Kogin Okavango (tsohon sunan ana rubuta shi Okovango ko Okovanggo) kogi ne a kudu maso yammacin Afirka. Wannan shine tsarin ruwa mafi tsayi na huɗu a kudancin Afirka, yana tafiya kudu maso gabas na kilomita 1,600 (1,000 mi). Ana farawa ne daga tsawan mita 1,300 (4,300 ft) a cikin tsaunuka masu yashi na Angola, inda ake saninsa da sunan Portuguese Rio Cubango. Daga can nesa kudu, ta zama wani yanki na iyakar tsakanin Angola da Namibia, sannan ta kwarara zuwa Botswana. Okavango bashi da wata hanyar shiga teku. Madadin haka, sai a sallamar da shi a cikin Okavango Delta ko Okavango Alluvial Fan, a cikin wani kwantaccen ruwa a cikin Hamadar Kalahari.

Kogin Okavango
Okavangolodge.jpg
General information
Tsawo 1,700 km
Labarin ƙasa
Geographic coordinate system (en) Fassara 12°39′14″S 16°07′38″E / 12.653801°S 16.127178°E / -12.653801; 16.127178
Kasa Angola, Botswana da Namibiya
Hydrography (en) Fassara
Tributary (en) Fassara
Watershed area (en) Fassara 800,000 km²
Drainage basin (en) Fassara Kalahari Basin (en) Fassara
River source (en) Fassara Bié Plateau (en) Fassara
River mouth (en) Fassara Okavango Delta (en) Fassara

GudanaGyara

A cikin Angola, saman kogin Cuito (kogin da ke biya zuwa ga Okavango) yana fama da toshewa sakamakon ƙonewar ciyayi, yana rage ruwan da ke kwarara zuwa ƙasa yayin da ruwan da ke taruwa maimakon ya shiga cikin yashi.[1]

Kafin ya shiga Botswana, kogin ya sauko da mita 4 a jerin saurin da aka sani da Popa Falls, ana iya ganin sa yayin da kogin yayi kasa, kamar lokacin rani.[2]

A lokacin damina, fitowar ruwa zuwa Kogin Boteti yayin fitarwa na lokaci zuwa ga Makgadikgadi Pans, wanda ke ba da yanki mai fa'ida na damina, lokacin damina inda dubban flamingos ke taruwa kowace bazara.[3] Wani bangare na kwararar kogin ya cika Tafkin Ngami. Sanarwar ta game da namun dajin ta, yankin Okavango ya ƙunshi Maɗaukakin Tsari na Moremi na Botswana.

Ambaliyar ruwaGyara

 
Popa Falls (2018)

A duk lokacin damina, Angola tana samun ruwan sama fiye da Botswana har sau uku, tana mai fitar da ruwa sama da yadda aka saba zuwa cikin Okavango, yana mai da wasu yankuna da ke hamada zuwa wani babban dausayi.

Ko da yake ruwan bazara ya sauka a Angola a watan Janairu, amma sun dauki tsawon wata guda kafin su yi tafiyar kilomita 1000 na farko na Kogin Okavango, sannan kuma suna daukar karin watanni hudu su yi bincike a cikin tsirrai da hanyoyin da yawa na karshen kilomita 250 na yankin. Sakamakon haka, ambaliyar ta kasance mafi girma a wani lokaci tsakanin watan Yuni zuwa Agusta, a lokacin rani na Botswana da damuna. Yankin Delta daga nan ya kumbura har sau uku na girmansa na dindin, yana jawo dabbobi daga nisan kilomita kuma yana haifar da ɗayan manyan cibiyoyin Afirka na namun daji.

A mafi fadakarwarsa a cikin shekarar babbar ambaliyar ruwa, fadamar yanayi ta kai kilomita 150 daga gabas zuwa yamma; daya daga cikin abubuwan da ke haifar da sauyin yanayi na Delta shi ne fadin yankin. Idan mutum zai ɗauki ɓangaren giciye na delta a mafi faɗin inda yake, mutum zai ga cewa bambancin tsayi daga abin da ke sama da kilomita 150 bai wuce mita 2 ba, wanda ke nufin cewa ƙaramin tarin yashi na iya haifar da manyan canje-canje.[4]

A cikin shekaru masu daɗi sosai, wani ɓangare na kwararar kogin na iya faɗaɗa Kogin Magweggana (a zahiri rabon arewa maso gabas na Okavango Delta) ya shiga Kogin Zambezi, ya tsallake Kalahari.

Jigilar ruwaGyara

Kogin yana daukar tan 28,000 na dakatar da daddare da kuma irin wannan adadin kwanciya zuwa fadamar tashar.[5]

TarihiGyara

A lokacin da ake cikin sanyi a tarihin duniya, wani yanki na Kalahari wani babban tafki ne, wanda aka fi sani da Tafkin Makgadikgadi. A wannan lokacin, da Okavango ya kasance ɗayan manyan raƙuman ruwa.

 
Haɗin Cuito (daga sama) da Okavango (suna gudana daga hagu zuwa dama) (2018)18°01′40″S 020°47′31″E / 18.02778°S 20.79194°E / -18.02778; 20.79194

Rikicin ruwaGyara

Dukansu Namibia da Botswana suna fuskantar fari, a sakamakon haka, an nuna damuwa game da yiwuwar rikici kan amfani da ruwan kogin. Namibia ta gina magudanar ruwa, tsawonta ya kai kimanin kilomita 300, kuma ta gabatar da wani shiri na gina bututun mai na kilomita 250 don karkatar da ruwa daga kogin zuwa Namibia don taimaka ma ta rage farin.[6][7]

Botswana, duk da haka, tana amfani da Okavango Delta don samun kuɗin shiga yawon buɗe ido da kuma tushen ruwa. Ma'aikatar Harkokin Ruwa a Botswana ta gabatar da cewa kashi 97 cikin dari na ruwan da ke kogin sun yi asara ta hanyar daukar danshi, don haka kasar ba za ta iya rasa wani karin ruwa ba.

Ita kuma Namibia, ta yi jayayya cewa, za ta karkatar da rabin kashi daya cikin dari na kwararar kogin, kuma tana da hakkin duk wani ruwa da ya bi ta kasarta. Don magance irin wadannan batutuwan, a watan Satumbar 1994, Angola, Namibia, da Botswana sun sanya hannu kan wata yarjejeniya ta kafa Hukumar Ruwan Ruwa na Kogin Okavango na Dindin, don ba da shawarwari ga kasashen uku game da hanyoyin mafi kyau na raba albarkatun Kogin Okavango.[6][7]

ManazartaGyara

  1. Society, National Geographic. "Okavango Wilderness Project". www.nationalgeographic.org (in Turanci). Into the Okavango. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020.
  2. Siyabona Africa Travel (Pty) Ltd, "Popa Falls | Okavango River | Botswana" webpage: TravelZA-PopaFalls[permanent dead link]
  3. C. Michael Hogan (2008) Makgadikgadi, The Megalithic Portal, ed. A. Burnham
  4. http://blog.africabespoke.com/okavango-delta-part-2/ Archived 2009-07-19 at the Wayback Machine Okavango River Flooding
  5. Hanibal Lemma, and colleagues (2019). "Bedload transport measurements in the Gilgel Abay River, Lake Tana Basin, Ethiopia". Journal of Hydrology. 577: 123968. Bibcode:2019JHyd..57723968L. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2019.123968.
  6. 6.0 6.1 Basedau, Matthias (2005-01-01). Resource Politics in Sub-Saharan Africa (in Turanci). GIGA-Hamburg. p. 294. ISBN 9783928049917.
  7. 7.0 7.1 Varis, Olli; Tortajada, Cecilia; Biswas, Asit K. (2008-03-15). Management of Transboundary Rivers and Lakes (in Turanci). Springer Science & Business Media. p. 96. ISBN 9783540749288.