Matsugunni

wajen da mutane suke da zama

A labarin kasa, kididdiga da ilmin kayan tarihi, wurin zama, yanki ko wurin da jama'a ke zama al'umma ce da mutane ke rayuwa a cikinta. Rukuni na matsuguni na iya kasancewa daga ƙananan gidaje da aka haɗa su zuwa manyan biranen da ke kewaye da biranen . Kuma Matsugunan na iya haɗawa da ƙauyuka, ƙauyuka, garuruwa da birane . Matsala na iya samun sanannun kaddarorin tarihi kamar kwanan wata ko zamanin da aka fara zaunar da shi, ko kuma wasu mutane ne suka fara zama.

Ƙananan garin Flora, Oregon a Amurka ba shi da haɗin gwiwa, amma ana daukarsa a matsayin wuri mai yawan jama'a.
Filin fili na ƙauyen Pajuniemi a cikin Sastamala, Pirkanmaa, Finland .
Taos Pueblo, tsohuwar pueblo ce ta kabilar Pueblo 'yar asalin Amirka ta Amirka ta Taos . Yana da kusan shekaru 1000 kuma yana kwance kusan mil 1 (1.6 km) arewa da zamani birnin Taos, New Mexico .

A cikin fagen ƙirar ƙira na geospatial, ƙauyuka sune "birni, gari, ƙauye ko kuma sauran haɓakar gine-gine inda mutane ke rayuwa da aiki".

Matsugunan sun haɗa da gine-ginen gine-gine kamar tituna, shinge, tsarin filin, bankunan iyaka da ramuka, tafkuna, wuraren shakatawa da dazuzzuka, injinan iska da na ruwa, gidajen manor, moats da majami'u . [1]

TarihiGyara

Tsofaffin ragowar da aka samu na gine-gine sun hada da ragowar bukkoki da aka yi da laka da kuma rassa kusan 17,000. BC a wurin Ohalo (yanzu ƙarƙashin ruwa) kusa da bakin Tekun Galili . Natufian sun gina gidaje, kuma a cikin Levant, kusan 10,000 BC Ragowar ƙauyuka kamar ƙauyuka sun zama ruwan dare gama gari bayan ƙirƙirar aikin noma.

A tarihin shimfidar wuriGyara

 
Wasu rukunin yanar gizo na iya daina amfani. An yi amfani da wannan wurin a Estonia don matsugunin ɗan adam a cikin rabin na biyu na ƙarni na farko kuma ana ɗaukarsa rikodin tarihin archaeological, wanda zai iya ba da bayani kan yadda mutane suka rayu a wancan lokacin.

Tarihin shimfidar wuri yana nazarin nau'in (kwayoyin halittar jiki) na ƙauyuka - misali ko an tarwatsa su ko kuma an raba su. Ta haka ne za a iya ɗaukar ilimin halittar birni a matsayin nau'i na musamman na nazarin al'adu da tarihi. Kuma Za'a iya ba da odar matsuguni ta girman, tsakiya ko wasu dalilai don ayyana tsarin sasantawa . Ana iya amfani da tsarin ƙauyen don rarraba ƙauyuka a duk faɗin duniya, kodayake mazaunin da ake kira 'garin' a cikin ƙasa ɗaya yana iya zama 'kauye' a wasu ƙasashe; ko kuma 'babban gari' a wasu ƙasashe na iya zama 'birni' a wasu.

KididdigaGyara

OstiraliyaGyara

Geoscience Ostiraliya ta bayyana wuri mai yawan jama'a a matsayin "mazauni mai suna mai yawan mutane kimanin 200 ko fiye".

Kwamitin Sunayen Geographical a Australasia ya yi amfani da kalmar ƙauyuka don yankunan karkara, Kuma yayin da Ofishin Kididdiga na Australiya ke amfani da kalmar "cibiyoyin birni / yankuna" don yankunan birane.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Bosnia da HerzegovinaGyara

Hukumar Kididdiga ta Bosnia da Herzegovina tana amfani da kalmar "wuri mai yawan jama'a" / "wuri" na karkara (ko birni a matsayin cibiyar gudanarwa na wasu Municipality / Birni), da "Municipality" da "Birni" don yankunan birane.

BulgariaGyara

Gwamnatin Bulgaria ta buga rajistar wuraren da jama'a ke zaune (NRPP).

KanadaGyara

Gwamnatin Kanada tana amfani da kalmar "wuri mai yawan jama'a" a cikin Atlas na Kanada, toamma ba ta ayyana shi ba. Kididdigar Kanada tana amfani da kalmar yankuna don wurare masu suna na tarihi.

CroatiaGyara

Ofishin Kididdiga na Croatian yana yin rikodin yawan jama'a a cikin rukunin da ake kira ƙauyuka ( <i id="mweQ">naselja</i> ) .

IndiyaGyara

Hukumar kidayar jama'a ta Indiya tana da ma'ana ta musamman na garuruwan ƙidayar .

IrelandGyara

Ofishin Kididdiga ta Tsakiya na Jamhuriyar Ireland yana da ma'anar musamman na garuruwan ƙidayar .

PakistanGyara

Ofishin Kididdiga na Pakistan yana yin rikodin yawan jama'a a cikin rukunin ƙauyuka da ake kira Tehsil - sashin gudanarwa wanda aka samo daga zamanin Mughal .

RashaGyara

 
Tsarin birni na Sortavala, wani gari a Jamhuriyar Karelia, Rasha

Akwai nau'ikan wuraren zama daban-daban a cikin Rasha .

SwedenGyara

Kididdigar Sweden tana amfani da kalmar localities ( <i id="mwlg">tätort</i> ) don wurare daban-daban masu yawan jama'a. Kuma Fassarar harshen Ingilishi gama gari shine yankunan birni .

Ƙasar IngilaGyara

Sashen Ƙungiyoyin Jama'a da Ƙananan Hukumomi na Burtaniya yana amfani da kalmar "matsalar birni" don nuna yankin birni lokacin nazarin bayanan ƙidayar jama'a. [2] Babban magatakarda na Scotland yana bayyana ƙauyuka a matsayin ƙungiyoyi na yanki ɗaya ko fiye, waɗanda aka ƙaddara bisa ga yawan yawan jama'a da wuraren lambar gidan waya . Kuma Ana amfani da matsugunan Scotland a matsayin ɗaya daga cikin abubuwa da yawa da ke ayyana yankunan birane.

AmurkaGyara

Cibiyar Nazarin Kasa ta Amurka (USGS) tana da Tsarin Bayanan Sunaye na Geographic wanda ke bayyana nau'o'i uku na matsugunin ɗan adam:

  1. Wuri mai yawan jama'a - wuri ko yanki mai tarin gine-gine ko warwatse da yawan jama'a na dindindin (birni, ƙauye, gari, ƙauye). Wuri mai yawan jama'a yawanci ba a haɗa shi kuma bisa ma'anarsa bashi da iyakoki na doka. Kuma Koyaya, wurin da jama'a ke da yawa na iya samun madaidaicin rikodin "farar hula", iyakokin shari'a wanda ƙila ko ba zai yi daidai da wurin da ake ganin jama'a ba.
  2. Ƙididdiga - yanki na ƙididdiga wanda aka keɓe musamman a cikin gida musamman don tattara bayanan Ofishin Ƙididdiga (wuri da aka keɓe, sashin ƙidayar jama'a, kuma yanki mara tsari, nau'ikan wuraren kididdiga na Indiyawan Amurkawa/Alaska). [3]
  3. Civil - ƙungiyar siyasa da aka kafa don dalilai na gudanarwa ( gunduma, gunduma, wurin da aka haɗa, gunduma, Ikklesiya, gari, gari )." [3]

Ana iya bayyana wuraren da yawan jama'a ke da shi musamman a mahallin ƙidayar jama'a kuma ya bambanta da ƙungiyoyin gudanarwa na gabaɗaya, kamar "wuri" kamar yadda Ofishin Ƙididdiga na Amurka ya ayyana ko wuraren da aka keɓe .

Samfuran GeospatialGyara

A fagen ƙirar ƙira ta geospatial, ƙauyuka sune "birni, gari, ƙauye, ko sauran haɓakar gine-ginen da mutane ke rayuwa da aiki".

Tsarin Tsarin Matsakaicin Dan Adam na Duniya ( GHSL ) yana samar da bayanan sararin samaniya na duniya game da kasancewar ɗan adam a doron ƙasa na tsawon lokaci. Wannan ta hanyar taswirori da aka gina, taswirorin yawan jama'a da taswirorin sasantawa. Kuma An samar da wannan bayanin tare da ƙididdigar tushen shaida da ilimi ta amfani da sabbin fasahohin haƙar ma'adinai na sararin samaniya. Tsarin yana amfani da bayanai iri-iri ciki har da ma'ajin tarihin duniya na hotuna masu kyau na tauraron dan adam, bayanan ƙidayar jama'a, da bayanan sa kai na yanki. sannan Ana sarrafa bayanan gabaɗaya ta atomatik kuma suna haifar da nazari da bayar da rahoton ilimi bisa ga gaskiya da tsare-tsare game da kasancewar yawan jama'a da gine-ginen gine-gine. GHSL tana aiki a cikin buɗaɗɗen bayanai da kyauta da manufofin samun damar hanyoyin (buɗaɗɗen shigarwa, hanyar buɗewa, buɗe fitarwa).

Yin watsi da shiGyara

 
Gine-ginen da aka yi watsi da su a Kolmanskop, Namibia

Kalmar "guraren da aka yi watsi da su" shine Sunan Zayyana Fasalo a cikin bayanan da Hukumar Leken Asiri ta Ƙasa da GeoNames suka samo.

Wani lokaci ana iya samun tsarin cikin sauƙi, kamar a cikin garin fatalwa, kuma waɗannan na iya zama wuraren shakatawa. Wasu wuraren da ke da kamannin garin fatalwa, sannan duk da haka, ana iya siffanta su a matsayin wuraren da ƙungiyoyin gwamnati ke da yawan jama'a.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Garin na iya zama garin fatalwa saboda ayyukan tattalin arzikin da suka tallafa masa ya gaza, saboda matakin da gwamnati ta dauka, kamar gina dam da ya mamaye garin, ko kuma saboda bala’o’in da suka haifar da yanayi ko na mutane kamar ambaliyar ruwa, rashin bin doka da oda., ko yaki. Kuma A wasu lokuta ana amfani da kalmar don nufin birane, garuruwa, da unguwannin da har yanzu jama'a ke da yawa, amma ƙasa da ƙasa fiye da na shekarun da suka gabata.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Duba wasu abubuwanGyara

  • Sashen gudanarwa
  • Zaman sulhu na yau da kullun
  • Garin batattu
  • Abubuwan buƙatu don matsugunan dindindin
  • Jerin ƙauyukan Neolithic
  • Yanayin ƙasa
  • Mulkin mallaka
  • Gidan mutum

ManazartaGyara

  1. Medieval Settlement Research Group
  2. Urban Settlement 2001
  3. 3.0 3.1 Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named USGS

Hanyoyin haɗi na wajeGyara