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United Airlines Flight 175 ya doka jikin South Tower na World Trade Center lokacin September 11 attacks na shekarar 2001 a Birnin New York.

Ta'addanci (da turanci Terrorism) shine, yin amfani da tada hankali ko kawo rikici batare da yin tunani ba, ko nuna ban-banci akan wanda zai shafa ba, da gangar domin sanya tsoro da tashin hankali acikin mutane; ko tsoratar dasu dan cimma burin siyasa ko addini.[1] Ana amfani da wanna ma'anar dan nuna kawo tashin hankali lokacin zaman lafiya ko yin yaƙi da non-combatants.[2] Kalmar "dan'ta'adda" da "ta'addanci" yasamo asali ne lokacin French Revolution daya faru a karshen karni na 18th[3] amma tayi tashe a bakunan jama'a ne a shekarar 1970 acikin rehotannin yasa labarai da littafan dake bayyana fadace-fadacen kasar Northern Ireland, da Basque Country da Palestine. Da karin samun yin suicide attacks daga 1980 zuwa abunda yayi sama, haka September 11 attacks a New York City da Washington, D.C. a 2001 yanuna tabbacin ta'addanci.

Babu cikakken ma'anar "ta'addanci " da kowa ya yarda dashi.[4][5] Ta'addanci charged term. Kuma akan yi amfani da sunan dan danganta wani abu da "ba hali maikyau" bane. Gwamnati da kungiyoyin na amfani da kalmar dan zagi ko da sukan masu hamayya dasu.[6][7][8][5] cibiyoyi maban-banta na, an tuhume su akan amfani da ta'addanci domin cimma kudurorinsu siyasarsu. Wadannan cibiyoyi kamar right-wing da left-wing na siyasa, nationalist groups, religious groups, revolutionaries da gwamnatoci masu mulki.[9] dokakin dake tabbatar da ta'addanci amatsayin laifi an samar dasu a yawan cin kasashe.[10] Babu matsaya akan ko ta'addanci laifin yaƙi ne ko a'a.[10][11]

Global Terrorism Database, da Jami'ar Maryland, College Park ke kula dashi, ta tara fiye da 61,000 na ayyukan ta'addanci da kungiyoyi suka aiwatar, da yayi sakamakon rasuwar mutane 140,000 daga tsakanin shekarar 2000 zuwa 2014.[12]

AnazarciGyara

  1. Fortna, Virginia Page (20 May 2015). "Do Terrorists Win? Rebels' Use of Terrorism and Civil War Outcomes". International Organization 69 (3): 519–556. doi:10.1017/S0020818315000089. 
  2. Wisnewski, J. Jeremy, ed. (2008). Torture, Terrorism, and the Use of Violence (also available as Review Journal of Political Philosophy Volume 6, Issue Number 1). Cambridge Scholars Publishing. p. 175. ISBN 978-1-4438-0291-8. 
  3. Stevenson, ed. by Angus (2010). Oxford dictionary of English (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-957112-3. 
  4. Halibozek, Edward P.; Jones, Andy; Kovacich, Gerald L. (2008). The corporate security professional's handbook on terrorism (illustrated ed.). Elsevier (Butterworth-Heinemann). pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-0-7506-8257-2. 
  5. 5.0 5.1 Robert Mackey (20 November 2009). "Can Soldiers Be Victims of Terrorism?". The New York Times. "Terrorism is the deliberate killing of innocent people, at random, in order to spread fear through a whole population and force the hand of its political leaders." 
  6. Sinclair, Samuel Justin; Antonius, Daniel (2012). The Psychology of Terrorism Fears. Oxford University Press, US. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-19-538811-4. 
  7. White, Jonathan R. (1 January 2016). Terrorism and Homeland Security. Cengage Learning. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-305-63377-3. 
  8. Ruthven, Malise; Nanji, Azim (24 April 2017). Historical Atlas of Islam. Harvard University Press. ISBN 978-0-674-01385-8. 
  9. "Terrorism". Encyclopædia Britannica. p. 3. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 "The Illusion of War: Is Terrorism a Criminal Act or an Act of War?". Mackenzie Institute. 
  11. Eviatar, Daphne (13 June 2013). "Is 'Terrorism' a War Crime Triable by Military Commission? Who Knows?". Huffington Post. 
  12. "Global Terrorism Index 2015". Institute for Economics and Peace. p. 33.