ba na iyakoki, ko dai a baki, a rubuce ko a buga, a cikin hanyar fasaha, ko kuma ta kowace hanyar sadarwa da ya zaba ". Sigar Mataki na 19 a cikin (ICCPR) daga baya ya gyara wannan ta hanyar bayyana cewa aiwatar da waɗannan haƙƙoƙin yana ɗauke da "ayyuka na musamman da nauyi" kuma mai yiwuwa "saboda haka ya kasance cikin wasu ƙuntatawa" idan ya zama dole " ko mutunta haƙƙoƙi ko suna na wasu "ko" ko kariyar tsaron ƙasa ko oda ta jama'a (ba da umarnin jama'a), ko lafiyar jama'a ko ɗabi'a ".

'Yancin magana, saboda haka, ba za a gane yadda ake cikakkar, kuma kowa gazawa ko iyakoki zuwa' yancin magana da labari a yi ɓatanci, ƙarya, batsa, da fitina, zunubi shũshũtãwa, yaki da kalmomi, da bayanai na musamman, hakkin mallaka, take hakkin, cinikayya asirin, lakabin abinci, yarjejeniyar ba da bayyanawa, haƙƙin sirri, mutunci, haƙƙin mantawa, tsaron jama'a, da shaidar zur . Hujjoji na irin wannan sun hada da ka'idar cutarwa, wanda John Stuart Mill ya gabatar a cikin On Liberty, wanda ke nuna cewa "makasudin kawai da za a yi amfani da iko dai-dai bisa kowane memba na wata al'umma mai wayewa, ba da son ransa ba, shi ne hana cutar da wasu. "

Hakanan ana amfani da ra'ayin "ƙa'idar laifi" a cikin dalilin ƙayyade maganganu, yana kwatanta ƙuntatawa kan nau'ikan maganganu waɗanda ake ganin sun ɓata wa al'umma rai, la'akari da dalilai kamar iyaka, tsawon lokaci, muradin mai magana, da sauƙin abin da zai iya zama kauce masa. Tare da canjin zamanin zamani, amfani da 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki ya zama mafi sabani yayin da sabbin hanyoyin sadarwa da takurawa suka taso, misali aikin Garkuwa na Garkuwa, wani shiri ne daga Ma'aikatar Tsaron Jama'a ta gwamnatin China wanda ke tace bayanai marasa kyau daga kasashen waje.

AsaliGyara

'Yancin faɗar albarkacin baki da faɗar albarkacin baki yana da tarihi mai tsawo wanda ya gabaci kayan aikin ɗan adam na duniya na zamani. Ana tunanin cewa tsohuwar ƙa'idar dimokiradiyya ta Atheniya ta 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki na iya fitowa a ƙarshen karni na 6 ko farkon karni na 5 BC. Ka'idodin Jamhuriyar Rum sun haɗa da 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki da kuma ' yancin yin addini .[1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15]

'Yancin faɗar albarkacin baki a harabar kwalejiGyara

A watan Yulin shekara ta 2014, Jami'ar Chicago ta fitar da "Bayanin Chicago," wata sanarwa game da 'yancin faɗar albarkacin baki da aka tsara don yaƙi da takunkumi a harabar. Wannan sanarwa daga baya wasu manyan jami'oi da suka hada da Princeton University, Washington University a St. Louis, Jami'ar Johns Hopkins, da Jami'ar Columbia sun karba Suma daga baya.

Masu sharhi kamar su Vox 's Zack Beauchamp da Chris Quintana, suna rubuce-rubuce a littafin 'Chronicle of Higher Education', sun yi sabani game da zaton cewa makarantun kwaleji na fuskantar "matsalar magana kyauta."

Duba kumaGyara

ManazartaGyara

  1. Smith, David (5 February 2006). "Timeline: a history of free speech". The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2 May 2010.
  2. Raaflaub, Kurt; Ober, Josiah; Wallace, Robert (2007). Origins of democracy in ancient Greece. University of California Press. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-520-24562-4.
  3. M. P. Charlesworth (March 1943). "Freedom of Speech in Republican Rome". The Classical Review. The Classical Association. 57 (1): 49. doi:10.1017/s0009840x00311283.
  4. Ofir Haivry and Yoram Hazony: What Is Conservatism? American Affairs Summer 2017 / Volume I, Number 2.
  5. "Bill of Rights 1689". Parliament UK. Retrieved 30 April 2019.
  6. Williams, E. N. (1960). The Eighteenth-Century Constitution. 1688–1815. Cambridge University Press. pp. 26–29. OCLC 1146699.
  7. ""The Freedom of the Press Act", Sveriges Riksdag". Archived from the original on 30 September 2007.
  8. Fortress Europe? – Circular Letter. "FECL 15 (May 1993): The Swedish Tradition of Freedom of Press". Archived from the original on 2016-03-08. Retrieved 14 March 2016.CS1 maint: unfit url (link)
  9. "The World's First Freedom of Information Act (Sweden/Finland 1766)". Scribd. Retrieved 14 March 2016.
  10. "Sweden".
  11. "Freedom of Speech". HISTORY (in Turanci). Retrieved 23 February 2020.
  12. Arthur W. Diamond Law Library at Columbia Law School (26 March 2008). "Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen". Hrcr.org. www.hrcr.org. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  13. United Nations (10 September 1948). "The Universal Declaration of Human Rights". UN.org. www.un.org. Retrieved 25 June 2013.
  14. Brett, Sebastian (1999). Limits to tolerance: freedom of expression and the public debate in Chile. Human Rights Watch. p. xxv. ISBN 978-1-56432-192-3.
  15. Sanders, Karen (2003). Ethics & Journalism. Sage. p. 68. ISBN 978-0-7619-6967-9.

Kara karantawaGyara

  • Shaw, Caroline. "'Yancin faɗar albarkacin baki da fahariyar' yanci na Biritaniya, 1650-2000: Rubutun sake dubawa" Kamfanonin Tarihi (Oktoba 2020) akan layi

Hanyoyin haɗin wajeGyara