Haƙƙin Mallakar filaye

Manorialism, wanda kuma aka sani da tsarin manor ko tsarin manorial, shine hanyar mallakar filaye (ko " lokaci ") a sassan Turai, musamman Ingila, a lokacin Tsakiyar birni . Siffofinsa sun haɗa da katafaren gida mai da kuma ƙaƙƙarfan katafaren gida a wasu lokutan wanda ubangidan mazauna da waɗanda suka dogara da shi ke zaune tare da gudanar da ƙauye, da yawan ma’aikatan da ke aikin a ƙasar da ke kewaye da su don tallafa wa kansu da iyayen gidan su, Waɗannan ma'aikatan sun cika aikinsu tare da lokacin aiki ko kayan amfanin gona da farko, kuma daga baya ta hanyar biyan kuɗi yayin da ayyukan kasuwanci ke ƙaruwa. Manorialism wani lokaci ana haɗa shi cikin ma'anar feudalism.

Ana yin noma akan manor ducal na Faransa a cikin Maris



</br> Les Très Riches Heures du Duc de Berry, c.1410

Manorialism ya samo asali ne a cikin tsarin ƙauyen Roman na Marigayi Roman Empire, [1] kuma an yi shi sosai a yammacin tsakiyar tsakiyar Turai da sassan tsakiyar Turai. Wani muhimmin abu na al'ummar feudal, [2] an maye gurbinsa a hankali ta hanyar zuwan tattalin arzikin kasuwa mai tushen kuɗi da sabbin hanyoyin kwangilar aikin noma .

A cikin nazarin asalin ma'auni na sufi, Walter Horn ya gano cewa "a matsayin ma'auni mai mahimmanci, gidan sufi na Carolingian . ... ba su da ɗan bambanci da ƙaƙƙarfan ƙaƙƙarfan kadarori, sai dai ƙungiyoyin jama’ar maza waɗanda sune wannan ƙungiya ta ci gaba da ciyar da su sun ƙunshi sufaye waɗanda suke bauta wa Allah cikin waƙa kuma suna kashe lokaci mai yawa a karatu da rubutu.” [3]

Manorialism ya mutu sannu a hankali kuma a ɗan ɗan gajeren lokaci, tare da mafi kyawun fasalinsa a cikin shimfidar wuri, tsarin filin budewa . Kuma Ya wuce zarcewa a ma'anar cewa ya ci gaba da ma'aikata masu zaman kansu. A matsayin tsarin tattalin arziki, ya wuce feudalism, a cewar Andrew Jones, saboda "zai iya rike jarumi, amma kuma yana iya kula da mai mallakar jari-hujja . Yana iya zama mai dogaro da kansa, samar da amfanin gona ga kasuwa, ko kuma yana iya samar da hayar kuɗi." [4] Ƙarshen hukunce-hukunce na ƙarshe a Faransa an soke su a juyin juya halin Faransa . Yo A wasu sassan gabashin Jamus, gidajen Rittergut na Junkers sun kasance har zuwa yakin duniya na biyu . [5] A Quebec, an biya hayar feudal na ƙarshe a cikin shekarar 1970 a ƙarƙashin gyare-gyaren tanadi na Dokar Kawar da Hulɗa ta Seigniorial na shekarata 1935.

Rarraba tarihi da yankiGyara

 
Babban zauren da ke Penshurst Place, Kent, wanda aka gina a tsakiyar karni na 14. Zauren ya kasance muhimmiyar mahimmanci ga kowane manor, kasancewar wurin da Ubangiji da iyalinsa suke cin abinci, karbar baƙi, da tattaunawa da masu dogara.

An fi amfani da kalmar tare da la'akari da tsakiyar yammacin Turai. Abubuwan da suka gabata na tsarin za a iya gano su zuwa tattalin arzikin karkara na Daular Rome daga baya ( Mallaka ). Tare da raguwar yawan haihuwa da yawan jama'a, aiki shine babban abin da ake samarwa . [6] Gwamnonin da suka biyo baya sun yi ƙoƙarin daidaita tattalin arziƙin daular ta hanyar daskarewa tsarin zamantakewa: ’ya’ya maza ne za su gaji ubanninsu a kasuwancinsu, an hana kansiloli yin murabus, kuma ’yan mulkin mallaka, masu noman ƙasa, ba za su ƙaura daga ƙasar da aka haɗa su ba. kuma Ma'aikatan ƙasar suna kan hanyarsu ta zama masu aikin safa. [7]

Abubuwa da yawa sun haɗa kai don haɗa matsayin tsoffin bayi da tsoffin manoma masu 'yanci zuwa rukunin dogaro na irin wannan mulkin mallaka : yana yiwuwa a kwatanta shi da servus et colonus, "duka bawa da colonus ". [8] Dokokin Constantine I a kusa da kashi 325 duka sun ƙarfafa matsayin masu zaman kansu na mulkin mallaka kuma sun iyakance haƙƙinsu na yin ƙara a cikin kotuna; Codex Theodosianus da aka yi shelar ƙarƙashin Theodosius II ya tsawaita waɗannan hane-hane. Matsayin doka na adscripti, "daure zuwa ƙasa", [9] ya bambanta da foederati na barbarian, waɗanda aka ba su izinin zama a cikin iyakokin daular, suna ƙarƙashin nasu dokar gargajiya.

Yayin da masarautun Jamus suka gaji ikon mulkin Romawa a yammacin karni na biyar, masu mallakar gidaje na Romawa sau da yawa kawai an maye gurbinsu da na Jamusanci, ba tare da wani canji ba ga yanayin da ke cikin ƙasa ko ƙaura daga jama'a.

Tsarin dogaro da kai ya samu karbuwa ba zato ba tsammani a karni na takwas (8), sa’ad da kasuwancin da aka saba yi a tekun Mediterrenean ya lalace. Rubutun da masanin tarihin Belgian Henri Pirenne ya gabatar yana tsammanin cewa mamayar Larabawa ta tilastawa tattalin arzikin tsakiyar zamanai ya zama mafi girman kauye, kuma ya haifar da yanayin kabilanci na feudal na mabambantan ma'aikata masu zaman kansu da ke a karkashin tsarin cibiyoyin iko.[ana buƙatar hujja]

BayaniGyara

 
Sake gina wani katafaren katafaren zamani, Bachritterburg, Baden-Württemberg

Kalmar ta samo asali ne daga sassa na gargajiya da aka gada na karkara, an sake sanya su a matsayin hukunce-hukuncen gida da aka sani da manors ko seigneuries ; Kuma kowane manor yana ƙarƙashin ubangiji (Faransa seigneur ), yawanci yana riƙe da matsayinsa don mayar da ayyukan da aka miƙa wa ubangiji mafi girma (duba Feudalism ). Ubangiji ya gudanar da <b id="mwdw">wani kotun manorial</b>, karkashin dokar jama'a da na gida al'ada. Sannan Ba duk ƴan ƙasa ba ne na duniya; Bishops da abbats kuma suna riƙe da filaye waɗanda suka haɗa da wajibai iri ɗaya.

A tsawo, kalmar manor wani lokaci ana amfani da ita a cikin Ingila don nufin kowane yanki na gida ko yanki da ke da iko a cikinsa, sau da yawa a cikin 'yan sanda ko mahallin laifi.

A cikin tsarin jeri-jeri na babban gidan sarauta na tsakiya daga Shepherd's Historical Atlas, sassan ƙasar da aka yi aiki daban-daban a cikin tsarin fili suna bayyana nan da nan. Kuma A cikin wannan shirin, da manor gidan an saita dan kadan baya daga ƙauyen, amma daidai sau da yawa ƙauyen girma a kusa da forecourt na manor, tsohon bango, yayin da manor asashe miƙa waje, kamar yadda har yanzu ana iya gani a Petworth House . Kamar yadda damuwa don keɓantawa  ya karu a cikin karni na 18,[ana buƙatar hujja] gidaje masu nisa daga ƙauyen. Misali, lokacin da sabon mai gidan Harlaxton Manor, Lincolnshire ya buƙaci sabon gida a cikin shekarata 1830s, an watsar da wurin da gidan da yake da shi a gefen ƙauyensa don wani sabo, keɓe a wurin shakatawa, tare da Kauyen daga gani.[ana buƙatar hujja]

A cikin al'ummar noma, yanayin zaman ƙasa yana ƙarƙashin duk abubuwan zamantakewa ko tattalin arziki. Kuma Akwai tsarin shari'a guda biyu na mallakar filaye kafin a yi mulki. Ɗayan, wanda aka fi sani da shi, shine tsarin riƙe ƙasa " a cikin cikakken ikon mallaka. Sauran shine amfani da precaria ko fa'idodin, wanda ƙasar ke riƙe da sharadi (tushen kalmar Ingilishi "precarious").

A cikin waɗannan tsarin guda biyu, sarakunan Carolingian sun ƙara na uku, aprisio, wanda ya danganta manorialism tare da feudalism . Aprisio ya fara bayyanarsa a lardin Charlemagne na Septimania a kudancin Faransa, lokacin da Charlemagne ya zaunar da 'yan gudun hijirar Visigothic da suka gudu tare da sojojinsa masu ja da baya bayan gazawar da ya yi a Zaragoza na kimanin 778. Ya magance wannan matsalar ta hanyar raba filayen da ba a yi noma ba na “Hamada” mallakar gwamnatin fisc karkashin jagorancin sarki kai tsaye. Waɗannan abubuwan mallakar aprisio sun ƙunshi takamaiman yanayi. Takaitaccen tallafin aprisio na farko wanda aka gano yana a Fontjoncouse, kusa da Narbonne (duba Lewis, hanyoyin haɗin gwiwa). Kuma A cikin tsoffin ƙauyuka na Romawa, tsarin ƙauyuka, wanda ya samo asali daga Late Antiquity, ya gaji duniya ta tsakiya.

Mai kamawaGyara

Wanda ya mallaki wani magidanci yana da lakabin " Ubangiji ". Zai iya zama mutum, a mafi yawan lokuta ɗan ƙasa na manyan mutane ko na Bourgeoisie, amma kuma mutum mai shari'a galibi ma'aikaci ne na majami'a kamar abbey, babban coci ko canonical babi ko tsarin soja. To An yi amfani da ikon Ubangiji ta hanyar tsaka-tsaki daban-daban, mafi mahimmancin abin da shi ne ma'aikacin kotu . Mai mulki kuma na iya zama ubangiji; Seigeuries da ya mallaka sun zama yankin sarauta.

Hakanan ana ba da laƙabin Ubangiji, musamman a wannan zamani, ga daidaikun mutane masu riƙe da filaye masu daraja waɗanda ba na duk wani yunƙurin ba. Waɗannan “ ubangiji ” wani lokaci ana kiran su sieurs, daidai da kalmomin a zamanin da.

Mulkin ƙasaGyara

Ubangiji shi ne kai tsaye ko fitaccen mai mallakar kadarorin kasa na ubangijinsa. Ba za a iya amfani da ra'ayin cikakken ikon mallaka a kan wata maslaha ta gama gari ba, Dan haka saboda akwai kuma wasu fiye da babban mai amfani waɗanda ke da haƙƙi akan waɗannan kayayyaki. Mu  rarrabe a cikin mulkin ƙasar saiti biyu saiti wanda shine saitin kayan da ubangijin ke tanadin yin amfani da shi kai tsaye da kuma babban mai haya, dukiyar da aka danka wa mai hayar cin amanar dukiyarsa ba tare da biyan kuɗin sarauta ba, galibi ana kiranta cens da ayyuka kamar Corvée . Rarraba tsakanin ajiyar da wa'adin ya bambanta dangane da lokaci da yanki. [10]

Abubuwan gama gariGyara

 
Gabaɗaya taswirar manor na tsakiya.



</br> Wuraren masu launin mustard wani ɓangare ne na demesne, wuraren ƙyanƙyashe na glebe .



</br> William R. Shepherd, Atlas na Tarihi, 1923

Manors kowanne ya ƙunshi har zuwa nau'ikan filaye guda uku:

  1. Demesne, sashin da Ubangiji ke sarrafa kai tsaye kuma yana amfani da shi don amfanin gidansa da masu dogara;
  2. Dogara ( serf ko villein ) hannun jari masu ɗauke da wajibcin cewa magidanta na baƙauye suna ba wa Ubangiji ƙayyadadden sabis na aiki ko wani ɓangare na abin da yake samarwa (ko tsabar kuɗi a madadinsa), dangane da al'adar da aka haɗa; kuma
  3. Ƙasar baƙar fata kyauta, ba tare da irin wannan wajibci ba amma in ba haka ba ƙarƙashin ikon manorial da al'ada, da kuma biyan hayar kuɗi da aka gyara a lokacin haya.

Ƙarin hanyoyin samun kuɗin shiga ga Ubangiji sun haɗa da cajin yin amfani da injinsa, gidan burodi ko matse ruwan inabi, ko hakkin farauta ko barin aladu su ci abinci a cikin gandun daji, da kudaden shiga na kotu da kuma biyan kuɗi guda ɗaya akan kowane canji na dan haya. A cikin wani gefen asusun, gudanar da manorial ya haɗa da kashe kuɗi mai yawa, watakila dalilin da yasa ƙananan manors ke son dogaro da ƙasa akan zaman villein .  ]

Abubuwan da aka dogara da su ana gudanar da su ne ta hanyar tsarin ubangiji da ɗan haya, amma zaman ya zama a aikace kusan na gadon duniya, tare da biyan kuɗi ga ubangiji akan kowane gado na wani ɗan gida. Ba za a iya watsi da ƙasar Villein ba, Kuma aƙalla har sai yanayin alƙaluma da tattalin arziƙi ya sa jirgin ya zama kyakkyawan shawara; kuma ba za a iya ba da su ga wani ɓangare na uku ba tare da izinin Ubangiji ba, da biyan kuɗi na al'ada.

Ko da yake ba 'yanci ba, vilins ba su kasance cikin matsayi ɗaya da bayi ba: suna jin daɗin haƙƙin doka, bisa al'adar gida, kuma suna bin doka da ake tuhumar kotu, duk wanda shine ƙarin tushen samun kudin shiga. Bayar da hannun jarin villein ya zama ruwan dare gama gari, kuma ana iya mayar da aiki a kan kuɗin zuwa ƙarin biyan kuɗi, kamar yadda ya faru tun daga ƙarni na 13.

Ƙasar da ba a bar ta ga masu haya ba ko kuma an kafa wani yanki na ƙasa na demesne da ake kira "sharar gida"; yawanci, wannan ya haɗa da shinge, verges, da dai sauransu. Ƙasar gama gari inda duk membobin al'umma ke da haƙƙin wucewa an san shi da "sharar iyayen gidan su". Kuma Wani ɓangare na ƙasa mai ƙazanta na manor wanda ba a noma shi ana kiransa sharar Ubangiji kuma yana hidima ga hanyoyin jama'a da kiwo na gama gari ga Ubangiji da masu haya. [11] A cikin ƙauyuka da yawa a lokacin farkon zamani, an yi gine-gine ba bisa ƙa'ida ba a cikin sharar gida ta Ubangiji ta hanyar squatters waɗanda za su nemi hujjar su ci gaba da kasancewa tare da tallafin gida. Misali na sharar gida na ubangiji, inda manyan cibiyoyin suka girma ta wannan hanyar, shine ƙauyen Bredfield a Suffolk . Alaren Ubangiji yana ci gaba da zama tushen hakkoki da al'amuran hakki a wurare kamar henley-in-arden, Warwickshire .

Mazauna wani manorGyara

  • Ubangijin manor (wanda zai iya zama ba a nan )
  • Serfs
  • Mugaye
  • Cottas
  • Borders
  • Masu kyauta
  • Masu yin kwafi

Masu hayaGyara

Masu haya sun mallaki filaye a kan manor ƙarƙashin ɗaya daga cikin yarjejeniyoyin doka da yawa: ikon mallaka, mallakan mallaka, na al'ada na al'ada da hayar hayar .

Bambanci tsakanin manorsGyara

Kamar feudalism wanda, tare da manorialism, sun kafa tsarin shari'a da tsari na al'ummar feudal, Kuma tsarin manorial ba su kasance iri ɗaya ko haɗin kai ba. A cikin Tsakiyar Tsakiyar Tsakiyar baya, yankunan da ba su cika ba ko kuma babu su sun ci gaba yayin da tattalin arzikin manomi ya sami ci gaba mai ma'ana tare da canza yanayin tattalin arziki.

Ba duk gidajen gonaki ne suka ƙunshi dukkan nau'ikan filaye guda uku ba. Yawanci, demesne ya kai kusan kashi ɗaya bisa uku na yankin noma, da kuma mallakar villein fiye da haka; to amma wasu gidajen gonaki sun kunshi na demesne kawai, wasu kuma mallakar manoma kawai. Matsakaicin adadin wa'adin da ba'a kyauta ba zai iya bambanta sosai, sannan tare da dogaro da yawa ko žasa ga aikin albashi don aikin noma akan lalata.

Yawan yankin da aka noma a cikin demesne ya kasance mafi girma a cikin ƙananan gidaje, yayin da rabon ƙasar villein ya fi girma a cikin manyan manors, yana samar da ubangiji na karshen tare da samar da kayan aiki na wajibi don aikin demesne. Matsakaicin adadin abubuwan kyauta gabaɗaya ya kasance ƙasa da canji, to amma yana da ɗan girma a kan ƙananan manors.

Manors sun bambanta a cikin tsarinsu na yanki: yawancin ba su zo daidai da ƙauye ɗaya ba, a'a sun ƙunshi sassan ƙauyuka biyu ko fiye, yawancin na ƙarshe sun ƙunshi sassan aƙalla ɗaya. Wannan yanayin wani lokaci yakan haifar da maye gurbinsu ta hanyar biyan kuɗi ko makamancinsu a cikin nau'ikan wajibcin ƙwaƙƙwaran waɗancan manoma da ke zaune nesa da kadarorin Ubangiji.

Kamar yadda yake tare da filaye na ƙauye, demesne ba yanki ɗaya ba ne, amma ya ƙunshi gidan tsakiya mai maƙwabtaka da gine-ginen gidaje, tare da tarkace da aka tarwatsa ta cikin gidan tare da masu 'yanci da villein: Bugu da ƙari, iyaye gidan su na iya ba da hayar abubuwan mallakar kyauta. zuwa maƙwabtan maƙwabta, da kuma riƙe wasu matsuguni ɗan nesa don samar da mafi yawan kayan amfanin gona.

Haka kuma ba lallai ba ne a gudanar da manors ta hanyar manyan iyayengiji masu yin aikin soja (ko kuma, tsabar kuɗi a madadin) ga mafi girman su: babban kaso (ƙimar da aka kiyasta a 17% a Ingila a shekarata 1086 ) ya kasance na sarki kai tsaye, kuma mafi girman rabo (maimakon haka). fiye da kwata) an gudanar da bishop da gidajen ibada . Mazaunan coci sun kasance sun fi girma, tare da babban yankin villein fiye da maƙwabtan maƙwabta.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Tasirin yanayi a kan tattalin arzikin gida yana da sarkakiya kuma a wasu lokuta ya sabawa: yanayin sama yana son kiyaye yancin manoma (kiwon kiwo musamman kasancewar rashin aikin yi, sabili da haka rashin bukatar sabis na villein); a daya hannun, wasu yankunan tuddai na Turai sun nuna wasu yanayi na zalunci, yayin da yankin Gabashin Ingila ke lamuni da wani babban makiyaya mai 'yanci na musamman, a wani bangare na gadon Scandinavia.

Hakazalika, yaɗuwar tattalin arziƙin kuɗi ya haifar da maye gurbin ayyukan ƙwadago ta hanyar biyan kuɗi, amma bunƙasar samar da kuɗin da sakamakon hauhawar farashin kaya bayan shekarata 1170 da farko ya sa manyan ma'aikata su dawo da kadarorin da aka ba da hayar tare da sake shigar da kudaden ma'aikata a matsayin ƙimar tsayayyen tsabar kudi. an ƙi biyan kuɗi a zahiri.[ana buƙatar hujja]

Duba wasu abubuwanGyara

GabaɗayaGyara

  • Allodial take
  • Littafin Ranar Gida
  • Glebe
  • Hakkin Banal
  • Gentry

Irin wannan tsarin mallakar filaye a sauran sassan duniyaGyara

ManazartaGyara

  1. Peter Sarris, "The Origins of the Manorial Economy: New Insights from Late Antiquity", The English Historical Review 119 (April 2004:279–311).
  2. "Feudal Society", in its modern sense was coined in Marc Bloch's 1939–40 books of the same name. Bloch (Feudal Society tr. L.A. Masnyon, 1965, vol. II p. 442) emphasised the distinction between economic manorialism which preceded feudalism and survived it, and political and social feudalism, or seigneurialism.
  3. Horn, "On the Origins of the Medieval Cloister" Gesta 12.1/2 (1973:13–52), quote p. 41.
  4. Andrew Jones, "The Rise and Fall of the Manorial System: A Critical Comment" The Journal of Economic History 32.4 (December 1972:938–944) p. 938; a comment on D. North and R. Thomas, "The rise and fall of the manorial system: a theoretical model", The Journal of Economic History 31 (December 1971:777–803).
  5. Hartwin Spenkuch, "Herrenhaus und Rittergut: Die Erste Kammer des Landtags und der preußische Adel von 1854 bis 1918 aus sozialgeschichtlicher Sicht" Geschichte und Gesellschaft, 25.3 (July – September 1999):375–403).
  6. Donald J. Herreld, (2016) An Economic History of the World Since 1400. The Great Courses. P. 20.
  7. C.R. Whittaker, "Circe's pigs: from slavery to serfdom in the later Roman world", Slavery and Abolition 8 (1987:87–122.
  8. Averil Cameron, The Mediterranean World in Late Antiquity AD 395–600, 1993:86.
  9. Cameron 1993:86 instances Codex Justinianus XI. 48.21.1; 50,2.3; 52.1.1.
  10. corvée noun
  11. Black’s Law Dictionary, 6th ed., 1990, quoted at http://www.henleynews.co.uk/history/LordsWaste.pdf.

Ci gaba da karatuGyara

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Hanyoyin haɗi na wajeGyara