Yarjejeniyar Hudaibiyyah

Yarjejeniyar Hudaibiyyah (Larabci: صَلَح ٱلْحُدَيْبِيَّة, romanized: Ṣalaḥ Al-Ḥudaybiyyah) wani lamari ne da ya faru a lokacin annabin musulunci Muhammad. Yarjejeniya ce mai mahimmanci tsakanin Muhammadu, mai wakiltar jihar Madina, da ƙabilar Qurayshi ta Makka a cikin Janairu 628 (daidai da Dhu al-Qi'dah, AH 6). Ya taimaka wajen rage tashin hankali tsakanin biranen biyu, ya tabbatar da zaman lafiya na tsawon shekaru 10, kuma ya ba mabiyan Muhammadu damar dawowa shekara mai zuwa cikin aikin hajji cikin lumana, wanda daga baya aka sani da aikin hajji na farko.[1][2][3]

Infotaula d'esdevenimentYarjejeniyar Hudaibiyyah
Suleh Hudebia.png
Iri yarjejeniya
Bangare na Military career of Muhammad (en) Fassara
Kwanan watan kalanda ga Maris, 628 (Gregorian)
Ƙasa Yankin Larabawa

Yunkurin hajjiGyara

Muhammadu yana da hasashen cewa ya shiga Makka ya yi tawafi a kusa da Ka'aba. Sahabbansa a Madina sun yi farin ciki lokacin da ya ba su labari. Duk sun girmama Makka da Ka'aba kuma sun koyi yin tawafi a can. A cikin 628, Muhammad da gungun musulmai 1,400 sun yi tattaki cikin lumana ba tare da makamai zuwa Makka ba, a ƙoƙarin yin Umrah (aikin hajji). An yi musu suturar alhaji, kuma sun kawo dabbobin layya, suna fatan cewa Quraishawa za su girmama al'adar Larabawa na barin mahajjata su shiga birni. Musulmai sun bar Madina cikin halin ihrami, yanayin ruhi da jiki wanda aka yi niyya wanda ya tauye 'yancin yin aiki tare da hana fada. Wannan, tare da ƙarancin makamai da aka ɗauka, ya nuna cewa aikin hajji koyaushe yana nufin zama cikin lumana.[4]

Muhammad da mabiyansa sun yi sansani a wajen Makka, kuma Muhammad ya sadu da wakilan Makka wadanda suke fatan hana shigowar mahajjata Makka. Bayan tattaunawa, bangarorin biyu sun yanke shawarar warware batun ta hanyar diflomasiyya maimakon yaki, kuma an kulla yarjejeniya.[5]

Abubuwan sharaɗi na yarjejeniyarGyara

Bayan doguwar tattaunawa, bangarorin biyu sun amince da wasu sharudda, kamar:

  1. Manzon Allah zai koma Madina maimakon shiga Makka a waccan shekarar. Musulmi zai yi aikin hajjinsa a shekara mai zuwa kuma za su zauna lafiya a Makka na kwana uku ba tare da makamai ba sai dai takubba masu sulke.
  2. Za a yi sulhu tsakanin ɓangarorin biyu na tsawon shekaru goma, inda a cikin wannan lokacin duk mutane za su iya more aminci da jituwa.
  3. Duk wanda yake son shiga alkawari da Annabi za a ba shi damar yin haka, kuma duk wanda ke son shiga alkawari da Quraishawa za a ba shi dama. Duk wanda ya shiga kowane ɗayan ɓangarorin za a ɗauke shi a matsayin ɓangaren wannan ƙungiya. Haka kuma, duk wani irin wuce gona da iri akan su za a dauki karin gishiri akan wannan jam'iyyar.
  4. Duk wanda ya gudu zuwa ga Muhammad daga Makka ba tare da izinin waliyinsa ba, za a mayar da shi ga Kuraishawa, amma duk wanda ya zo wurin Quraishawa daga Musulmai ba za a mayar da shi ga Musulmai ba. Marubucin yarjejeniyar shine Ali Ibn Abu Taleb.[6]

Adawar UmarGyara

Bayan da aka rattaba hannu kan yarjejeniyar, wasu daga cikin mahajjatan sun ki amincewa da Muhammad ya ba da dama ga Kuraishawa, ya yi amfani da sunan Allah ya kira kansa Manzon Allah. Hakan ya sa Umar ya yi tambayoyi a cikin yarjejeniyar.[7][8][9][10][11][12][13] Bayan haka ana zargin ya yi nadama cewa ya kasance yana magana da Annabi a irin yanayin da bai taba yi ba.[11] An rubuta wannan a cikin Sahihu Muslim.[14]

MuhimmanciGyara

Yarjejeniyar Hudaibiyyah tana da matukar muhimmanci a Musulunci. Ya taimaka wa musulmai da yawa. Sun amince da daular musulunci a Madina ta hanyar sanya hannu kan yarjejeniyar. Yarjejeniyar ta kuma ba wa Musulmin da har yanzu suke Makka damar yin addinin Musulunci a bainar jama'a. Bugu da kari, yayin da babu sauran gwagwarmaya a tsakanin Musulmai da mushrikai, mutane da yawa sun ga Musulunci a wani sabon salo, wanda ya sa mutane da yawa suka karbi Musulunci. Bugu da kari, yarjejeniyar Hudaibiyya ta share fagen sauran kabilu da dama don yin yarjejeniya da Musulmai. Yarjejeniyar ta kuma zama misali cewa ba a yaɗa musulunci kawai da takobi ba, domin Muhammadu yana da rundunar da za ta iya kai hari Makka, amma Muhammadu ya zaɓi ya yi yarjejeniya maimakon kai hari.[15]

Rantsuwar da Muhammadu ya yi "a ƙarƙashin itacen" a al-Hudaibiyyah ya mai da shi mai mulki na gaskiya a sassa na yammacin Larabawa. A farkon Masar ta Masar, samun kakan da ya "yi mubaya'a a ƙarƙashin itacen" ya ba da babban martaba na zamantakewa.[16]

An saukar da ayar Alƙur'ani game da yarjejeniyar, wanda ke nufin, "Hakika mun ba ku nasara bayyananne" (Quran 48:1).

Duba kumaGyara

ManazartaGyara

  1. Armstrong, Karen (2007). Muhammad: A Prophet for Our Time. New York: HarperCollins. pp. 175–181. ISBN 978-0-06-115577-2.
  2. Tafsir
  3. Armstrong, Karen (2002). Islam: A Short History. New York: Modern Library. p. 23. ISBN 978-0-8129-6618-3.
  4. Andrae; Menzel (1960) p. 156; See also: Watt (1964) p. 183. On p. 182 Watt gives the date of setting out as "13 March". This is according to the fixed calendar, which did not come into use for another four years. See Expedition of Dhat al-Riqa#Discrepancy in dates.
  5. Mutahhari, Murtadha (2020). "The Event Of Hudaybiyyah". Al-Islam. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  6. Al Mamun, Abdullah. "THE ROLE OF THE TREATY OF HUDAYBIAH IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS". Malaysian Journal of Islamic Studies. 3 (2): 136.
  7. Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims. pp. 183–186.
  8. Glubb, Sir John. The Great Arab Conquests.
  9. Bodley, R.V.C. The Messenger - the Life of Mohammed.
  10. al-Samawi, Muhammad al-Tijani. Then I was Guided.
  11. 11.0 11.1 "The Treaty of Hudaybiyah". Questions on Islam. Retrieved 15 June 2018.
  12. Ibn Hisham. ibid, Volume 3. p. 331.
  13. ibn Hanbal, Ahmad. ibid, Volume 4. p. 330.
  14. Muslim. Sahih, Volume 3. p. 1412.
  15. "Muhammad (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)". islamqa.info. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
  16. Tillier, Mathieu; Vanthieghem, Naïm (2019). Tolan, John (ed.). "Recording Debts in Sufyānid Fusṭāṭ: A Reexamination of the Procedures and Calendar in Use in the First/Seventh Century" (PDF). Geneses: A Comparative Study of the Historiographies of the Rise of Christianity, Rabbinic Judaism and Islam. London: Routledge: 148–188. doi:10.4324/9781351113311-8. ISBN 9781351113311.CS1 maint: date and year (link)