Dokar nau'in halittu, Wani nau'in da ke cikin hatsari wani nau'in wanda zai iya ɓacewa a nan gaba, ko dai a duniya ko a wani yanki na siyasa. Nau'in da ke cikin haɗari na iya kasancewa cikin haɗari saboda dalilai kamar asarar wurin zama, farauta da nau'in cin zarafi. Ƙungiyar Ƙasa ta Duniya don Kare Halittu (IUCN) ta lissafa matsayin kiyayewa na duniya na nau'o'in nau'o'i da yawa, kuma wasu hukumomi daban-daban suna tantance matsayin nau'in jinsin a cikin wasu yankuna. Al'ummai da yawa suna da dokoki waɗanda ke kare nau'ikan masu dogaro da kiyayewa waɗanda, alal misali, hana farauta, hana haɓaka ƙasa, ko ƙirƙirar wuraren kariya. Wasu nau'ikan da ke cikin haɗari sune makasudin ƙoƙarce-ƙoƙarcen kiyayewa kamar kiwo da kuma mai do da wurin zama.

Dokar Nau'in Halittu
conservation status (en) Fassara
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na threatened species (en) Fassara
Condor na California wani nau'i ne mai hatsarin gaske. Kula da alamun fuka-fukan da aka yi amfani da su don sa ido kan yawan jama'a.
nau in fara

Matsayin kiyayewa

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Hoton Pusa hispida saimensis, wanda kuma aka sani da Saimaa Ringed Seal, daga 1956. Rayuwa kawai a tafkin Saimaa, Finland, Saimaa Ringed Seals suna daga cikin hatimin da ke cikin haɗari a duniya, suna da jimlar mutane kusan 400 kawai.[1]

Matsayin adana nau'in yana nuna yuwuwar cewa zai bace. Ana la'akari da abubuwa da yawa lokacin tantance matsayin jinsin; misali, irin wannan ƙididdiga kamar adadin da ya rage, haɓakar gabaɗaya ko raguwar yawan jama'a akan lokaci, ƙimar nasarar kiwo, ko sanannen barazanar.[2] Jerin Jajayen IUCN na nau'ikan Barazana shine sanannen jerin matsayi na kiyayewa na duniya da tsarin martaba.[3]

Sama da kashi 50% na nau'in halittun duniya an kiyasta suna cikin haɗarin bacewa. Bangaren kasa da kasa, kasashe 195 sun rattaba hannu kan wata yarjejeniya don samar da tsare-tsare na ayyukan da za su kare wadanda ke cikin hadari da sauran nau'o'in da ke fuskantar barazana. A kasar Amirka, yawanci ana kiran irin waɗannan tsare-tsare Tsare-tsaren Farfaɗowa na jinsin halittu.

 
Damisar Siberian tana cikin haɗari (EN) nau'in tiger . Nassosin damisa uku sun riga sun ɓace (duba Jerin masu cin naman dabbobi ta yawan jama'a ).
 
Macaw mai launin shuɗi, nau'in da ke cikin haɗari
 
Brown gizo-gizo biri, nau'in da ke cikin haɗari
 
Siamese crocodile, jinsin da ke cikin haɗari
 
Amurka binne ƙwaro, nau'in da ke cikin haɗari
 
Kunkuru tekun Kemp's ridley, nau'in da ke cikin hatsari
 
Wolf na Mexican, mafi yawan nau'ikan nau'ikan Wolf Grey Wolf na Arewacin Amurka. Kimanin 143 ne ke zaune a daji.

Ko da yake an lakafta jerin sunayen, (IUCN Red List) tsarin ne na tantance matsayin kiyayewar nau'in ba da kariya na kiyayewa da kimanta yanayin kiyayewa na duniya wanda ya haɗa da "Rashin Bayanai" (DD) nau'in -nau'ikan da ake buƙatar ƙarin bayanai da ƙima kafin a iya tantance yanayin su  da kuma nau'in IUCN an tantance su. Wadancan nau'in " Kusa da Barazana " (NT) da " Ƙaramin Damuwa " An tantance matsayin (LC) kuma an gano yana da ingantacciyar ƙoshin lafiya da yawan jama'a, koda yake waɗannan na iya raguwa. Ba kamar yadda ake amfani da su na gabaɗaya a wani wuri ba, Lissafin yana amfani da kalmomin "jinsuna masu haɗari" da "nau'i masu barazana" tare da ma'ana ta musamman: "Masu haɗari" (EN) nau'in suna tsakanin " Masu rauni  (VU) da kuma " Mummunan Hadari  (CR) nau'in. A cikin 2012, IUCN Red List ya lissafa dabbobi 3,079 da nau'ikan tsire-tsire 2,655 a matsayin waɗanda ke cikin haɗari (EN) a duk duniya.

Dabbobi masu shayarwa

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  • Giant panda
  • Farar karkanda
  • Sumatran orangutan
  • Bengal tiger
  • Giwa Indiya
  • Otter mai laushi mai laushi
  • Dugong
  • Orca
  • Lemur mai zobe

Akwai bayanai daga Amurka da ke nuna alaƙa tsakanin al'ummomin ɗan adam da kuma nau'ikan da ke cikin haɗari da haɗari. Yin amfani da bayanan nau'in bayanai daga Database akan Tattalin Arziki da Gudanar da Matsalolin Dabbobi (DEMES) da kuma lokacin da Dokar Dabbobi (ESA) ta kasance, 1970 zuwa 1997, an ƙirƙiri wani tebur wanda ke nuna kyakkyawar alaƙa tsakanin ayyukan ɗan adam. da nau'in haɗari.

 
Matsakaicin taswirar alama na ƙididdige nau'ikan nau'ikan halittun kowace jiha

Dokar Nau'in Halitta

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"Ana cikin haɗari" dangane da "barazana" a ƙarƙashin ESA

Ƙarƙashin Ƙasa na 1973 a Amurka, ana iya lissafa nau'in a matsayin "masu haɗari" ko "barazana". A Gishirin Creek Creek Tigerle ( CICINDELELA Nevadica Lincolnana ) misali ne na tallace-tallace masu haɗari waɗanda aka kiyaye su ƙarƙashin ESA. Ma'aikatar Kifi da namun daji na Amurka, da kuma Ma'aikatar Kifin Ruwa ta Kasa suna da alhakin rarrabawa da kare nau'ikan da ke cikin hatsari. Suna kuma da alhakin ƙara wani nau'i na musamman a cikin jerin, wanda zai iya zama dogon lokaci, tsari mai rikitarwa.

Wasu nau'in haɗari masu haɗari suna da rikice-rikice. Wuraren da aka saba samun cece-kuce sun hada da ka’idojin sanya jinsin halittu a cikin jerin nau’ukan da ke cikin hadari da kuma ka’idojin cire jinsin daga jerin da zarar yawansu ya farfado. Ko hane-hane kan ci gaban ƙasa ya zama "ɗaukar" fili ta gwamnati ; Tambayar da ke da alaƙa da ko ya kamata a biya masu zaman kansu diyya na asarar amfanin yankunansu; da samun madaidaitan keɓancewa ga dokokin kariya. Har ila yau, zaɓe daga mafarauta da masana'antu daban-daban kamar masana'antar man fetur, masana'antar gine-gine, da saren katako, ya kasance cikas wajen kafa dokokin nau'ikan da ke cikin haɗari.

Gwamnatin Bush ta dage manufar da ta bukaci jami'an gwamnatin tarayya su tuntubi kwararrun namun daji kafin su dauki matakan da za su iya lalata nau'ikan da ke cikin hadari. A karkashin gwamnatin Obama, an sake dawo da wannan manufar.

Jera shi azaman nau'in da ke cikin haɗari na iya yin mummunan tasiri tunda yana iya sa nau'in ya zama abin sha'awa ga masu tarawa da mafarauta. Wannan tasirin yana da yuwuwar raguwa, kamar a China inda kunkuru na kasuwanci na iya rage wasu matsin lamba don farautar nau'ikan da ke cikin hatsari.

Wata matsalar da ke tattare da jeri nau'in da kuma sakamakon da ya haifar da ingiza amfani da hanyar "harbe, shebur, da rufewa" na kawar da nau'o'in da ke cikin haɗari daga wani yanki na ƙasa. Wasu masu mallakar filaye a halin yanzu na iya ganin raguwar darajar ƙasarsu bayan sun gano wata dabba a cikinta. An yi zargin sun zabi kashe dabbobi da binne su ko kuma su lalata wuraren zama cikin shiru. Don haka kawar da matsalar daga ƙasarsu, amma tare da ƙara rage yawan al'ummar da ke cikin hatsari. Tasirin dokar nau'ikan da ke cikin haɗari wanda ya haifar da kalmar "jinin haɗari" ƙungiyoyin bayar da shawarwari na kasuwanci da wallafe-wallafen sun yi tambaya amma duk da haka masana kimiyyar namun daji waɗanda ke aiki tare da nau'in sun san shi sosai. An jera nau'ikan guda goma sha tara kuma an dawo dasu kuma kashi 93% na nau'ikan da aka jera a arewa maso gabashin Amurka suna da murmurewa ko kwanciyar hankali.

A halin yanzu, nau'ikan 1,556 suna karkashin kariya ta dokar gwamnati. Wannan kusantar, duk da haka, ba ta la'akari da nau'in da ake yi wa barazanar haɗari waɗanda ba a haɗa su a ƙarƙashin kariyar dokoki kamar Dokar Kare Haɗari ba. Dangane da matsayin NatureServe na duniya na kiyayewa, kusan kashi goma sha uku cikin ɗari na vertebrates/dabbbobi masu rayuwa a kasa (ban da kifi na ruwa), kashi goma sha bakwai na tsire-tsire masu tsire-tsire, da kashi shida zuwa goma sha takwas na fungi ana ɗaukar su cikin lalacewa. [4] Don haka, gabaɗaya, tsakanin kashi bakwai zuwa goma sha takwas bisa ɗari na sanannun dabbobi, fungi da shuke-shuken Amurka sun kusa bacewa. [4] Wannan jimillar ya zarce adadin nau'ikan da aka karewa a Amurka a ƙarƙashin Dokar Kare Haɗari.

 
Mikiya mai gashi
 
Bison Amurka

Tun lokacin da dan Adam ya fara farauta don kare kansa, yawan farauta da kamun kifi sun kasance babbar matsala mai hatsarin gaske. Daga cikin dukkan nau'in da suka bace saboda tsangwama daga 'yan adam, dodo, tattabarar fasinja, babban auk, damisar Tasmania da saniyar ruwa ta Steller wasu daga cikin sanannun misalan; tare da mikiya mai sanƙara, ƙwanƙara bear, bison na Amurka, kerkeci na katako na Gabas da kunkuru na teku da aka yi wa farautar su kusa da bacewa. Yawancin su sun fara ne azaman tushen abinci da ake ganin sun zama dole don rayuwa amma sun zama makasudin wasanni. Koyaya, saboda babban ƙoƙarin hana bacewa, mikiya, ko Haliaeetus leucocephalus yanzu tana ƙarƙashin rukunin mafi ƙarancin damuwa akan jerin ja. Misali na yau da kullun na farautar nau'in nau'in ana iya gani a cikin tekuna yayin da yawan wasu kifin kifi ya ragu sosai. Manyan Whales kamar blue Whale, bowhead whale, finback whale, grey whale, sperm whale, da humpback whale wasu ne daga cikin kifayen kifayen guda takwas waɗanda a halin yanzu suna cikin jerin nau'ikan da ke cikin haɗari. An ɗauki matakai don yunƙurin rage yawan kifin kifi da ƙara girman yawan jama'a. Ayyukan sun haɗa da haramta duk wani kifin kifi a cikin ruwa na Amurka, samar da yarjejeniyar CITES da ke kare duk wani kifin kifi, tare da kafa Hukumar Kula da Whaling ta Duniya (IWC) . Sai dai duk da cewa an sanya dukkan wadannan yunkuri, kasashe irin su Japan na ci gaba da farauta da girbin kifin a karkashin da'awar "dalibai na kimiyya". Fiye da farauta, canjin yanayi da asarar wurin zama suna haifar da saukowa nau'ikan cikin jerin nau'ikan nau'ikan da ke cikin haɗari. Yana iya nufin cewa ɓarkewar rates na iya ƙaruwa zuwa babba a nan gaba.

nau'in cin zarafi

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Gabatar da nau'ikan da ba na asali ba zuwa wani yanki na iya kawo cikas ga yanayin halittu ta yadda nau'in 'yan asalin ke shiga cikin hadari. Irin wannan gabatarwar ana iya kiransa baƙon ko nau'in ɓarna. A wasu lokuta, nau'ikan masu cin zarafi suna gogayya da nau'ikan na asali don abinci ko ganima ga 'yan asalin. A wasu lokuta, daidaiton yanayin muhalli na iya jin haushi ta hanyar tsinuwa ko wasu abubuwan da ke haifar da raguwar nau'in da ba a zata ba. Sabbin nau'ikan na iya ɗaukar cututtuka waɗanda nau'in na asali ba su da fallasa ko juriya gare su.

 
Dole, babban maharbi na Asiya mafi hatsarin gaske, yana kan ƙarshen bacewa.

Kiwon da aka kama

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Kiwon da aka kama shi ne tsarin kiwo da ba kasafai ko kuma ke cikin hatsari a cikin muhallin da mutane ke sarrafa su tare da takaitaccen saiti, kamar wuraren ajiyar namun daji, namun daji, da sauran wuraren kiyayewa. Kiwo da aka kama ana nufin ceto nau'in halittu daga bacewa da kuma daidaita yawan nau'in ta yadda ba zai bace ba.

Wannan dabarar ta yi aiki ga nau'ikan jinsuna da yawa na ɗan lokaci, tare da wataƙila mafi dadewa sanannun irin waɗannan lokuta na kama-karya ana danganta su ga shugabannin Turai da Asiya, misali shine barewa na Père David . Koyaya, dabarun kiwo da aka kama galibi suna da wahalar aiwatarwa don irin waɗannan nau'ikan nau'ikan tafi da gidanka kamar wasu tsuntsaye masu ƙaura (misali cranes) da kifi (misali hilsa ). Bugu da ƙari, idan yawan kiwo da aka kama ya yi ƙanƙanta, to, ƙila za a iya haifar da ƙiyayya saboda raguwar tarin kwayoyin halitta da rage juriya.

A cikin 1981, Ƙungiyar Zoos da Aquariums (AZA) ta ƙirƙiri Tsarin Tsira na Nauyin (SSP) don taimakawa wajen adana takamaiman nau'ikan da ke cikin haɗari da barazana ta hanyar kiwo. Tare da tsare-tsare sama da 450 na SSP, AZA ta rufe wasu nau'ikan da ke cikin haɗari tare da tsare-tsare don rufe manufofin gudanar da al'umma da shawarwari don kiwo ga al'umma dabam-dabam da lafiya, waɗanda Ƙungiyoyin Shawarar Taxon suka ƙirƙira. Waɗannan shirye-shiryen yawanci ana ƙirƙira su azaman ƙoƙarce-ƙoƙarce na ƙarshe. Shirye-shiryen SSP suna shiga akai-akai a cikin farfadowar jinsuna, kula da dabbobi don barkewar cututtukan daji, da wasu ƙoƙarin kiyaye namun daji. Tsarin Tsira na Irin nau'in AZA shima yana da shirye-shiryen kiwo da canja wuri, duka a ciki da wajen AZA - ƙwararrun zoos da wuraren adana ruwa. Wasu dabbobin da ke cikin shirye-shiryen SSP sune manyan pandas, gorilla na lowland, da California condors.

Manoma masu zaman kansu

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Bakar karkanda
 
Southern bluefin tuna

Ganin cewa farauta na rage yawan dabbobin da ke cikin haɗari, doka, don riba, noma masu zaman kansu ke yin akasin haka. Ya ƙara yawan adadin karkanda baƙar fata na kudanci da farar rhinoceros na kudu. Dokta Richard Emslie, jami'in kimiyya a IUCN, ya ce game da irin waɗannan shirye-shiryen, "Tsarin aiwatar da doka ya zama mafi sauƙi a yanzu da dabbobin na sirri ne. . . Mun sami damar kawo al'ummomin gida cikin shirye-shiryen kiyayewa. Ana samun ƙara ƙarfin tattalin arziƙi a haɗe don kula da karkanda maimakon farauta kawai: daga yawon shakatawa na Eco ko sayar da su don riba. Don haka masu yawa da yawa suna kiyaye su lafiya. Kamfanoni masu zaman kansu sun kasance mabuɗin don taimakawa aikinmu."

Kwararru a fannin kiwon lafiya na duba irin tasirin da noman kunkuru na kasar Sin ke da shi ga yawan kunkurun daji na kasar Sin da kuma kudu maso gabashin Asiya. – da yawa daga cikinsu suna cikin hadari - kamar yadda "ba a fahimta ba". Ko da yake sun yaba da sauya kunkuru da aka kama a hankali da kunkuru masu noma a kasuwa. - yawan mutanen da aka tara noma a cikin kasuwancin "bayyane" ya karu daga kusan 30% a cikin 2000 zuwa kusan 70% a cikin 2007  – sun damu cewa ana kama dabbobin daji da yawa don samar wa manoma kiwo. Masanin kula da lafiyar Peter Paul van Dijk ya lura cewa manoman kunkuru sukan yi imanin cewa dabbobin da aka kama dajin sun fi kiwo. Manoman kunkuru, saboda haka, za su iya nema su kama sauran samfuran daji na ƙarshe na wasu nau'in kunkuru masu haɗari. [5]

A cikin 2015, masu bincike a Ostiraliya sun sami nasarar korar tuna tuna bluefin na kudancin kasar don yin haifuwa a cikin tankuna marasa iyaka, suna haɓaka yuwuwar cewa noman kifi na iya ceton nau'in daga kifin kifaye. [6]

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Duba kuma

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IUCN Red List

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  • Jerin Chromista ta halin kiyayewa.
  • Jerin 'yan amphibian da ke cikin hatsari.
  • Jerin arthropods masu haɗari.
  • Jerin tsuntsayen da ke cikin hadari.
  • Jerin kifayen da ke cikin hatsari.
  • Jerin kwari masu hatsari.
  • Jerin invertebrates masu haɗari.
  • Jerin dabbobi masu shayarwa da ke cikin hatsari.
  • Jerin molluscs masu hatsari.
  • Jerin tsire-tsire masu haɗari.
  • Jerin dabbobi masu rarrafe da ke cikin hatsari.
  • Jerin fungi ta hanyar kiyayewa.
  • Jerin sunayen jajayen IUCN da ke cikin haɗari.[7]

Manazarta

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  1. "Saimaa Ringed Seal". Archived from the original on 25 December 2018. Retrieved 22 December 2018.
  2. "NatureServe Conservation Status". NatureServe. April 2007. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
  3. "Red List Overview". IUCN. February 2011. Archived from the original on May 27, 2012. Retrieved 2 June 2012.
  4. 4.0 4.1 Wilcove & Master 2005.
  5. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named ff
  6. The Top 10 Everything of 2009: Top 10 Scientific Discoveries: 5. Breeding Tuna on Land, Time magazine, December 8, 2009.
  7. Endangered Species" . PBS NewsHour. 2009-03-03. Archived from the original on 2019-09-03. Retrieved 2021-07-23.