Kayan aiki wani abu ne wanda zai iya tsawaita ikon mutum don gyara fasalin muhallin da ke kewaye ko taimaka musu cim ma wani aiki na musamman. Ko da yake dabbobi da yawa suna amfani da kayan aiki masu sauƙi, ba kawai 'yan adam ba, wanda amfani da kayan aikin dutse ya dawo da daruruwan millennia, an lura da amfani da kayan aiki don yin wasu kayan aiki.

kayan aiki
type of object (en) Fassara da first-order class (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na equipment (en) Fassara, artificial physical object (en) Fassara da tool (en) Fassara
Has characteristic (en) Fassara instrumentality (en) Fassara, usability (en) Fassara da type of tool (en) Fassara
Amfani wajen agent (en) Fassara
An gano kayan aikin kafinta daga tarkacen jirgin ruwa na ƙarni na 16, Mary Rose. Daga sama, mallet, brace, jirgin sama, rike da T-auger, rike da gimlet, yuwuwar rike guduma, da mulkiu.
Wasu daga cikin kayan aiki kenan

An yi amfani da kayan aikin ɗan adam na farko, waɗanda kuma aka yi da irin su dutse, kashi, da itace, don shirye-shiryen abinci, farauta, kera makamai, da yin aiki da kayan don samar da sutura da kayan tarihi masu amfani. Haɓaka aikin ƙarfe ya sa ƙarin nau'ikan kayan aiki ya yiwu. Yin amfani da hanyoyin makamashi, kamar wutar lantarki, iska, ko tururi, ya ba da damar ƙarin hadaddun kayan aikin don samar da mafi girman kewayon abubuwa, tare da juyin juya halin masana'antu yana alamar jujjuyawa cikin amfani da kayan aikin. Gabatar da aikin keɓancewa da yawa a cikin ƙarni na 19th da 20th ya ba da damar kayan aiki suyi aiki tare da ƙarancin kulawar ɗan adam, yana ƙara haɓaka aikin ɗan adam.

Ma'anarsa gyara sashe

Yayin da fahimtar ma'anar kayan aiki ta yaɗu sosai, an gabatar da ma'anoni da yawa na yau da kullun.

A cikin 1981, Benjamin Beck ya buga ma'anar amfani da kayan aiki da yawa. An canza wannan zuwa:

The external employment of an unattached or manipulable attached environmental object to alter more efficiently the form, position, or condition of another object, another organism, or the user itself, when the user holds and directly manipulates the tool during or prior to use and is responsible for the proper and effective orientation of the tool.[1]

Wasu, an ba da shawarar taƙaitaccen ma'anar:

An object carried or maintained for future use.

— Finn, Tregenza, and Norman, 2009.[2]

The use of physical objects other than the animal's own body or appendages as a means to extend the physical influence realized by the animal.

— Jones and Kamil, 1973[3]

An object that has been modified to fit a purpose ... [or] An inanimate object that one uses or modifies in some way to cause a change in the environment, thereby facilitating one's achievement of a target goal.

— Hauser, 2000[4]

Tarihi gyara sashe

 
An gano kayan aikin dutse da suka wuce shekaru 10,000 a kogon Les Combarelles, Faransa
 
Mai sarrafa kayan kwalliya

Masana ilimin ɗan adam sun yi imanin cewa yin amfani da kayan aiki wani muhimmin mataki ne a cikin juyin halittar ɗan adam. Saboda ana amfani da kayan aiki da yawa daga mutane da kuma chimpanzees na daji, ana kyautata zaton cewa fara amfani da kayan aikin na yau da kullun ya faru ne kafin bambance-bambancen tsakanin nau'ikan biyu.[5] Wadannan kayan aikin farko, duk da haka, an yi su ne da abubuwa masu lalacewa kamar sanduna, ko kuma sun ƙunshi duwatsun da ba a gyara su waɗanda ba za a iya bambanta su da sauran duwatsu a matsayin kayan aiki ba.

Abubuwan kayan tarihi na dutse sun kasance kusan shekaru miliyan 2.5 da suka gabata. Koyaya, wani bincike na 2010 ya nuna nau'in hominin Australopithecus afarensis sun ci nama ta hanyar sassaƙa gawar dabbobi da kayan aikin dutse. Wannan binciken ya mayar da farkon sanannun amfani da kayan aikin dutse tsakanin hominins zuwa kimanin shekaru miliyan 3.4 da suka wuce.[6] An gano ainihin kayan aikin aƙalla shekaru miliyan 2.6 a Habasha. Ɗaya daga cikin siffofin kayan aikin dutse na farko da aka bambanta shine gatari na hannu.

 
an dauko kayan aiki na itace

Har zuwa kwanan nan, makaman da aka gano a cikin tono su ne kawai kayan aikin "mutum na farko" da aka yi nazari kuma aka ba su mahimmanci. Yanzu, ana gane ƙarin kayan aikin a matsayin masu dacewa da al'adu da tarihi. Kazalika da farauta, sauran ayyukan suna buƙatar kayan aiki kamar shirya abinci, “...ƙwai, aikin fata, girbin hatsi da aikin itace. . ." [ <span title="The text near this tag needs a citation. (June 2022)">Wannan zance yana buƙatar ambato</span> ] Haɗe a cikin wannan rukunin akwai "kayan aikin dutse".

Kayan aiki sune mafi mahimmancin abubuwan da mutanen zamanin da suka kasance suna hawa saman sarkar abinci ; ta hanyar ƙirƙira kayan aiki, sun sami damar yin ayyukan da jikin ɗan adam ba zai iya ba, kamar yin amfani da mashi ko baka don kashe ganima, tun da haƙoransu ba su da kaifi da zai iya huda fatar dabbobi da yawa. "Mutumin mafarauci" a matsayin wanda ya kawo canjin Hominin an yi tambaya. Dangane da alamomin kasusuwa a wuraren binciken kayan tarihi, yanzu ya fi bayyana cewa kafin ’yan adam sun kasance suna kwashe gawar wasu maharbi maimakon kashe nasu abincin.

Duba kuma gyara sashe

  • Kayan aiki na gargajiya
  • Ergonomics
  • Jerin kayan aikin gyaran katako
  • Laburaren kayan aiki
  • Toolbank
  • Mai yin kayan aiki

Manazarta gyara sashe

  1. Shumaker, Robert W.; Walkup, Kristina R.; Beck, Benjamin B. (2 May 2011). Animal Tool Behavior: The Use and Manufacture of Tools by Animals. ISBN 978-0801898532. Archived from the original on 29 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  2. Finn, Julian K.; Tregenza, Tom; Norman, Mark D. (2009). "Defensive tool use in a coconut-carrying octopus". Curr. Biol. 19 (23): R1069–R1070. doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.10.052. PMID 20064403. S2CID 26835945.
  3. Jones, T. B.; Kamil, A. C. (1973). "Tool-making and tool-using in the northern blue jay". Science. 180 (4090): 1076–1078. Bibcode:1973Sci...180.1076J. doi:10.1126/science.180.4090.1076. PMID 17806587. S2CID 22011846. Archived from the original on 2022-05-10. Retrieved 2022-08-28.
  4. Tom L. Beauchamp; R.G. Frey, eds. (2011). The Oxford Handbook of Animal Ethics. Oxford University Press. p. 232. ISBN 978-0195-3719-63.
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