Zayd ibn Harithah (Larabci: زَيْد ٱبْن حَارِثَة, Zayd ibn Ḥārithah) (c. 581-629 AZ), shi ne farkon Musulmin, sahabah kuma dan annabin Musulunci, Muhammad.

Simpleicons Interface user-outline.svg Zayd ibn Harithah
تخطيط اسم زيد بن حارثة.png
Rayuwa
Haihuwa Yankin Larabawa, 581
ƙungiyar ƙabila Larabawa
Mutuwa Mu'tah (en) Fassara, 629
Yan'uwa
Mahaifi Harithah ibn shrahel
Abokiyar zama Umm Ayman
Q12211560 Fassara
Umm Kulthum bint Uqba (en) Fassara
Zaynab bint Jahsh (en) Fassara
Q106837418 Fassara
Yara
Siblings Q12204945 Fassara
Sana'a
Sana'a Shugaban soji
Aikin soja
Ya faɗaci Badar
Yaƙin Uhudu
Yaƙin gwalalo
Yaƙin Khaybar
Yakin Mu'tah
Imani
Addini Musulunci

An yi masa kallon mutum na hudu da ya karbi Musulunci, bayan matar Muhammad Khadija, dan uwan ​​Muhammad Ali, da kuma na kusa da Muhammad Abu Bakr,[1] Zaid ya kasance bawa a gidan Khadija na tsawon shekaru da dama, amma daga baya Muhammad ya 'yanta kuma ya dauki Zayd a matsayin nasa bisa doka. dan kansa.

Zayd kwamanda ne a farkon sojojin musulmi kuma ya jagoranci balaguron farko na soja a zamanin Muhammad. Zayd ya jagoranci balaguronsa na ƙarshe a watan Satumba na shekara ta 629 A.Z., kuma ya tashi ya kai hari birnin Bosra na Rumawa. Sai dai sojojin Rumawa sun tare sojojin musulmi sannan aka kashe Zaid a yakin Mu'tah.

Zaid ya auri wasu fitattun mata guda biyu na gidan Muhammad, ciki har da kawunsa Zainab da kuyangar mahaifiyarsa Ummu Ayman.

YarantakaGyara

An ce Zayd ya girmi Muhammad shekaru goma, yana nuna shekarar haihuwar c. 581. An kuma ce yana da shekara 55 (watau) a wafatinsa a shekara ta 629, wanda ke nuni da ranar haihuwar 576.[2]

An haife shi a cikin reshen Udhra na kabilar Kalb a Najd, tsakiyar Larabawa. Ya yi da'awar zuriya ta goma sha biyu daga Udhra bn Zaid al-Lat bn Rufayda bn Thawr bn Kalb ibn Wabara.[2][3] Mahaifiyar Zayd, Suda bint Thaalaba, ta fito ne daga reshen Maan na kabilar Tayy.[2]

Lokacin da Zaid ya kasance "Yaro karami na shekarun da zai iya zama bawa": [4] ya raka mahaifiyarsa ziyarar danginta. Yayin da suke zaune tare da kabilar Ma’an, mahaya dawakai daga kabilar Qayn suka far wa tantunansu suka yi garkuwa da Zaidu. Suka kai shi kasuwa a Ukkaz suka sayar da shi a matsayin bawa akan dinari 400.[2]

Iyalan Zayd sun neme shi, amma ba su yi nasara ba. Ana jingina makoki ga mahaifinsa Harithah bn Sharahil (BaSharahil):

Ina yiwa Zayd kuka, ban san me ya same shi ba.
Shin yana raye, ana tsammaninsa, ko kuwa Mutuwa ta riske shi?.
"Wallahi na rokeka har yanzu ban gane ba."
Tuni ne ko dutse ne ya kawo karshen ku?
"Da ma na sani: Shin za ku dawo?"
A duniyar nan sai da dawowar ku nake buri.
"Rana ta tuna da shi lokacin da gari ya waye, yana tayar da tunaninsa yayin da magriba ta fadi."
Lokacin da iska ke kadawa, sai su tada tunani kamar kura.
Ya kai tsawon raina da tsoro gareshi![2]:6–7

Bauta a MakkaGyara

Wani dan kasuwan Makka, Hakim bn Hizam ne ya siyo Zaidu, wanda ya ba yaron a matsayin kyauta ga innarsa Khadijah bint Khuwaylid. Ya kasance a hannunta har ranar da ta auri Muhammad, lokacin da ta ba wa angonta kyautar kuyanga. Muhammad ya shaku da Zayd sosai, wanda ya kira al-Ḥabīb (Larabci: ٱلْحَبِيْب, lit. 'Masoyi').[2]

Bayan wasu shekaru, wasu 'yan kabilar Zayd ya faru sun isa Makka a kan aikin hajji. Suka ci karo da Zaidu suka gane juna, ya ce su kai sako gida.

Carry a message from me to my people,
for I am far away, that close to the House and the places of pilgrimage I stay.
Let go of the grief that has deeply saddened you,
and do not hasten your camels all over the earth.
I live with the best of families, may God be blessed;
from father to son, of Ma'ad they are the noblest.[2]:7

  1. Razwy, Sayed Ali Asgher. A Restatement of the History of Islam & Muslims. p. 53.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tarikh al-Rusul wa'l-Muluk. Translated by Landau-Tasseron, E. Volume 39: The Biographies of the Companions and Their Successors. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  3. Lecker, p. 773.
  4. Muhammad ibn Sa'd. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir. Translated by Bewley, A. (2013). Volume 3: The Companions of Badr. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.

Da samun wannan sakon, nan da nan mahaifin Zaidu da kawunsa suka tashi zuwa Makka. Sun sami Muhammad a dakin Ka'aba, suka yi masa alkawarin duk wani fansa idan zai mayar musu da Zaidu. Muhammad ya amsa da cewa a bar Zayd ya zabi makomarsa, amma idan yana son komawa ga iyalansa, Muhammad zai sake shi ba tare da karbar fansa a madadinsa ba. Sai suka kira Zayd, wanda cikin sauki ya gane mahaifinsa da kawunsa, amma ya gaya musu cewa ba ya son barin Muhammad, “domin na ga wani abu a cikin wannan mutumi, kuma ni ba irin mutumin da zan iya zabar kowa ba. gare shi." A nan ne Muhammadu ya kai Zayd ya kai matakala na Ka'aba, inda aka amince da kwangiloli na shari'a kuma aka shaida, ya kuma yi wa jama'a bushara da cewa: "Ku shaida cewa Zaid ya zama dana, tare da hakokin juna na gado." Da ganin haka, mahaifin Zayd da kawun “sun gamsu,” suka koma gida ba tare da shi ba.[1]

A daidai da al'adar Larabci na tallafi a lokacin, Zayd daga baya aka san shi da "Zayd ibn Muhammad" kuma ya kasance mai 'yantacce, dauke a cikin zamantakewa da kuma shari'a a matsayin dan Muhammad.[1]

MusuluntaGyara

A wani kwanan wata da ba a sani ba kafin 610, Zayd ya raka Muhammad zuwa Ta'if, inda ya kasance al'adar sadaukar da nama ga gumaka. Kusa da Baldah a hanyarsu ta komawa Makka, sai suka gamu da Zaidu bn Amr, suka miqa masa wani dafaffen naman da Zaidu yake xauke da su a cikin jakarsu.[2][3] Zaid bn Amr, mai tauhidi mai faxi, ya ce:[4]  ya ce: “Ba ni cin wani abu da kuke yanka da sunan gumakanku na dutse, ba ni cin kome sai abubuwan da aka ambaci sunan Allah a kansu a lokacin yanka.[5] Bayan wannan haduwar, in ji Muhammad, “Ban taba shafa wani gunki nasu ba, ban kuma yi musu yanka ba, har sai da Allah ya girmama ni da manzancinsa."[2][3]

Lokacin da Muhammadu ya ba da labari a shekara ta 610 cewa ya sami wahayi daga mala'ika Jibril, Zayd na ɗaya daga cikin waɗanda suka fara musulunta. Yayin da Khadijah ta kasance Musulma ta farko a cikin al'ummar Muhammadu,[4] Makwabciyarta Lubaba bint al-Harith ce ta bi ta,[1]  'ya'yanta mata hudu,[6] da farkon wadanda suka musulunta, Ali, Zayd. da Abubakar.[4]

HijiraGyara

A shekara ta 622, Zaid ya shiga cikin sauran musulmi a Hijira zuwa Madina. Da zarar ya sauka a sabon garin, Muhammadu ya bukaci kowane musulmi da ya "dauki dan'uwa a cikin Addini" domin kowanne ya samu abokin tarayya a cikin al'umma. Zayd ya kasance tare da kawun Muhammad Hamza. Don haka Hamza ya aminta da wa’adinsa na ƙarshe ga Zayd kafin rasuwarsa a shekara ta 625.[4]

Bayan 'yan watanni, Muhammad da Abubakar sun aika da Zaid ya koma Makka don ya raka iyalansu zuwa Madina. Taron dawowar ya kunshi matar Muhammad Sawda, da ‘ya’yansa mata Ummu Kulthum da Fatimah, da bawansa Abu Rafi, da matar Zaidu, Baraka da dansu Usama, da matar Abubakar Ummu Rumman, da ‘ya’yansa Asma, Abdullahi da Aisha, da jagora mai suna Abdullahi bn Urayqit. , kuma dan uwan ​​Abubakar Talhah shima ya yanke shawarar ya raka su.[1]

Aure da YaraGyara

Zaid yayi aure akalla sau shida.

  1. Durrah (Fakhita) bint Abi Lahab, yar uwan ​​Muhammadu.[7] Sunn rabu; Ba a san kwanakin ba, amma ’yan’uwan Durrah biyu sun rabu da ’ya’yan Muhammadu mata biyu a shekara ta 613.[6]
  2. Ummu Ayman (Barakah), 'yar Muhammadu 'yantacce kuma mahaifiyar Ayman ibn Ubayd. Sun yi aure “bayan Musulunci”[6] kuma an haifi ɗansu a shekara ta 612.
  3. Hind bint Al-Awwam, yar yayar Khadijah[7].
  4. Humayma bint Sayfi (Umm Mubashshir), matar Al-Baraa ibn Maarur,[6] shugaba a Madina. Al-Baraa ya mutu a watan Agusta ko Satumba 622,[7] don haka auren Zaid ya kasance a cikin ko bayan 623.
  5. Zainab bint Jahsh, kani ga Muhammad. Sun yi aure a cikin 625 kuma sun sake su a ƙarshen 626.[6]
  6. Ummu Kulthum bint Uqba ‘yar uwar halifa Usman ce ta wajen uwa. Muhammadu ne ya ba da umarnin auren nan a shekara ta 628, amma ya ƙare da saki.[7][6]

Zaid ya haifi 'ya'ya uku.

  1. Usama, ɗan Barakah, wanda yake da zuriyarsa, amma adadinsu bai wuce ashirin ba a kowane tsara.[1]
  2. Zayd bin Ummu Kulthum, wacce ta rasu yana karami.[7]
  3. Ruqayya diyar Ummu Kulthum, wacce ta rasu a karkashin kulawar Uthman.[7]

Auren Zainab bint JahshGyara

Around 625 Muhammad ya ba da shawarar cewa kawunsa, Zaynab bint Jahsh, ta auri Zayd. Da farko ta ki a kan cewa ita Quraishawa ce.[1]  An yi nuni da cewa bambance-bambancen zamantakewar Zainab da na Zaidu ne ya sa Muhammadu ya so a daura auren.

Annabi yana sane da cewa tsayuwar mutum ce a gaban Allah take da muhimmanci, maimakon matsayinsa a wajen mutane... aurensu zai nuna cewa ba su ne kakanninsu ba, a’a. Tsayuwarsu a wurin Allah abin ya kasance.[8]

Akasin haka, Montgomery Watt ya yi nuni da cewa Zayd na da daraja a wurin Muhammadu.

Da kyar ta yi tunanin bai isa ba. Ita mace ce mai buri, duk da haka, mai yiwuwa ta riga ta yi fatan auren Muhammad, ko kuma ta so ta auri wanda Muhammadu ba ya son danginsa su kasance da kusanci da juna.[9]

Lokacin da Muhammadu ya sanar da wata sabuwar ayar Kur'ani,33:36,

Ba ya dace ga mumini, namiji ko mace idan wani al'amari Allah da ManzonSa suka yi hukunci, su sami wani zavi a cikin hukuncinsu: wanda ya sava wa Allah da ManzonSa, to, lalle ne shi, yanã a kan tafarki ɓata bayyananna.,

— Suratul Ahzab Qur'an 213 EB 33:36 (Yusuf Ali ya fassara)

Zainab ta yarda ta auri Zaid.[10][11]

Saki daga ZainabGyara

Auren bai wuce shekara biyu ba.[12]

A cewar masana tarihi na karni na 9 Ibn Sa'd da al-Tabari, Muhammad ya kai ziyara gidan Zaid. Labulen fatar gashin da ke zama a k'ofar gidan zaid ya fice a gefe, da gangan zainab ta fito sanye da kayan aikinta kawai. Zaynab ta tashi tayi kwalliya, tana yiwa Muhammad nasiha cewa zaid baya gida amma yabar gidan. Sai dai bai shiga ba. Ya ce a ransa: “Godiya ta tabbata ga Allah wanda Yake juya zukata”. sannan ya fita.[13][1]  Zaid ya dawo gida, Zainab ta ba shi labarin abin da ya faru. Zaid ya je wurin Muhammad, yana cewa: “Annabi, na ji labarin ziyararka. Watakila kina sha'awar Zainab, don haka zan sake ta." Muhammad ya amsa masa da cewa, a'a ka ji tsoron Allah ka rike matarka.[13][6][14]

Bayan haka ne aka samu rikici tsakanin ma'auratan, kuma Zainab ta rufe Zaid daga dakin. Zaid ya saki Zainab a watan Disamba 626.[1][6]

Sai dai mafi yawan malaman musulmi sun yi watsi da wannan labari[15][16][17] musamman saboda rashin samun wani isnadi na ruwaya da rashinsa gaba daya daga wani ingantaccen hadisi. Wasu masu tafsiri[18] sun ga cewa ba zato ba tsammani Muhammad zai fahimci kyawun Zainab wata rana bayan ya san ta tsawon rayuwarta; da kyawunta ne ya sa Muhammad ya aure ta, da da kansa ya aurar da ita tun farko maimakon ya shirya aurenta da Zaidu.[19]

A cewar mai fassara Fishbein

Zaynab, wanda dan uwan ​​Muhammadu ne, ya yi aure ta tsarin Muhammadu ga bawa Muhammad da ya 'yanta Zayd b. Harithah, wanda ya rayu a gidan Muhammadu kuma ya zo a matsayin ɗan renonsa - don haka a kai a kai ana kiransa da Zayd, ɗan Muhammad. Ko auren zaid da zainab ya kasance azzalumi tun farko hasashe ne, duk da cewa labarin ya tabbatar da cewa Zaidu bai hakura ba ya saki matarsa ​​ya bar ta ta auri Muhammad. An bayyana Muhammad a matsayin wanda ba ya son ci gaba da daurin auren saboda kura-kuran da ake yi game da ko auren tsohuwar matar ɗan da aka ɗauke shi ya keta haddi na aure. Al'adar Larabawa sun gane dangantakar dangi ba bisa ga alaƙar jini ba: reno (jinin mace ɗaya) ɗaya ce irin wannan dangantakar; Tambayar ko reno ya shiga cikin wannan nau'in dole ne ya kasance babu tabbas a tsakanin musulmi. Ba a yi auren ba sai bayan an saukar da Alkur’ani mai girma, wanda ya ba wa muminai izinin auren matan ‘ya’yansu da suka saki.[20]

Canja dokokin riko a MusulunciGyara

Bayan wadannan abubuwan da suka faru, an daina gane tsarin karbe Larabawa na gargajiya a Musulunci; aka maye gurbinsa da kafala. An rubuta ayoyi uku na Alkur'ani game da haka. Al-Tabari ya ce, an saukar da Q33:40 ne saboda “Munafiqun sun sanya wannan batu na zancensu, kuma suka zagi Annabi, suka ce: “Muhammad ya hana [aure] da [tsohon] matan ‘ya’yansa, amma ya auri [tsohon] matar dansa Zayd."[1]

Muhammadu bai kasance uban kõwa ba daga mazajenku, kuma amma (shi) Manzon Allah ne kuma cikon Annabãwa. Kuma Allah, ga dukan kõme, Masani ne.

— Sura al-Ahzab Quran 33:40 (Yusuf Ali ya fassara)

Zaid ya koma zama sananne da asalin sunansa na Zayd ibn Harithah kuma yanzu ba a ɗauke shi a matsayin ɗan Muhammad na shari'a ba bayan wahayin Q33:5.[1]

Ku kira su da sunayen ubanninsu ...

— Sura al-Ahzab Quran 33:5 (Yusuf Ali ya fassara)

Ibn Saad ya nuna cewa Q33:37 wani umarni ne na musamman ga Muhammadu da Zainab da su yi aure kuma ya bayyana dalilin da ya sa aurensu ya wajaba.[6]

Sai ga! Kuma ka ce wa wanda aka yi wa ni'imar Allah: "Ka riƙe matarka, kuma ka bi Allah da taƙawa." Kuma amma kã ɓõye abin da Allah Ya yi niyyar bayyanãwa a cikin zuciyarka, kuma ka kasance kã ji tsõron mutãne, kuma lalle ne ka bi Allah da taƙawa. Sa'an nan a lõkacin da Zaid ya warware (aurensa) da ita, da farillai, Muka aurar da ita zuwa gare ka, dõmin kada a kasance a cikin aure a cikin wani ƙunci a kan mũminai. matan ɗiyansu maza, idan na ƙarshe ya rabu da wajabcin (ka'ida) (aurensu) da su. Kuma dole ne a cika umurnin Allah.

— Sura al-Ahzab Quran 33:37 (Yusuf Ali ya fassara)

Balaguron sojiGyara

Zaid ya kasance “daya daga cikin mashahuran maharba daga cikin Sahabban Annabi.”[1] Ya yi yaki a Uhud, Trench da Khaibar, kuma ya kasance a wajen yakin Hudaibiyya. Lokacin da Muhammad ya kai hari Al-Muraysi, ya bar Zayd a baya a matsayin gwamna a Madina.[1]

Zaid ya jagoranci balaguron soji guda bakwai.[7]

  1. Al-Qarada a watan Nuwamba 624. Ya kama ayarin kayayyaki, amma mafi yawan ‘yan kasuwar Makka suka tsere.[7]
  2. Juma'a a watan Satumba 627.[21]
  3. Al-'Is a Oktoba 627.[21][9]
  4. At-Taraf,[7] wani hari a yankin Nakhl "a kan hanyar zuwa Iraki": [4]
  5. Wadi al-Qura. Zayd ya kai hari a yankin a watan Nuwamba 627, amma kabilar Fazara sun kai hari, inda suka kashe wasu daga cikin musulmi, yayin da aka dauke Zayd daga filin wasa. Zaid ya lashi takobin daukar fansa kuma, bayan ya warke daga raunin da ya samu a watan Janairun 628, ya koma Wadi al-Qura da wata babbar runduna. Wannan karon ya ci Fazari.[4]
  6. Hisma, ko Khushayn, a kan kabilar Judham[4]  a watan Oktoba 628.[21][22]
  7. Yakin Mu'uta a watan Satumba 629, inda aka kashe Zaid.[7]

A’isha ta ce: “Manzon Allah bai taba tura Zaidu bn Haritha cikin runduna ba tare da ya nada shi a matsayin shugabanta ba, ko da kuwa ya zauna bayan ya nada shi”.[7]

Rasuwa a Yakin Mu'uta da bayansaGyara

 
Mausoleum na Zaid bn Harithah, Ja'afar bn Abi Talib, da Abdullahi bn Rawahah a Al-Mazar kusa da Mu'tah, Jordan
 
Kabarin Zayd

Zaid ibn Harithah ya jagoranci ziyararsa ta ƙarshe a watan Satumba na shekara ta 629 M.Z. Rundunar musulmi mai mutane 3,000 ta tashi don kai farmaki a birnin Bosra na Rumawa. Duk da haka, sojojin Rumawa na "Greekawa 100,000 tare da mutane 100,000 daga Lakhm da Judham da Al-Qayn da Bahra' da Bali"[4]  suka tare su a wani kauye mai suna 'Mu'tah'. Zaid ya riqe ma’auni a wajen yaqin, har sai da mashi ya buge shi[7] sai ya zubar da jini har ya mutu.[4] Sauran shugabannin biyu, Ja’afar bn Abi Talib da ‘Abd Allāh bn Rawahah, suma an kashe su, aka fatattake sojojin musulmi.[4]

Da jin labarin mutuwar Zayd, Muhammad ya tafi wurin iyali. ‘Yar Zaidu ta yi kuka a gaban Manzon Allah, sai Manzon Allah ya yi kuka har sai da ya yi kuka, Sa’ad bn Ubada ya ce: “Manzon Allah mene ne wannan? Sai ya amsa da cewa, wannan ita ce kwadayin masoyi ga masoyi.[7]

ManazartaGyara

  1. 1.00 1.01 1.02 1.03 1.04 1.05 1.06 1.07 1.08 1.09 1.10 1.11 Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tarikh al-Rusul wa'l-Muluk. Translated by Landau-Tasseron, E. Volume 39: The Biographies of the Companions and Their Successors. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  2. 2.0 2.1 Muhammad ibn Ishaq, via Yunus ibn Bukayr, cited in Guillaume, A. (1960). New Light on the Life of Muhammad, pp. 27-28. Manchester: Manchester University Press.
  3. 3.0 3.1 Muhammad ibn Ishaq, via Yunus ibn Bukayr, cited in Kister, M. J. (1970). “A Bag of Meat.” A Study of an Early Hadith. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 33, 267-275. Archived 2009-01-24 at the Wayback Machine
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 4.9 Muhammad ibn Ishaq, Sirat Rasul Allah. Translated by Guillaume, A. (1955). The Life of Muhammad. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  5. Bukhari 5:58:169. Archived 2017-05-19 at the Wayback Machine Bukhari 7:67:407. Archived 2016-10-17 at the Wayback Machine
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 Muhammad ibn Sa'd. Kitab al-Tabaqat al-Kabir. Translated by Bewley, A. (1995). Volume 8: The Women of Madina. London: Ta-Ha Publishers.
  7. 7.00 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.04 7.05 7.06 7.07 7.08 7.09 7.10 7.11 7.12 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Sa'd3
  8. "Thomson, A. (2012). "Zaynab bint Jahsh" in Wives of the Prophet Muhammad (SAW)". Archived from the original on 2013-08-02. Retrieved 2013-07-29.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Watt, W. Montgomery (1956). Muhammad at Medina. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0195773071. One was a little-known expedition about September 627:96 (free online)
  10. Ibn Hisham note 918.
  11. Al-Jalalayn, Tafsir on Q33:36-38.
  12. Ismail ibn Kathir, Al-Sira Al-Nabawiyya. Translated by Le Gassick, T. (2000). The Life of the Prophet, p. 198. Reading, U.K.: Garnet Publishing.
  13. 13.0 13.1 Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari. Tarikh al-Rusul wa'l-Muluk. Translated by Fishbein, M. (1997). Volume 8: The Victory of Islam. Albany: State University of New York Press.
  14. See also Bukhari 9:93:516.
  15. Ibn Al-’Arabi, Ahkam Al-Quran (3/1543)
  16. Sirat-Un-Nabi, by Allama Shibli Nu'Mani
  17. Dr. Yasir Qadhi https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kbaorsGGFio
  18. For example Qadi Iyad ibn Musa al-Yahsubi
  19. "The Prophet's Marriage to Zaynab bint Jahsh". Islam Today. Archived from the original on 6 April 2015. Retrieved 2015-05-02.
  20. Ṭabarī; MICHAEL FISHBEIN (January 1997). The History of al-Tabari Vol. 8: The Victory of Islam: Muhammad at Medina A.D. 626-630/A.H. 5-8. State University of New York Press, Albany, NY www.sunypress.edu. p. xii. ISBN 978-0-7914-3149-8. (pdf link).
  21. 21.0 21.1 21.2 Hawarey, Dr. Mosab (2010). The Journey of Prophecy; Days of Peace and War (Arabic). Islamic Book Trust. Archived from the original on 2012-03-22.Note: Book contains a list of battles of Muhammad in Arabic, English translation available here
  22. Abū Khalīl, Shawqī (2003). Atlas of the Quran. Dar-us-Salam. p. 242. ISBN 978-9-9608-9754-7.

Kara karantawaGyara

  • Powers, David, Zayd, the little-known story of Muhammad's adopted son, Pennsylvania University Press, 2014
  • Watt, Montgomery, Muhammad at Mecca, Oxford University Press, 1953
  • Watt, Montgomery, Muhammad at Medina, Oxford University Press, 1956
  • Lings, Martin. The life of Muhammad from the earliest sources.