Yaƙin Larabawa-Isra'ila 1948

Yaƙin Larabawa da Isra'ila na 1948 (ko Farko) shine mataki na biyu kuma na ƙarshe na yakin shekara ta alif 1947-1949 na Falasdinu. Ya fara ne a bisa ka'ida bayan karshen wa'adin mulkin Birtaniya na Falasdinu da tsakar dare ranar 14 ga watan Mayu, shekara ta alif 1948; A safiyar ranar 15 ga watan Mayu ne aka fitar da sanarwar samun ‘yancin kai na Isra’ila, kuma gamayyar sojojin kasashen Larabawa sun shiga yankin Falasdinu na Burtaniya da safiyar ranar 15 ga watan Mayu.

Infotaula d'esdevenimentYaƙin Larabawa-Isra'ila 1948
1948 Arab Israeli War - May 15-June 10.svg
Iri yaƙi
Bangare na 1947–1949 Palestine war (en) Fassara
Kwanan watan kalanda 1940s
Time period (en) Fassara contemporary history (en) Fassara
Wuri فلسطين (en) Fassara
Sinai Peninsula (en) Fassara
Southern Lebanon (en) Fassara
Ƙasa Falasdinu
Participant (en) Fassara
Sanadi ethnic violence (en) Fassara
Yana haddasa 1948 Palestinian exodus (en) Fassara
Jewish exodus from Arab and Muslim countries (en) Fassara

Mutuwar farko na yakin 1947-1949 na yakin Falasdinu ya faru ne a ranar 30 ga Nuwamban shekara ta alif 1947, a lokacin wani harin kwantan bauna da wasu motocin bas guda biyu dauke da Yahudawa.[1] An yi ta samun tashe-tashen hankula da rikici tsakanin Larabawa da Yahudawa, da kuma tsakanin kowannensu da sojojin Birtaniya tun bayan sanarwar Balfour a shekara ta alif 1917, da kuma shekara ta alif 1920, da aka kafa na Birtaniya na Falasdinu. Manufofin Birtaniyya ba su gamsu da Larabawa da Yahudawa ba. Adawar Larabawa ta taso har zuwa shekara ta alif 1936-zuwa 1939, na tawayen Larabawa a Falasdinu, yayin da gwagwarmayar yahudawa ta ci gaba zuwa rikicin Yahudawa na shekara ta alif 1944 zuwa 1947, a Falasdinu. A shekara ta alif 1947, wadannan tashe-tashen hankulan da ake ci gaba da yi sun barke zuwa yakin basasa bayan amincewa da shirin raba kan Falasdinu na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya a ranar 29 ga watan Nuwamban shekarar ta alif 1947, wanda ya shirya raba Palastinu zuwa kasar Larabawa, kasar Yahudawa, da kuma tsarin mulki na musamman na kasa da kasa da ya kunshi biranen Kudus da kuma Baitalami.

A ranar 15 ga watan Mayun, shekara ta alif 1948, yakin basasa ya rikide zuwa rikici tsakanin Isra'ila da kasashen Larabawa bayan sanarwar 'yancin kai da Isra'ila ta yi a ranar da ta gabata. Masar, Transjordan, Syria, da sojojin bazuwa daga Iraki sun shiga Falasdinu.[2] Dakarun mamaya sun kwace iko da yankunan Larabawa inda nan take suka kai farmaki kan sojojin Isra'ila da wasu matsugunan yahudawa.[3][4] An shafe watanni 10 ana gwabzawa a mafi yawa a yankin Daular Birtaniyya da kuma yankin Sinai da kuma kudancin kasar Labanon, inda wasu lokuta da dama suka katse.[5]

Sakamakon yakin kasar Isra'ila ne ke rike da yankin da Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta tsara wa kasar yahudawa, da kuma kusan kashi 60% na yankin da aka tsara wa kasar Larabawa,[6] ciki har da yankin Jaffa, Lydda, da Ramle, na Galili. , wasu sassa na Negev, wani yanki mai faɗi tare da hanyar Tel Aviv-Jerusalem, da wasu yankuna a Yammacin Kogin Jordan. Isra'ila ta kuma karbe ikon yammacin birnin Kudus, wanda ke nufin zama wani yanki na kasa da kasa na birnin Kudus da kewaye. Transjordan ya karbe iko da gabashin birnin Kudus da sauran tsohon wa'adin mulkin Birtaniya, inda a shekara mai zuwa, sojojin Masar suka karbe ikon zirin Gaza. A taron Jericho a ranar 1 ga watan Disamba shekara ta alif 1948, wakilai Falasdinawa 2,000 sun yi kira da a hade Palastinu da Transjordan a matsayin wani mataki na samun cikakken hadin kan Larabawa.[7] Rikicin ya haifar da gagarumin sauyi na al'umma a Gabas ta Tsakiya. Kusan Falasdinawa Larabawa 700,000 sun gudu ko kuma an kore su daga gidajensu a yankin da ya zama Isra'ila, kuma sun zama 'yan gudun hijirar Falasdinu a cikin abin da suke kira Nakba ("masifun"). A cikin shekaru uku bayan yakin, Yahudawa kusan 700,000 ne suka yi hijira zuwa Isra'ila.[8] Kimanin Yahudawa 260,000 suka ƙaura zuwa Isra'ila daga ƙasashen Larabawa lokacin da kuma bayan yaƙin.[9]

FageGyara

 
Shawarar rabuwar Falasdinu
 
Tankin Palmach M4 Sherman yana jagorantar ayarin motocin

Sojojin da ke yakiGyara

A watan Satumba, na shekara alif 1947, Haganah yana da "bindigogi 10,489, bindigogi masu haske 702, bindigogin submachine 2,666, manyan bindigogi 186, turmi mai inci biyu 672 da turmi 92 mai inci uku (76 mm).[10]

Ana shigo da makamaiGyara

A cikin shekara ta alif 1946, Ben-Gurion ya yanke shawarar cewa Yishuv zai yiwu ya kare kansa daga Larabawa Falasdinawa da kuma kasashe makwabta na Larabawa don haka ya fara "gaggarumin yakin neman makamai a yammacin duniya", kuma ya sami wasu da yawa a cikin 'yan watannin farko. na tashin hankali.

 
Isra'ila Avia S-199, a watan Yuni, shekara ta alif 1948

Sarki Abdullahi I na TransjordanGyara

Sarki Abdullah shi ne kwamandan rundunar Larabawa, sojojin Larabawa mafi karfi da suka shiga yakin a cewar Rogan da Shlaim a shekara ta 2007.[11] Duk da haka, Morris ya rubuta a cikin 2008 cewa sojojin Masar sun kasance mafi karfi da kuma barazana.[12] Rundunar Larabawa tana da sojoji kusan 10,000, wadanda jami’an Birtaniya suka horar da su kuma suke ba da umarni.

 
Sarki Abdullah a wajen Cocin Holy Sepulchre, ranar 29 ga Mayu, 1948, washegarin da sojojin Jordan suka karbe ikon tsohon birnin a yakin Kudus.
 
Tankunan Sherman na Isra'ila 8th Armored Brigade, 1948

Har ila yau, Haganah ta yi nasarar samun hannun jari na makaman Birtaniyya saboda sarkakkiya na janyewar Birtaniyya, da kuma cin hanci da rashawa na jami'ai da dama.[13]

 
Tankin Cromwell

Bayan tsagaitawar farko: A watan Yulin 1948, Isra’ilawa sun kafa rundunar sojan sama, da na ruwa, da kuma bataliyar tanka.[14]

A ranar 29 ga watan Yunin 1948, washegarin da sojojin Birtaniya na ƙarshe suka bar Haifa, wasu sojojin Birtaniya guda biyu masu tausaya wa Isra'ilawa sun sace tankokin yaƙi na Cromwell guda biyu daga ma'ajiyar makamai a yankin tashar jiragen ruwa na Haifa, inda suka farfasa su ta kofofin da ba a tsare, suka shiga cikin IDF tare da tankunan. . Wadannan tankuna guda biyu za su zama tushen Rundunar Sojojin Isra'ila.[15]

 
Sojojin IDF na sashin Foxes Samson sun ci gaba a cikin wani jirgin ruwan Bren na Masar da aka kama.

Bayan sulhu na biyu: Czechoslovakia ta ba da jiragen yaki na Supermarine Spitfire, wadanda aka yi jigilar su zuwa Isra'ila ta hanyar Luftwaffe da aka yi watsi da su a Yugoslavia, tare da yarjejeniyar gwamnatin Yugoslavia. Tashar safarar makamai ta sama daga Czechoslovakia an sanya mata suna Operation Balak.

 
Vickers hasken tankuna a cikin hamada

Darasi na yakinGyara

A halin yanzu, shugabannin Larabawa da dama, don gujewa bala'i - a asirce sun yi kira ga Burtaniya da su ci gaba da kasancewa a Falasdinu na akalla shekara guda.

Kashi na farko: 15 ga watan Mayu- 11 ga watan Yuni, shekara ta alib 1948,Gyara

 
Harin Larabawa, 15 ga watan Mayu - 10 ga watan Yuni, shekara ta alif 1948

.

 
Motar sulke na "Butterfly" na Haganah a Kibbutz Dorot a cikin Negev, Isra'ila shekara ta alif 1948. Motar mai sulke ta dogara ne akan babbar motar CMP-15. Motar ta kawo kayayyaki ga kibbutz. Daga baya wadannan motoci sun kwashe yaran Negev Kibbutz daga kibbutz, kafin harin da Sojojin Masar suka yi tsammanin kaiwa.

Gaban Kudancin - NegevGyara

 
Sojojin Isra'ila a Nirim
 
Sojojin Isra'ila a Negba

Sojojin Masar, mafi girma a cikin sojojin Larabawa, sun mamaye daga kudu.

Yakin LatrunGyara

An gwabza kazamin fada a birnin Kudus da kuma kan hanyar Kudus – Tel Aviv, tsakanin dakarun Larabawa na Jordan da sojojin Isra’ila.[16] A wani bangare na sake tura dakarun na Masar gaba, Isra'ilawa sun yi watsi da katangar Latrun da ke kallon babbar hanyar zuwa birnin Kudus, inda nan take Dakarun Larabawa suka kwace.[17] Sojojin Larabawa kuma sun mamaye gidan ibada na Latrun. Daga wadannan wurare, 'yan Jordan sun iya katse kayayyakin da suke ba wa mayakan Isra'ila da fararen hula a Kudus.[18]

Isra'ilawa sun yi yunƙurin ɗaukar sansanin Latrun a jerin gwanon da aka yi tsakanin 24 ga watan Mayu zuwa 18 ga watan Yuli. Rundunar Larabawa ta rike Latrun kuma ta yi nasarar dakile hare-haren.[19] A yayin yunkurin daukar Latrun, sojojin Isra'ila sun samu raunuka kimanin 586, cikinsu har da Mickey Marcus, Janar na farko na Isra'ila, wanda aka kashe ta hanyar musayar wuta. Kungiyar Larabawa ta kuma yi asara, ta yi asarar rayuka 90 sannan wasu 200 suka jikkata har zuwa ranar 29 ga watan Mayu.[20]

Yaƙi don UrushalimaGyara

 
Farfesa Michael Fekete, Farfesa na Kimiyyar lissafi, Farfesa na Jami'ar Hebrew ta Kudus, tare da adadin ruwansa, a lokacin da aka kewaye Urushalima.

'Yan kasar Jordan a Latrun sun katse kayayyaki zuwa yammacin Kudus.[21] Duk da cewa an jibge wasu kayayyaki, galibin alburusai zuwa cikin birnin, amma karancin abinci, ruwa, man fetur da magunguna ya yi kamari. Sojojin Isra'ila sun yi matukar karancin abinci da ruwa da harsasai.[21]

Sarki Abdullah ya umarci Glubb Pasha, kwamandan rundunar Larabawa, ya shiga birnin Kudus a ranar 17 ga Mayu. Dakarun Larabawa sun harba makaman atilare 10,000 a rana,[21] tare da kai hari a yammacin Kudus da harbin bindiga.

Arewacin SamariyaGyara

 
Sojojin Isra'ila a Afula

Dakarun Iraqi da suka kunshi sojojin kasa biyu da kuma birgediya daya masu sulke sun tsallaka kogin Jordan daga arewacin Jordan, inda suka kai hari a matsugunan Gesher na Isra'ila da 'yar nasara. Bayan wannan shan kashi, sojojin Iraqi sun koma cikin dabarar triangle mai iyaka da garuruwan Nablus, Jenin da Tulkarm na Larabawa. A ranar 25 ga watan Mayu, suna kan hanyarsu ta zuwa Netanya, lokacin da aka tsayar da su.[22] A ranar 29 ga watan Mayu, wani hari da Isra'ila ta kai kan 'yan Iraqin ya kai ga shafe kwanaki uku ana gwabza kazamin fada a kan Jenin, amma sojojin Irakin sun yi nasarar ci gaba da zama.[22] Bayan wadannan fadace-fadace, sojojin Iraki sun tsaya tsayin daka, kuma aka kawo karshen shigarsu cikin yakin.[23][22]

Gaban Arewa - Tafkin GaliliGyara

 
Tankin hasken R-35 na Siriya ya lalata a Degania Alef

A ranar 14 ga watan Mayu, ne kasar Siriya ta mamaye Falasdinu tare da runduna ta daya da ke samun goyon bayan wata bataliyar motoci masu sulke, da wani kamfani na tankokin yaki na Faransa R 35 da R 37, da wata bataliyar bindigu da sauran runduna. Shugaban kasar Syria, Shukri al-Quwwatli ya umurci sojojinsa da ke gaba, "da su ruguza sahyoniyawan". "Al'amarin ya yi muni sosai, babu isassun bindigogi, babu manyan makamai," Ben-Gurion ya fadawa majalisar ministocin Isra'ila.[24] A ranar 15 ga watan Mayu, sojojin Siriya sun juya zuwa gabas da kudancin Tekun Galili, kuma suka kai hari a Samakh da ke makwabtaka da sansanin Tegart da matsugunan Sha'ar HaGolan, Ein Gev, amma suka fuskanci turjiya. Daga baya, sun kai hari Samakh ta hanyar amfani da tankuna da jiragen sama, kuma a ranar 18 ga watan Mayu sun yi nasarar cin nasara kan Samakh kuma suka mamaye Sha'ar HaGolan da aka yi watsi da su.

Sojojin FalasdinawaGyara

 
Kaukji, Kwamandan Sojojin Yancin Larabawa

An ci gaba da yakin basasa tsakanin dakarun yahudawa da na larabawa da aka fara a shekara ta alif 1947, an gwabza fada tsakanin sojojin Isra'ila da dakarun sa kai na Falasdinawa, musamman a yankunan Lydda, al-Ramla, Jerusalem, da Haifa. A ranar 23 ga watan Mayu, Brigade Alexandroni sun kwace Tantura, kudu da Haifa, daga sojojin Larabawa. A ranar 2 ga watan Yuni, an kashe kwamandan Sojojin Yakin Mai Tsarki Hasan Salama a wani yaki da Haganah a Ras al-Ein.

Ayyukan iskaGyara

 
A ranar 15 ga watan Mayun, shekara ta alif 1948, ne aka harbo wani makamin Spitfire na Masar a Tel Aviv
 
Masu sa kai na kwashe wani mutum da ya samu rauni a harin bam da Masar ta kai Tel Aviv.

An sanya dukkan kadarorin jiragen sama na Yahudawa a ƙarƙashin ikon Sherut Avir (Sabis ɗin Jirgin Sama, wanda aka sani da SA) a cikin watan Nuwamba, shekara ta alif 1947, kuma an fara ayyukan tashi a cikin wata mai zuwa daga ƙaramin filin jirgin sama na farar hula da ke wajen Tel Aviv mai suna Sde Dov, tare da aikin tallafin ƙasa na farko (a cikin RWD-13) wanda ke gudana a ranar 17 ga watan Disamba. An kafa Squadron na Galili a Yavne'el a cikin watan Maris, shekara ta alif 1948, kuma an kafa Rundunar Negev a Nir-Am a watan Afrilu. A ranar 10 ga watan Mayu, lokacin da SA ta sami hasarar yaƙi ta farko, akwai ƙungiyoyin tashi sama guda uku, ma'aikatan jirgin sama, wuraren kulawa da tallafin kayan aiki. A barkewar yakin a ranar 15 ga watan Mayu, SA ta zama Rundunar Sojan Sama ta Isra'ila. Tare da ayarin jiragensa[25] masu haske ba abin da ya dace da sojojin Larabawa a cikin 'yan makonnin farko na yakin tare da T-6s, Spitfires, C-47s, da Avro Ansons.

 
Avia S-199 jirgin saman yakin Isra'ila na farko
 
Isra'ila Spitfire F Mk
 
Isra'ila B-17 a cikin jirgin

Ba da daɗewa ba ma'aunin wutar lantarki ya fara samun tagomashi ga rundunar sojojin saman Isra'ila bayan isowar 25 Avia S-199s daga Czechoslovakia, wanda na farko ya isa Isra'ila a ranar 20 ga watan Mayu. Abin ban mamaki, Isra'ila tana amfani da Avia S-199, ƙarancin ƙarancin Bf 109 da aka ƙera a Jamus na Nazi don yaƙar Spitfires da Birtaniyya ta kera da Masar. A cikin sauran yakin, Isra'ila za ta sami karin mayakan Avia, da kuma Spitfires 62 daga Czechoslovakia. A ranar 28 ga watan Mayu, shekara ta alif 1948, Sherut Avir ya zama Rundunar Sojojin Isra'ila.

Yakin tekuGyara

 
Northland a cikin Greenland kusan 1944 wanda ya zama INS Eilat na Isra'ila

Ƙarshen kashi na farkoGyara

 
Halin Sojan Falasdinu, 11 Yuni 1948. Takardun Truman

A cikin kwanaki masu zuwa, Larabawa sun sami iyakacin nasarori ne kawai saboda tsayin daka na Isra'ila, kuma cikin sauri suka fatattake su daga sabon mallakarsu ta hanyar kai hari.

A yayin da ake ci gaba da gwabzawa, dakarun na IDF sun yi nasarar tura dakaru fiye da na Larabawa. A cikin watan Yuli, shekara ta alif 1948, IDF tana da dakaru 63,000; a farkon bazara shekarar alif 1949, suna da 115,000. Sojojin Larabawa suna da kimanin dakaru 40,000 a cikin watan Yuli, shekara ta alif 1948, sun haura zuwa 55,000 a cikin watan Oktoba, shekara ta alif 1948, kuma kaɗan fiye da lokacin bazara na shekarar alif 1949.

ƘarfafawaGyara

 
Altalena yana kona kusa da Tekun Tel Aviv

A lokacin tsagaitawar, Irgun ya yi yunƙurin kawo jigilar makamai na sirri a cikin wani jirgin ruwa mai suna Altalena. Da yake tsoron juyin mulkin da Irgun ya yi (a lokacin da IDF ke aiwatar da hadakar kungiyoyin siyasa daban-daban kafin samun 'yancin kai), Ben-Gurion ya ba da umarnin a kwace makaman da karfi. Bayan an yi musu rashin fahimta, sai Ben-Gurion ya umurci sojoji su nutsar da jirgin. An kashe 'yan kabilar Irgun da dama da sojojin IDF a fadan.

Mai shiga tsakani na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya BernadotteGyara

 
Wani mai shiga tsakani na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya, Folke Bernadotte, ya kashe shi a watan Satumba na 1948 da kungiyar Lehi ta yi.

Mai shiga tsakani na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya Folke Bernadotte da tawagar masu sa ido na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya da ta kunshi hafsoshin sojojin Belgium da Amurka da Sweden da kuma Faransa ne suka sanya ido kan tsagaita wutar.[26] Babban taron ne ya kada kuri'a a Bernadotte don "tabbatar da amincin wurare masu tsarki, don kare lafiyar jama'a, da kuma inganta" daidaita yanayin zaman lafiya na Falasdinu a nan gaba".[27]

Mataki na biyu: 8-18 Yuli 1948 ("Yaƙin Kwana Goma")Gyara

A ranar 8 ga watan Yuli, washegarin wa'adin tsagaita wuta, sojojin Masar a karkashin Janar Muhammad Naguib sun sabunta yakin ta hanyar kai wa Negba hari. Washegari ne sojojin saman Isra'ila suka kaddamar da farmakin a lokaci guda a dukkan bangarori ukun da suka hada da Quneitra zuwa Arish sannan sojojin saman Masar sun yi ruwan bama-bamai a birnin Tel Aviv.[28] A lokacin fadan, Isra'ilawa sun sami damar bude hanyar ceto ga kibbutzim da dama da aka yi wa kawanya.[29]

An dai ci gaba da gwabza fada har na tsawon kwanaki goma har kwamitin sulhu na Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ya fitar da tsagaita wuta na biyu a ranar 18 ga watan Yuli. A cikin wadannan kwanaki 10, an mamaye fadan ne da manyan hare-hare na Isra'ila da kuma matakin kariya daga bangaren Larabawa.

Gaban KuduGyara

 
An kama wani makami mai linzami na Masar da bataliya ta 53 na Brigade Givati ​​ta kama.

A kudancin kasar, IDF ta kai hare-hare da dama, ciki har da Operation An-Far da Operation Death to the Invader. Aikin runduna ta 11 ta bataliya ta 11 da ke gefen kudu shi ne kame kauyuka, kuma aikin nata ya gudana cikin kwanciyar hankali, ba tare da turjiya ba daga cikin gida. A cewar Amnon Neumann, wani tsohon sojan Palmach na yankin Kudu, da kyar wasu kauyukan Larabawa da ke kudancin kasar suka yi fada da juna, saboda tsananin talauci na abin da suke da shi da kuma rashin makamai, aka kuma kori su.[30] Wani ‘yar turjiya da aka yi, an kwantar da shi ne da wani bama-bamai da makami, daga bisani kuma aka kori mazauna kauyen tare da lalata gidaje.[31]

Lydda da al-RamlaGyara

 
Sojojin Isra'ila a Lod (Lydda) ko Ramle

ManazartaGyara

  1. Benny Morris (2008). 1948: A History of the First Arab-Israeli War. Yale University Press. p. 76. ISBN 978-0300145243.
  2. David Tal, War in Palestine, 1948: Israeli and Arab Strategy and Diplomacy, p. 153.
  3. Benny Morris (2008), p. 401.
  4. Zeev Maoz, Defending the Holy Land, University of Michigan Press, 2009 p. 4: 'A combined invasion of a Jordanian and Egyptian army started .
  5. Rogan and Shlaim 2007 p. 99.
  6. Cragg 1997 pp. 57, 116.
  7. Benvenisti, Meron (1996), City of Stone: The Hidden History of Jerusalem, University of California Press, 08033994793.ABA. p. 27
  8. Morris, 2001, pp. 259–60.
  9. Fischbach, Michael R. Jewish Property Claims Against Arab Countries.
  10. Morris, 2003, p. 16.
  11. Rogan and Shlaim 2007 p. 110.
  12. Morris, 2008, p. 310
  13. Laurens, vol. 3 p. 69.
  14. "Wars of the World: Israeli War of Independence 1948–1949". Onwar.com. Archived from the original on 6 April 2012. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  15. Yaakov, Yifa (2 February 2014). "British deserter who stole tanks for Haganah dies". Timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
  16. Karsh 2002, pp. 61–62
  17. Karsh 2002, p. 61
  18. Karsh 2002, p. 62
  19. Karsh 2002, p. 62
  20. War in Palestine, 1948: Israeli and Arab Strategy and Diplomacy.
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 Karsh 2002, p. 62
  22. 22.0 22.1 22.2 Karsh 2002, p. 60
  23. Pollack, 2002, pp. 149–55.
  24. Tal, 2004, p. 251
  25. Hayles, John (19 September 1999). "Israel Air Force Aircraft Types". John Hayles, aeroflight.co.uk. Archived from the original on 22 February 2007.
  26. "The First Truce". Retrieved 22 February 2009.
  27. Morris, 2008, pp. 269–71
  28. Gelber, 2006[page needed]; Kinneret, p. 226
  29. Karsh 2002, p. 64
  30. Gideon Levy and Alex Levac, 'Drafting the blueprint for Palestinian refugees' right of return,' at Haaretz 4 October 2013: 'In all the Arab villages in the south almost nobody fought.
  31. David Tal, War in Palestine, 1948: Israeli and Arab Strategy and Diplomacy, Routledge 2004 p. 307.