Bincike da yawa sun ba da rahoton raguwar yawan ƙwari. Mafi yawanci raguwar sun haɗa da raguwa da yawa, kodayake a wasu lokuta gabaɗayan nau'ikan ƙarin suna shuɗewa. Ragewar ba ta da nisa daga uniform. A wasu yankunan, an sami rahotannin karuwar yawan kwari, kuma wasu nau'ikan ƙwari suna da girma a duniya.

Raguwar Yawan Kwari
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na mortality (en) Fassara da reduction (en) Fassara
Facet of (en) Fassara Holocene extinction (en) Fassara da biodiversity loss (en) Fassara
An samu raguwar 5.2% na shekara-shekara a cikin halittun kwari masu tashi da aka samu a ma'ajin yanayi a Jamus - kusan kashi 75% asara cikin shekaru 26.
kwari

Wasu daga cikin ƙwari da abin ya fi shafa sun hada da ƙudan zuma, malam buɗe ido, asu, beetles, dragonflies da damselflies. An ba da shedar ƙaƙƙarfan ƙaƙƙarfan ƙaƙƙarfan ƙwari a cikin ƙarni na 20; Tunawa da abin da ya faru a fuskar iska misali ne.

Dalilai masu yiwuwa suna kama da sauran asarar halittu, tare da binciken gano: lalata muhalli, gami da aikin gona mai zurfi ; amfani da magungunan kashe qwari (musamman magungunan kashe qwari ); haɓaka birane, da haɓaka masana'antu; gabatar da nau'in ; da sauyin yanayi. Ba duk umarni na kwari ke shafa ta hanya ɗaya ba; Ƙungiyoyi da yawa batutuwa ne na taƙaitaccen bincike, kuma alkaluma masu kwatanta daga shekarun da suka gabata ba sa samuwa.

Dangane da raguwar da aka bayar, an ƙaddamar da ƙarin matakan kiyayewa masu alaƙa da kwari. A cikin 2018 gwamnatin Jamus ta ƙaddamar da "Shirin Ayyuka don Kariyar Kwari",[1] kuma a cikin 2019 ƙungiyar 27 ƙwararru da masu ilimin halittu sun rubuta buɗaɗɗen wasiƙa suna kira ga kafa bincike a Burtaniya "don ba da damar bincike mai zurfi na Haƙiƙanin barazanar rushewar muhalli sakamakon raguwar kwari ba tare da bata lokaci ba”.

Tarihi gyara sashe

 
Misalin 1902 na farar Dutsen Rocky . An ga waɗannan kwari a cikin gungun mutane da aka kiyasta fiye da mambobi biliyan 10 a ƙarshen 1875. Ba da daɗewa ba, yawansu ya ragu cikin sauri, tare da gani na ƙarshe da aka yi rikodin a cikin 1902, kuma nau'in ya bayyana a hukumance a cikin 2014.

Rikodin burbushin halittu game da kwari ya kai shekaru daruruwan miliyoyin shekaru. Yana nuna akwai ci gaba da matakan baya na duka sabbin nau'ikan bayyanarwa da bacewa. Wani lokaci sosai, rikodin kuma yana bayyana yana nuna ɓarkewar ƙwari, waɗanda aka fahimci abubuwan da suka faru na yanayi ne ke haifar da su kamar ayyukan volcanic ko tasirin meteor. Lamarin bacewar Permian-Triassic ya ga mafi girman matakin gushewar ƙwari, kuma Cretaceous–Paleogene na biyu mafi girma. Bambance-bambancen kwari ya sake farfadowa bayan halakar da yawa, sakamakon lokutan da sabbin nau'ikan suka samo asali tare da karuwa mai yawa, kodayake farfaɗo wa na iya ɗaukar miliyoyin shekaru.

Damuwa game da bacewar Holocene da ɗan adam ke haifarwa yana ƙaruwa tun ƙarshen ƙarni na 20, kodayake yawancin damuwar farko ba ta mai da hankali kan ƙwari ba. A cikin wani rahoto game da invertebrates na duniya, Ƙungiyar Zoological ta London ta ba da shawarar a cikin 2012 cewa yawan kwari ya ragu a duniya, yana shafar pollination da kayan abinci ga sauran dabbobi. An ƙiyasta cewa kusan kashi 20 cikin 100 na dukkan nau'in invertebrates suna fuskantar barazanar bacewa, kuma nau'in da ke da ƙarancin motsi da ƙananan jeri sun fi fuskantar haɗari.

Nazarin gano raguwar ƙwari ya kasance shekaru da yawa-bincike guda ɗaya ya bi diddigin raguwa daga 1840 zuwa 2013-amma shine sake buga 2017 na nazarin ajiyar yanayi na Jamus wanda ya ga batun ya sami tartsatsi a kafofin watsa labarai. Ƴan jarida sun ba da rahoton raguwa tare da kanun labarai masu ban tsoro, gami da "Insect Apocalypse ". Masanin ilimin halittu Dave Goulson ya gaya wa The Guardian a cikin 2017: "Muna da alama muna yin fasfot ɗin ƙasar da ba su da kyau ga yawancin nau'ikan rayuwa, kuma a halin yanzu muna kan hanya don Armageddon . Don yawancin karatu, abubuwa irin su yawa, biomass, da wadatar jinsuna galibi ana samun su suna raguwa ga wasu, amma ba duk wurare ba; wasu nau'ikan suna raguwa yayin da wasu ba sa. Ƙwarin da aka yi nazari ya kasance galibin malam buɗe ido da asu, kudan zuma, beetles, dragonflies, damselflies da dutsen dutse . Kowane nau'in yana tasiri ta hanyoyi daban-daban ta hanyoyi daban-daban ta hanyar canje-canje a cikin muhalli,kuma ba za a iya la'akari da cewa ana samun raguwa mai yawa a cikin ƙungiyoyin kwari daban-daban. Lokacin da yanayi ya canza, wasu nau'ikan suna daidaitawa cikin sauƙi ga canjin yayin da wasu ke ƙoƙarin tsira.

Sanarwar Maris 2019 ta ƙungiyar Entomological Society of America ta ce har yanzu ba a sami isassun bayanai da za su yi hasashen halakar kwari da ke kusa ba kuma wasu daga cikin hasashen da aka fitar na iya "an tsawaita da iyakokin bayanan ko kuma an wuce gona da iri. hyped". Ga wasu ƙungiyoyin ƙwari kamar wasu malam buɗe ido, asu, kudan zuma, da beetles, an sami raguwar yawa da bambancin a cikin binciken Turai. Waɗannan gabaɗaya sun haifar da tsarin faɗuwa gabaɗaya, amma akwai sauye-sauye ga nau'ikan nau'ikan nau'ikan mutum ɗaya a cikin ƙungiyoyi. Misali, tsirarun asu na Biritaniya sun zama ruwan dare gama gari. Sauran yankuna sun nuna ƙaruwa a wasu nau'in kwari, kodayake ba a san halin da ake ciki a yawancin yankuna a halin yanzu ba. Yana da wahala a tantance abubuwan da ke faruwa na dogon lokaci a yawan kwari ko bambancin saboda ba a san ma'aunin tarihi ga nau'ikan nau'ikan da yawa ba. Robust bayanai don tantance yankunan da ke hadarin ko jinsin mutane ba su da wani yanki ne na Arctic da yankuna masu zafi da kuma mafi yawan hemisphere.

Dalilai da sakamako gyara sashe

Abubuwan da aka ba da shawara gyara sashe

Ba a fahimci musabbabin raguwar yawan kwari ba. Wataƙila za su bambanta tsakanin ƙungiyoyin ƙwari daban-daban da yankuna na yanki.[2] Abubuwan da ake zargin suna da mahimmanci sune lalata wuraren zama ta hanyar noma mai tsanani da ƙauyuka, amfani da magungunan kashe ƙwari, an gabatar da nau'in nau'i,[3] sauyin yanayi,[4][5] eutrophication daga taki, gurbacewa, da hasken wucin gadi[6]

Yin amfani da ƙarin adadin maganin kashe ƙwari da ciyawa a kan amfanin gona ya shafi ba kawai nau'in ƙwarin da ba a yi niyya ba, har ma da tsire-tsire da suke ciyarwa. Sauye-sauyen yanayi da shigar da nau'ikan halittu masu ban sha'awa da ke gogayya da na asali sun sanya nau'in ƴan asalin cikin damuwa, kuma a sakamakon haka suna iya fadawa cikin cututtuka da ƙwayoyin cuta. Tsire-tsire suna girma da sauri a gaban ƙarar CO 2 amma sakamakon yanayin shuka ya ƙunshi ƙarancin abinci mai gina jiki.[7] Yayin da wasu nau'ikan irin su ƙuda da kyankyasai na iya karuwa a sakamakon haka, an kiyasta jimillar ƙwayoyin kwari suna raguwa da kusan 0.9 zuwa 2.5% a kowace shekara.

Tasiri gyara sashe

Rage yawan ƙwarin yana shafar yanayin halittu, da sauran yawan dabbobi, gami da mutane . Ƙwari suna kan "tsari da aikin tushe na yawancin halittun duniya." Wani nazari da aka yi a duniya na shekarar 2019 ya yi gargadin cewa, idan ba a sassauta ta da tsayuwar daka ba, raguwar za ta yi mummunar tasiri ga yanayin halittun duniya. Tsuntsaye da manyan dabbobi masu shayarwa waɗanda ke cin kwari na iya shafar kai tsaye ta hanyar raguwa. Rage yawan kwarin zai iya rage ayyukan muhallin da ke samarwa ta hanyar kwari masu fa'ida, kamar pollination na amfanin gona, da zubar da sharar halittu. A cewar Ƙungiyar Zoological ta Landan, baya ga irin wannan asarar ƙimar kayan aiki, raguwar kuma tana wakiltar hasarar raguwar darajar ainihin nau'in .

Shaida gyara sashe

Ma'auni gyara sashe

Ana amfani da ma'auni na musamman guda uku don kamawa da ba da rahoto kan raguwar ƙwari:

  • Abundance - a sauƙaƙe sanya jimlar adadin kwari ɗaya. Dangane da mahallin, yana iya komawa zuwa adadin ƙwari a cikin wani taro na musamman, a cikin yanki, ko jimillar kwari a duniya (ba tare da la'akari da wane nau'in mutane ke cikin ba).
  • Biomass - jimlar nauyin kwari (kuma ba tare da la'akari da nau'in ba).
  • Diversity - adadin extant nau'in kwari. Dangane da mahallin, raguwar rayayyun halittu na iya nufin wasu nau'ikan kwari sun ɓace a cikin gida, kodayake yana iya nufin nau'in sun ɓace gaba ɗaya a duk duniya.

Yawancin binciken da aka yi na bin diddigin kwarin suna ba da rahoton yawa kawai, wasu kan biomass kawai, wasu akan duka biyun, amma duk da haka wasu suna ba da rahoto akan duk ma'auni uku. Bayanai kai tsaye da ke da alaƙa da asarar bambance-bambance a matakin duniya sun fi ƙarancin yawa fiye da raguwar yawa ko raguwar ƙwayoyin halitta. Ƙididdiga don asarar bambance-bambance a matakin duniya yakan haɗa da fitar da bayanai daga yawa ko bayanan halitta; yayin da wani lokaci bincike ya nuna bacewar wani nau'in kwari a cikin gida, ainihin ɓarnar da aka yi a duniya yana da ƙalubale don ganewa. A cikin bita na 2019, David Wagner ya lura cewa a halin yanzu bacewar Holocene yana ganin asarar nau'ikan dabbobi a kusan sau 100 - 1,000 na al'ada na duniya, kuma binciken daban-daban ya sami irin wannan, ko yuwuwa ma saurin halakar ƙwari ga ƙwari. Wagner ya yanke shawarar cewa mai tsanani ko da yake wannan hasarar rayayyun halittu shine, raguwar yalwar halittu ne zai sami mafi girman tasirin muhalli.

Dangantaka tsakanin raguwar awo gyara sashe

A ƙa'idar yana yiwuwa ma'auni uku su kasance masu zaman kansu. Misali raguwar ƙwayoyin halitta bazai ƙunshi raguwar yawa ko bambance-bambance ba idan duk abin da ke faruwa shine kwarin na yau da kullun yana ƙara ƙarami. A aikace ko da yake, yawa & biomass suna da alaƙa da kusanci, yawanci suna nuna irin wannan matakin raguwa. Canji a cikin bambance-bambancen halittu sau da yawa, ko da yake ba koyaushe ba, daidai yake da sauran ma'auni guda biyu.

Rothamsted Insect Survey, UK gyara sashe

Rothamsted Insect Survey a Rothamsted Research, Harpenden, Ingila, ya fara sa ido kan tarkon kwarin a cikin Burtaniya a cikin 1964. A cewar ƙungiyar, waɗannan sun samar da "mafi dacewa daidaitattun bayanai na dogon lokaci akan kwari a duniya". Tarkunan suna "hanzarin juye- sauyen Hoovers yana gudana 24/7, suna ci gaba da yin samfurin iska don ƙaura", a cewar James Bell, jagoran binciken, a cikin wata hira a cikin 2017 tare da mujallar Kimiyya . Tsakanin 1970 da 2002, ƙwayar halittar ƙwarin da aka kama a cikin tarko ta ragu da sama da kashi biyu bisa uku a kudancin Scotland, ko da yake ta tsaya tsayin daka a Ingila. Masanan kimiyya sun yi hasashen cewa an riga an yi hasarar yawan kwari a Ingila a shekara ta 1970 (alkalumman da ke Scotland sun fi na Ingila da aka fara binciken), ko kuma aphids da sauran kwari sun karu a wurin idan babu masu farautarsu.

Dirzo et al. 2014 gyara sashe

 
Kwari tare da yanayin yawan jama'a da Ƙungiyar Ƙasa ta Duniya don Kare Halitta ta rubuta, don umarni Collembola, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, Odonata, da Orthoptera .

Wani nazari na 2014 da Rodolfo Dirzo da sauransu a Kimiyya suka lura: "Daga cikin duk kwari tare da IUCN - rubuce-rubucen yawan jama'a [203 nau'in kwari a cikin umarni biyar], 33% suna raguwa, tare da bambanci mai karfi tsakanin umarni." A cikin Burtaniya, "30 zuwa 60% na nau'ikan kowane tsari suna da raguwar jeri". Masu pollinators na kwari, "ana buƙatar kashi 75% na duk amfanin gonakin abinci na duniya", da alama "suna raguwa sosai a duniya a cikin yalwa da bambance-bambancen", wanda aka danganta a Arewacin Turai zuwa raguwar nau'in tsire-tsire da suka dogara da su. Binciken ya yi nuni da asarar ƙashin baya da invertebrates da ɗan Adam ya haifar a matsayin " Defaunation Anthropocene".

Nazarin Krefeld, Jamus gyara sashe

 
Tarkon malaise a cikin ma'ajin yanayin Jamus

A cikin 2013 Krefeld Entomological Society ya ba da rahoton "raguwa mai girma a cikin kwayoyin halittu na kwari" an kama shi a cikin tarkon malaise a cikin wuraren ajiyar yanayi 63 a Jamus (57 a Nordrhein-Westfalen, ɗaya a Rheinland-Pfalz da ɗaya a cikin Brandenburg ).[8] Wani bincike da aka buga a cikin 2017 ya ba da shawarar cewa, a cikin 1989-2016, an sami raguwar yanayin yanayi na 76%, da raguwar lokacin bazara na 82%, a cikin biomass na kwari a cikin shekaru 27 na binciken. Ragewar ta kasance "bayyane ba tare da la'akari da nau'in mazauni ba" kuma ba za a iya bayyana shi ta hanyar "sauyin yanayi, amfani da ƙasa, da halayen wurin zama ba". Marubutan sun ba da shawarar cewa ba wai kawai malam buɗe ido, asu da kudan zuma na daji suna nuna raguwa ba, kamar yadda binciken da aka yi a baya ya nuna, amma "al'ummar ƙwari masu tashi gaba ɗaya".

A cewar The Economist, binciken shine "na uku mafi yawan binciken kimiyya da aka ambata (na kowane nau'i) a cikin kafofin watsa labaru a cikin 2017". Masanin ilimin halittu na Burtaniya Simon Leather ya ce yana fatan rahotannin kafofin watsa labaru, bayan binciken, an yi karin gishiri game da "Armageddon na muhalli"; ya yi iƙirarin cewa Krefeld da sauran karatun ya kamata su zama faɗakarwa, kuma ana buƙatar ƙarin kudade don tallafawa karatun dogon lokaci. Marubutan binciken na Krefeld ba su iya danganta koma baya ga sauyin yanayi ko magungunan kashe kwari ba, in ji shi, amma sun ba da shawarar cewa an shiga aikin noma sosai. Yayin da yake amincewa da shawarar da suka yanke, ya yi gargadin cewa "bayanan sun dogara ne akan kwayoyin halitta, ba nau'in jinsi ba, kuma shafukan yanar gizon ba a ci gaba da yin samfurin ba kuma ba su da wakilci a duniya". Sakamakon Krefeld da sauran nazarin, gwamnatin Jamus ta kafa "Shirin Ayyuka don KariƘar Kwari".

El Yunque National Forest, Puerto Rico gyara sashe

Wani bincike na 2018 na El Yunque National Forest a Puerto Rico ya ba da rahoton raguwa a cikin arthropods, da kuma lizards, frogs, da tsuntsaye ( nau'in cin kwari ) bisa ma'auni a 1976 da 2012. Masanin ilimin halitta dan kasar Amurka David Wagner ya kira binciken a matsayin "kira" da "daya daga cikin labaran da suka fi tayar da hankali" da ya taba karantawa. Masu binciken sun ba da rahoton "asara na kwayoyin halitta tsakanin kashi 98% zuwa 78% na kiwo na ƙasa da kuma arthropods a cikin shekaru 36, tare da asarar shekara tsakanin 2.7% da 2.2%". An danganta raguwa da hauhawar matsakaicin zafin jiki; nau'in ƙwari na wurare masu zafi ba za su iya jurewa yanayin zafi da yawa ba. Babban marubucin, Brad Lister, ya gaya wa The Economist cewa masu binciken sun kadu da sakamakon: "Ba za mu iya yarda da sakamakon farko ba. Na tuna [a cikin 1970s] malam buɗe ido a ko'ina bayan ruwan sama. A ranar farko da baya [a cikin 2012], na ga da kyar."

Netherlands da Switzerland gyara sashe

A cikin 2019 binciken da Statistics Netherlands da Vlinderstichting (Yaren mutanen Holland Butterfly Conservation) na lambobin malam buɗe ido a cikin Netherlands daga 1890 zuwa 2017 ya ba da rahoton an ƙiyasta raguwar kashi 84 cikin ɗari. Lokacin da aka bincika ta nau'in mazaunin, an gano yanayin ya daidaita a cikin ciyayi da gandun daji a cikin 'yan shekarun nan amma raguwa ya ci gaba a cikin ƙasa . An danganta raguwar ta ne sakamakon sauye-sauyen amfani da filaye saboda ingantattun hanyoyin noma wanda ya haifar da raguwar ciyawa. Haɓaka kwanan nan a wasu al'ummomi da aka rubuta a cikin binciken an danganta su da canje-canjen (mai kiyayewa) a cikin kula da ƙasa don haka haɓakar mazaunin da ya dace.[9][10][11] Wani rahoto da Cibiyar Nazarin Kimiyyar Halitta ta Switzerland ta fitar a watan Afrilun 2019 ya ba da rahoton cewa kashi 60 cikin 100 na ƙwarin da aka yi nazari a Switzerland na cikin haɗari, galibi a wuraren noma da na ruwa; cewa an sami raguwar kashi 60 cikin 100 na tsuntsaye masu cin kwari tun 1990 a yankunan karkara; kuma an bukaci daukar matakin gaggawa don magance musabbabin.

2019 Sánchez-Bayo da Wyckhuys bita gyara sashe

 
Sai dai harajin da ake ɗaukarsa a matsayin mai fa'ida ko mai kwarjini, kamar dragonfly mai hoto, akwai ƙarancin ƙima na yawan jama'a don takamaiman nau'in kwari.

Wani bita na 2019 da Francisco Sánchez-Bayo da Kris AG Wyckhuys suka yi a cikin mujallar Kariyar Halittu ta yi nazarin binciken ƙwaro na dogon lokaci guda 73 waɗanda suka nuna raguwa, galibinsu a Amurka da Yammacin Turai. [12] Yayin da aka lura da ƙaruwar yawan jama'a ga wasu nau'in ƙwari a wasu yankuna na musamman, marubutan sun ba da rahoton asarar 2.5% na kwayoyin halitta a kowace shekara. Sun rubuta cewa bita "ya bayyana raguwar raguwar ban mamaki wanda zai iya haifar da bacewar 40% na nau'in kwari a duniya a cikin ƴan shekarun da suka gabata", ƙarshe da aka kalubalanci. Sun lura da gazawar bita, wato binciken ya fi mayar da hankali ne kan rukunin kwari masu shahara (malabari da asu, ƙudan zuma, dodanniya da ƙwaro); An yi kaɗan akan ƙungiyoyi kamar Diptera (ƙuda), Orthoptera (wanda ya haɗa da ciyawa da crickets ), da Hemiptera (irin su aphids ); bayanai daga baya wanda za a iya ƙididdige abubuwan da ke faruwa ba su da yawa; kuma bayanan da ke wanzu galibi suna da alaƙa da Yammacin Turai da Arewacin Amurka, tare da tropics da kudancin kogin (manyan wuraren ƙwari) ba su da wakilci.

An yi tambaya kan hanyoyin da harshe mai ƙarfi na bita. Mahimman kalmomi da aka yi amfani da su don binciken bayanan wallafe-wallafen kimiyya sune [kwari *] da [raguwa *] + [bincike], wanda yawanci ya mayar da binciken gano raguwa, ba ƙaruwar ba. Sánchez-Bayo ya amsa cewa kashi biyu bisa uku na binciken da aka yi bitar sun fito ne daga wajen binciken bayanai. David Wagner ya rubuta cewa yawancin bincike sun nuna "babu wani gagarumin canje-canje a cikin lambobin ƙwari ko haɗari", duk da nuna rashin amincewa da "binciken da ba shi da mahimmanci". A cewar Wagner, babban kuskuren takardun shine daidaitawa "40% raguwar yanayin ƙasa ko yawan jama'a daga ƙananan ƙasashe masu yawan jama'a da kusan rabin ko fiye na ƙasarsu a aikin noma zuwa 'kashe kashi 40% na nau'in ƙwari a duniya fiye da yadda ya kamata. shekaru masu zuwa." Ya rubuta cewa bacewar kashi 40 cikin 100 zai kai asarar kusan nau'ikan miliyan 2.8, yayin da kasa da nau'in kwari 100 aka san sun bace. Duk da yake gaskiya ne cewa kwari suna raguwa, ya rubuta, bita ba ta ba da shaida don tabbatar da ƙarshe ba. Sauran sukar sun haɗa da cewa marubutan sun danganta raguwa da wasu barazana ta musamman dangane da nazarin da suka yi bitar, ko da kuwa waɗannan binciken sun nuna kawai barazanar maimakon bayyana su a fili. Masanin ilimin halittu na Biritaniya Georgina Mace ya yarda cewa bitar ba ta da cikakkun bayanai da ake buƙata don tantance halin da ake ciki, amma ta ce yana iya yin la'akari da ƙimar raguwar ƙwari a cikin wurare masu zafi .

A cikin kimanta tsarin nazarin, edita a cikin Halittar Halittar Duniya ta Duniya ta bayyana cewa, "Binciken wallafe-wallafen marasa son rai har yanzu zai sami raguwa, amma ƙiyasin da aka danganta da wannan hanya ta 'unidirectional' ba ta tabbata ba. Komon et al. an yi la'akari da binciken "mai faɗakarwa ta hanyar mummunan ƙira" saboda da'awar da ba ta da tushe da al'amurran da suka shafi hanyoyin da suka lalata ingantaccen kimiyyar kiyayewa. Sun bayyana abin da ake kira ɓarna a cikin binciken yana wakiltar asarar nau'ikan a takamaiman wurare ko yankuna, kuma bai kamata a fitar da su azaman bacewa a ma'auni mafi girma na yanki. Sun kuma lissafta cewa an yi amfani da nau'ikan IUCN Red List ba daidai ba kamar yadda kwari ba su da wani bayani game da raguwar yanayin da aka rarraba su azaman samun raguwar 30% daga marubutan binciken. Simmons et al. Har ila yau, yana da damuwa game da sharuddan bincike na bita, ra'ayi na yanki, ƙididdige ƙimar ƙarewa, da ƙima mara kyau na direbobi na canjin jama'a yana bayyana yayin da yake "bita mai amfani na raguwar yawan kwari a Arewacin Amirka da Turai, bai kamata a yi amfani da shi azaman shaida ba. yanayin yawan ƙwari na duniya da kuma barazanar."

Rahoton kima na duniya game da bambancin halittu da sabis na muhalli gyara sashe

Platform na Kimiyya-Tsarin Manufofin Gwamnati akan Diversity da Sabis na Muhalli ya ba da rahoton kimarta game da bambancin halittun duniya a cikin 2019. Takaitaccen bayaninsa game da rayuwar ƙwari shine "Ba a san yanayin duniya na yawan ƙwari ba amma an sami saurin raguwa a wasu wurare. . . . Sau da yawa ana ba da rahoton raguwar yawan kwari a cikin gida irin su kudan zuma na daji da malam buɗe ido, kuma yawan kwari ya ragu da sauri a wasu wuraren ko da ba tare da an sami sauyi mai yawa na amfanin ƙasa ba, amma ba a san girman irin wannan raguwar a duniya ba. . . . Matsakaicin nau'in ƙwari da ke barazanar bacewa shine babban rashin tabbas, amma akwai shaidun da ke goyan bayan ƙiyasin 10 bisa ɗari."

van Klink et al. 2020 gyara sashe

Wani bincike-bincike na 2020 na van Klink da sauransu, wanda aka buga a cikin mujallar Kimiyya, ya gano cewa kwari a duniya suna raguwa da yawa a cikin kusan kashi 9% a cikin shekaru goma, yayin da yawan ƙwari na ruwa ya bayyana yana ƙaruwa da 11. % a kowace shekara goma. Binciken ya yi nazarin nazarin dogon lokaci guda 166, wanda ya ƙunshi shafuka 1676 daban-daban a duk faɗin duniya.[13] Ya sami bambance-bambance masu yawa a cikin raguwar kwari dangane da yankin - marubutan sun ɗauki wannan alamar bege, kamar yadda ya nuna abubuwan gida, gami da ƙoƙarin kiyayewa, na iya yin babban bambanci. Labarin ya bayyana cewa karuwar kwarin na iya kasancewa a wani bangare na ƙoƙarin tsaftace tafkuna da koguna, kana kuma yana iya alaka da dumamar yanayi da bunƙasar samar da kayan aiki na farko sakamakon karuwar kayan abinci mai gina jiki.[14] Duk da haka, zaɓin bayanai da hanyoyin da ke cikin labarin an soki su a cikin haruffa e-wasiku hudu a Kimiyya, wani sharhin fasaha da aka buga a Kimiyya da kuma ra'ayi daya da aka buga a Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Ruwa.[15]

Crossley et al. 2020 gyara sashe

A cikin takarda na 2020 a cikin mujallar Nature Ecology & Evolution wanda ya yi nazarin ƙwari da sauran arthropods a duk wuraren Binciken Muhalli na Tsawon Lokaci (LTER) a cikin Amurka, marubutan sun sami raguwa, wasu suna ƙaruwa, amma gabaɗaya ƙarancin asara a cikin arthropod yawa ko bambancin. Wannan binciken ya sami ɗan bambanta a wuri, amma gabaɗaya lambobi masu tsayi na kwari. Kamar yadda aka gani a cikin takarda, marubutan ba su yi wani zaɓi na fifiko na arthropod taxa ba. Maimakon haka, sun gwada hasashe cewa idan raguwar arthropod ya kasance mai yawa, za a gano shi a cikin shirye-shiryen kulawa da ba a tsara su ba don neman raguwa. Suna ba da shawarar cewa jimlar adadin kwari sun bambanta amma gabaɗaya ba su nuna wani canji ba. Duk da haka, an soki tsarin labarin a cikin labaran biyu na "Al'amura Tashi" a cikin Halittu Ecology da Juyin Halitta, saboda ya kasa yin la'akari da canje-canje a cikin samfurin wuri da kuma ƙoƙarin samfurin a shafukan LTER da kuma tasirin yanayin gwaji, yana da rashin daidaituwa a cikin tsarin tsarin bayanai kuma ya dogara da ƙarancin ƙididdiga na ƙididdiga. [16] [17]

Tabbataccen shaida gyara sashe

 
Bug spplats, New South Wales, 2009

Waɗanda suka tuno da alama mafi girman yawan kwari sun bayar da shaida ta ƙaƙƙarfan ƙaƙƙarfan ƙaƙƙarfan ƙaƙƙarfan a ƙarni na 20. Masanin ilimin halitta Simon Fata ya tuna cewa, a cikin 1970s, tagogin gidajen Yorkshire da ya ziyarta a zagayen takardan safiya da safe za su kasance "an lullube su da asu damisa" wanda hasken gidan ke jan hankali a cikin dare. Asu na damisa a yanzu sun bace sosai daga yankin. Wani labari da masanin muhalli Michael McCarthy ya sake tunawa game da bacewar "haɗarin dusar ƙanƙara asu", abin da aka saba gani a Burtaniya a cikin 1970s da baya. Guguwar dusar ƙanƙara asu ta faru ne lokacin da asu suka taru da yawa da za su iya fitowa kamar guguwa a cikin fitilun mota. Wani bincike na 2019 da Mongabay na masana ilimin halittu 24 da ke aiki a nahiyoyi shida ya gano cewa a kan sikelin 0 zuwa 10, tare da 10 mafi muni, duk masanan kimiyyar sun ƙididdige tsananin raguwar ƙwayar a matsayin tsakanin 8-10.

Lamarin da ya faru na gilashin gilashin mota - gilashin mota da aka rufe da matattun kwari bayan ko da ɗan gajeren tafiya ta cikin yankunan karkara a Turai da Arewacin Amirka - da alama ma sun ɓace; a cikin karni na 21st, direbobi sun gano cewa za su iya tafiya duk lokacin rani ba tare da lura da shi ba. John Rawlins, shugaban invertebrate zoology a Carnegie Museum of Natural History, ya yi hasashe a cikin 2006 cewa ƙarin ƙirar motar motsa jiki na iya bayyana canjin. Masanin ilimin halittu Martin Sorg ya gaya wa Kimiyya a cikin 2017: "Ina tuka Land Rover, tare da yanayin iska na firiji, kuma kwanakin nan yana da tsabta." Rawlins ya kara da cewa, kasa kusa da manyan tituna masu saurin gaske ta zama mafi kyawu don haka ba ta da kyau ga kwari. A shekara ta 2004 kungiyar Royal Society for the Protection of Birds ta shirya babban kididdigar bug, ta ba da "splatometers" ga masu aikin sa kai kimanin 40,000 don taimakawa wajen kirga adadin ƙwarin da ke ƙaro da lambobin su . Sun sami matsakaita na ƙwari guda ɗaya a cikin mil 5 (8 km), wanda bai kai yadda ake tsammani ba.

liyafa gyara sashe

Martani gyara sashe

A cikin Maris 2019 Chris D. Thomas da sauran masana kimiyya sun rubuta a cikin martani ga tsinkayar "Insectageddon" na Sánchez-Bayo, "muna nuna girmamawa ga cewa lissafin mutuwar kwari na iya zama dan karin gishiri". Sun yi kira da a yi “tunanin haɗin gwiwa” don mayar da martani ga raguwar ƙwari, tare da samun ƙwaƙƙwaran bayanai fiye da yadda ake samu a halin yanzu. Sun yi gargadin cewa yawan mayar da hankali kan rage amfani da magungunan kashe qwari ba zai yi tasiri ba domin ƙwarin sun riga sun haifar da asarar kashi 35 cikin 100 na amfanin gona, wanda zai iya haura zuwa kashi 70 cikin 100 idan ba a yi amfani da magungunan kashe qwari ba. Idan an rama asarar amfanin amfanin gona ta hanyar faɗaɗa ƙasar noma tare da sare bishiyoyi da sauran lalata wuraren zama, zai iya tsananta raguwar kwari. A cikin Burtaniya, masana ilimin halittu 27 da masana ilimin halitta sun sanya hannu kan wata buɗaɗɗiyar wasiƙa zuwa ga The Guardian a cikin Maris 2019, suna kira ga kafa binciken Birtaniyya da su binciki raguwar. Waɗanda suka sanya hannu sun hada da Simon Fata, Stuart Reynolds (tsohon shugaban kungiyar Royal Entomological Society ), John Krebs da John Lawton (dukansu tsoffin shugabannin Hukumar Binciken Muhalli na Halitta ), Paul Brakefield, George McGavin, Michael Hassell, Dave Goulson, Richard Harrington (edita). na mujallar Royal Entomological Society, Antenna ), Kathy Willis da Jeremy Thomas .

A cikin Afrilun 2019, don mayar da martani ga binciken da aka yi game da raguwar kwari, Carol Ann Duffy ta fitar da ƙasidu da yawa, da kanta da sauransu, don nuna ƙarshen wa'adinta na matsayin mawaƙin Burtaniya da kuma yin daidai da zanga-zangar a wannan watan ta ƙungiyar masu fafutukar kare muhalli. Mawakan sun hada da Fiona Benson, Imtiaz Dharker, Matthew Hollis, Michael Longley, Daljit Nagra, Alice Oswald, da Denise Riley . Gudunmawar Duffy ita ce "Kudan zuman Dan Adam".

Hanyoyin magancewa gyara sashe

Yawancin yunƙurin duniya na riƙe nau'ikan halittu a matakin ƙasa ana ba da rahoto ga Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya a zaman wani ɓangare na Yarjejeniyar Bambancin Halittu . Rahotanni yawanci suna bayyana manufofi don hana asarar bambance-bambancen gabaɗaya, kamar adana wuraren zama, maimakon ƙayyadaddun matakan kare takamaiman haraji. Masu yin pollin sune babban keɓanta ga wannan, tare da ƙasashe da yawa suna ba da rahoton ƙoƙarin rage raguwar ƙwari da suke yi.[18]

Bayan 2017 Krefeld da sauran karatu, ma'aikatar muhalli ta Jamus, BMU, ta fara shirin Aiki don Kariyar Kwari ( Aktionsprogramm Insektenschutz ). Manufar su sun haɗa da haɓaka wuraren zama na kwari a cikin yanayin noma, da rage amfani da magungunan kashe ƙwari, gurɓataccen haske, da gurɓataccen ƙasa a cikin ƙasa da ruwa.

Wani bincike ya nuna cewa abubuwan da suka fi tasiri, wadanda za a iya magance su, su ne asara da gurbacewar muhalli, magungunan kashe kwari, da sauyin yanayi. Ya ba da shawarar kafa manufofi ta hanyar gwamnatoci a kowane mataki a duniya waɗanda ke magance waɗannan ta hanya mai ma'ana.

Gane matsayin arthropods

A cikin takarda na 2019, masana kimiyya sun jera bincike 100 da wasu nassoshi da ke nuna cewa kwari na iya taimakawa wajen cimma burin ci gaba mai dorewa (SDG) wanda Majalisar Ɗinkin Duniya ta amince da shi a cikin 2015. Sun bayar da hujjar cewa, ya kamata al'ummar duniya masu tsara manufofinta su ci gaba da sauye-sauye daga ganin kwari a matsayin abokan gaba, zuwa kallon da ake yi wa kwari a matsayin "masu samar da ayyukan muhalli", kuma ya kamata su ci gaba da kallon ƙwari a matsayin "maganin SDGs" (kamar su. amfani da su azaman abinci da sarrafa kwaro na halitta ).[19][20][21][22][23] Jama'a a ƙasashe da yawa ba su san fa'idodi da ayyukan da ƙwari ke bayarwa ba, kuma mummunan ra'ayi game da ƙwari ya yaɗu.

Gilashin daji
 
Furen furanni tare da rinjayen furannin masara tsakanin gonakin hatsi azaman gwajin filin a Jamus

A wildflower strip [de] wani tsiri ne na ƙasar da aka shuka tare da tsaba na nau'in tsire-tsire masu tsire-tsire masu rarrafe-da kuma nau'in furanni masu pollinator, yawanci a gefen filin noma, wanda aka yi niyya don ci gaba da ɗimbin halittu na gida, adana ƙwari, maido da tsuntsayen gonaki da kuma magance mummunan sakamakon haɓaka aikin noma.

Rage amfani da magungunan kashe ƙwari

Bayan dakatar da asarar wurin zama da rarrabuwa da iyakance canjin yanayi, ana buƙatar rage amfani da magungunan kashe qwari don kiyaye yawan kwari. An gano magungunan kashe qwari da nisa daga tushen aikace-aikacensu da kuma wajabcin kawar da amfani da magungunan kashe ƙwari da doka ta ba da izini, da kuma rage yawan amfani da magungunan kashe qwari, na iya amfanar ƙwari sosai. Matakan da suka danganci abinci / noma na iya zama mafita.

Lambu da ilimi

Ƙungiyar Entomological Society of America ta ba da shawarar cewa mutane suna kula da bambancin tsire-tsire a cikin lambunansu kuma su bar "mazauni na halitta, kamar ganyayen ganye da matattun itace".[24] Ƙungiyar Xerces ƙungiya ce ta muhalli ta Amurka wacce ke yin haɗin gwiwa tare da hukumomin tarayya da na jihohi, masana kimiyya, masu ilimi, da ƴan ƙasa don haɓaka kiyaye invertebrates, bincike mai amfani, bayar da shawarwari, wayar da kan jama'a da ilimi. Ayyukan da ke ci gaba da gudana sun haɗa da gyara wuraren zama ga nau'ikan da ke cikin haɗari, wayar da kan jama'a game da mahimmancin masu yin pollin na asali, da maido da kiyaye magudanan ruwa. Sun kasance suna yin ƙidayar godiya ta Sarkin Yamma wanda ya haɗa da lura daga masu sa kai tsawon shekaru 22.[25]

An ba da shawarar cewa "Saboda kwari da yawa suna buƙatar ɗan sarari don tsira, har ma da juzu'in juzu'i na lawns zuwa ciyayi kaɗan da ke damun ciyayi - ka ce 10% - na iya ba da gudummawa sosai ga kiyayewar ƙwari, yayin da lokaci guda rage farashin kiyaye lawn".[26]

An ba da shawarar ƙarin ɗaukar hoto.[27]

Yankunan maƙewa

Yankunan da ke kewaye da wuraren ajiyar yanayi inda aka rage amfani da magungunan kashe qwari an ba da shawarar shigar da su cikin matakan kariya. Masana kimiyya da suka ba da shawarar wannan matakin sun gudanar da wani bincike na fage a Jamus kuma sun gano cewa samfuran kwari a waɗannan yankuna sun gurɓata da ~ 16 magungunan kashe ƙwari a matsakaici, daidai da yankin da ake noman noma a cikin radius na kilomita 2.[28]

Rushewar nazarin ƙwari gyara sashe

Ɗaya daga cikin dalilan da binciken da aka yi a cikin raguwa ya iyakance shi ne cewa ilimin ilimin halitta da ilimin lissafi suna cikin raguwa. A taron 2019 Entomology Congress, babban masanin ilimin halitta Jürgen Gross ya ce "mu kanmu nau'in halittu ne" yayin da Wolfgang Wägele - ƙwararre kan ilimin dabbobi - ya ce "a cikin jami'o'in mun yi asarar kusan dukkanin masana". Gabaɗaya darussan nazarin halittu a kwaleji suna ba da kulawa ga kwari, kuma adadin masanan ilimin halitta waɗanda ke ƙware a ilimin halittar ɗan adam yana raguwa yayin da ƙwarewa kamar ilimin halittar jini ke haɓaka. Bugu da kari, binciken da ke gudanar da bincike kan koma bayan da aka yi ana yin shi ne ta hanyar tattara ƙwari da kashe su cikin tarko, wanda ke haifar da matsalar da'a ga masu kiyayewa.

Manazarta gyara sashe

  1. Boyes, Douglas H.; Fox, Richard; Shortall, Chris R.; Whittaker, Robert J. (2019). "Bucking the trend: the diversity of Anthropocene 'winners' among British moths". Frontiers of Biogeography. 11 (3). doi:10.21425/F5FBG43862.
  2. Wagner, David L. (2020-01-07). "Insect Declines in the Anthropocene". Annual Review of Entomology. 65 (1): 457–480. doi:10.1146/annurev-ento-011019-025151. ISSN 0066-4170. Archived from the original on 2022-04-28. Retrieved 2022-04-28.
  3. Eggleton, Paul (2020). "The State of the World's Insects". Annual Review of Environment and Resources. 45: 61–82. doi:10.1146/annurev-environ-012420-050035.
  4. Light pollution is key 'bringer of insect apocalypse' The Guardian, 2019
  5. Boyes, Douglas H.; Evans, Darren M.; Fox, Richard; Parsons, Mark S.; Pocock, Michael J. O. (August 2021). "Street lighting has detrimental impacts on local insect populations". Science Advances (in Turanci). doi:10.1126/sciadv.abi8322. PMC 8386932 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 34433571 Check |pmid= value (help).
  6. Light pollution is key 'bringer of insect apocalypse' The Guardian, 2019
  7. Welti, Ellen A. R.; Roeder, Karl A.; Beurs, Kirsten M. de; Joern, Anthony; Kaspari, Michael (31 March 2020). "Nutrient dilution and climate cycles underlie declines in a dominant insect herbivore". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (in Turanci). 117 (13): 7271–7275. doi:10.1073/pnas.1920012117. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 7132292. PMID 32152101.
  8. "Zum Insektenbestand in Deutschland: Reaktionen von Fachpublikum und Verbänden auf eine neue Studie" (PDF). Wissenschaftliche Dienste, Deutscher Bundestag (German parliament). 13 November 2017. p. 5.
  9. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named vanStrien2019
  10. "Over 80% decline in butterflies since late 1800s". Statistics Netherlands (Centraal Bureau voor de Statistiek. 29 March 2019. Archived from the original on 30 March 2019.
  11. "Veel minder vlinders". De Telegraaf. 29 March 2019. Archived from the original on 28 April 2022. Retrieved 28 April 2022.
  12. "Fig. 1.
  13. "Meta-analysis reveals declines in terrestrial but increases in freshwater insect abundances". April 24, 2020. Archived from the original on 2020-05-03.
  14. Desquilbet, Marion; Gaume, Laurence; Grippa, Manuela; Céréghino, Régis; Humbert, Jean-François; Bonmatin, Jean-Marc; Cornillon, Pierre-André; Maes, Dirk; Dyck, Hans Van; Goulson, David (2020-12-18). "Comment on 'Meta-analysis reveals declines in terrestrial but increases in freshwater insect abundances'". Science. 370 (6523): eabd8947. doi:10.1126/science.abd8947. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 33335036.
  15. Jähnig, Sonja C.; et., al. (2021). "Revisiting global trends in freshwater insect biodiversity". Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Water. 8 (2). doi:10.1002/wat2.1506.
  16. Welti, E.A.R., Joern, A., Ellison, A.M. et al.
  17. Desquilbet, M., Cornillon, PA., Gaume, L. et al.
  18. Forister, Matthew L.; Pelton, Emma M.; Black, Scott H. (2019). "Declines in insect abundance and diversity: We know enough to act now". Conservation Science and Practice (in Turanci). 1 (8): e80. doi:10.1111/csp2.80. ISSN 2578-4854.
  19. "Sustainable Development Goals". Division for Sustainable Development Goals, United Nations.
  20. Haaland, Christine; Naisbit, Russell E.; Bersier, Louis-Félix (2011). "Sown wildflower strips for insect conservation: a review". Insect Conservation and Diversity (in Turanci). 4 (1): 60–80. doi:10.1111/j.1752-4598.2010.00098.x. ISSN 1752-4598.
  21. Ganser, Dominik; Mayr, Barbara; Albrecht, Matthias; Knop, Eva (December 2018). "Wildflower strips enhance pollination in adjacent strawberry crops at the small scale". Ecology and Evolution. 8 (23): 11775–11784. doi:10.1002/ece3.4631. ISSN 2045-7758.
  22. Schmidt, Annika; Fartmann, Thomas; Kiehl, Kathrin; Kirmer, Anita; Tischew, Sabine (1 February 2022). "Effects of perennial wildflower strips and landscape structure on birds in intensively farmed agricultural landscapes". Basic and Applied Ecology (in Turanci). 58: 15–25. doi:10.1016/j.baae.2021.10.005. ISSN 1439-1791.
  23. Grass, Ingo; Albrecht, Jörg; Farwig, Nina; Jauker, Frank (1 December 2021). "Plant traits and landscape simplification drive intraspecific trait diversity of Bombus terrestris in wildflower plantings". Basic and Applied Ecology (in Turanci). 57: 91–101. doi:10.1016/j.baae.2021.10.002. ISSN 1439-1791.
  24. Basset, Yves; Lamarre, Greg P. A. (28 June 2019). "Toward a world that values insects". Science (in Turanci). doi:10.1126/science.aaw7071.
  25. "Record Low Number of Overwintering Monarch Butterflies in California—They Need Your Help!". Xerces Society.
  26. Kawahara, Akito Y.; Reeves, Lawrence E.; Barber, Jesse R.; Black, Scott H. (12 January 2021). "Opinion: Eight simple actions that individuals can take to save insects from global declines". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (in Turanci). 118 (2). doi:10.1073/pnas.2002547117. ISSN 0027-8424.
  27. Samways, Michael J.; Barton, Philip S.; Birkhofer, Klaus; Chichorro, Filipe; Deacon, Charl; Fartmann, Thomas; Fukushima, Caroline S.; Gaigher, René; Habel, Jan C.; Hallmann, Caspar A.; Hill, Matthew J.; Hochkirch, Axel; Kaila, Lauri; Kwak, Mackenzie L.; Maes, Dirk; Mammola, Stefano; Noriega, Jorge A.; Orfinger, Alexander B.; Pedraza, Fernando; Pryke, James S.; Roque, Fabio O.; Settele, Josef; Simaika, John P.; Stork, Nigel E.; Suhling, Frank; Vorster, Carlien; Cardoso, Pedro (1 February 2020). "Solutions for humanity on how to conserve insects". Biological Conservation (in Turanci). 242: 108427. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2020.108427. ISSN 0006-3207.
  28. Brühl, Carsten A.; Bakanov, Nikita; Köthe, Sebastian; Eichler, Lisa; Sorg, Martin; Hörren, Thomas; Mühlethaler, Roland; Meinel, Gotthard; Lehmann, Gerlind U. C. (16 December 2021). "Direct pesticide exposure of insects in nature conservation areas in Germany". Scientific Reports (in Turanci). 11 (1): 24144. Bibcode:2021NatSR..1124144B. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-03366-w. ISSN 2045-2322. PMC 8677746 Check |pmc= value (help). PMID 34916546 Check |pmid= value (help).

Ci gaba da karatu gyara sashe