Ciwon daji na fata ciwon daji ne da ke tasowa daga fata. Suna faruwa ne saboda haɓakar ƙwayoyin da ba su da kyau waɗanda ke da ikon mamayewa ko yada zuwa wasu sassan jiki.[1] Akwai manyan nau'ikan cututtukan fata guda uku: basal-cell skin cancer (BCC), squamous-cell skin cancer (SCC) da melanoma.[2] Biyu na farko, tare da adadin cututtukan daji na fata da ba su da yawa, ana san su da cutar kansar fata mara-melanoma (NMSC).[3][4] Ciwon daji na Basal-cell yana girma sannu a hankali kuma yana iya lalata nama da ke kewaye da shi amma da wuya ya yadu zuwa wurare masu nisa ko kuma ya haifar da mutuwa.[3] Sau da yawa yana bayyana azaman yanki mai tasowa mara zafi wanda ƙila yana sheki tare da ƙananan magudanan jini suna yawo a kai ko kuma yana iya kasancewa a matsayin wuri mai tasowa tare da miki.[2] Ciwon daji na fata na squamous-cell yana iya yaduwa.[3] Yawancin lokaci yana gabatar da kututture mai wuya tare da ƙwanƙolin saman amma kuma yana iya haifar da miki.[5] Melanomas sune mafi yawan tashin hankali. Alamun sun haɗa da mole wanda ya canza girma, siffa, launi, yana da gefuna marasa daidaituwa, yana da launi fiye da ɗaya, mai ƙaiƙayi ko zubar jini.[6]

Ciwon daji na fata
Basal cell carcinoma.jpg
Description (en) Fassara
Iri integumentary system cancer (en) Fassara, skin neoplasm (en) Fassara, skin disease (en) Fassara
particular disease (en) Fassara
Specialty (en) Fassara dermatology (en) Fassara
Oncology
Sanadi CMM (en) Fassara
ultraviolet radiation (en) Fassara
Treatment (en) Fassara
Magani dabrafenib (en) Fassara, vemurafenib (en) Fassara, ingenol mebutate (en) Fassara, vismodegib (en) Fassara, imiquimod (en) Fassara, ipilimumab (en) Fassara da 5-Fluorouracil (en) Fassara
Identifier (en) Fassara
ICD-10-CM C43.C44
ICD-9-CM 173.8 da 173.9
ICD-10 C43 da C44
ICD-9 172 da 173
MedlinePlus 001442
eMedicine 001442
Disease Ontology ID DOID:4159

Fiye da kashi 90% na lokuta suna faruwa ne ta hanyar fallasa hasken ultraviolet daga Rana.[7] Wannan bayyanar yana ƙara haɗarin duk nau'ikan kansar fata guda uku.[7] Fitarwa ya karu, wani bangare saboda siraran siraren ozone.[3][8] Tanning gadaje wani abu ne na yau da kullun na hasken ultraviolet.[7] Ga melanoma da ciwon daji na basal-cell, fallasa lokacin ƙuruciya yana da illa musamman.[9] Don ciwon daji na fata na squamous-cell, jimlar bayyanar, ba tare da la'akari da lokacin da ya faru ba, ya fi mahimmanci.[7] Tsakanin kashi 20 zuwa 30% na melanoma na tasowa daga moles.[9] Mutanen da ke da launin fata suna cikin haɗari mafi girma[2][10] kamar waɗanda ke da ƙarancin aikin rigakafi kamar daga magunguna ko HIV/AIDS.[3][11] Ana gano cutar ta hanyar biopsy.[6]

Rage bayyanar da hasken ultraviolet da kuma yin amfani da hasken rana ya bayyana a matsayin hanyoyi masu tasiri na hana cutar sankarau da squamous-cell fata.[9][12] Ba a bayyana ba idan allon rana yana shafar haɗarin cutar kansar basal-cell.[12] Nonmelanoma kansar fata yawanci ana iya warkewa.[3] Magani gabaɗaya ta hanyar cirewa ne amma yana iya, ƙasa da haka, ya haɗa da maganin radiation ko magunguna kamar fluorouracil.[2] Maganin melanoma na iya haɗawa da wasu haɗin tiyata, chemotherapy, radiation far da niyya far.[6] A cikin waɗancan mutanen da cutar ta yaɗu zuwa wasu sassan jiki, ana iya amfani da kulawar jin daɗi don inganta ingancin rayuwa.[6] Melanoma yana daya daga cikin mafi girman adadin rayuwa a tsakanin masu cutar kansa, tare da sama da kashi 86% na mutane a Burtaniya kuma sama da kashi 90% a Amurka suna rayuwa sama da shekaru 5.[13][14]

Ciwon daji na fata shine nau'in ciwon daji da aka fi sani, a duniya yana da aƙalla kashi 40% na masu cutar kansa.[3][15] Mafi yawan nau'in ciwon daji na fata wanda ba na melanoma ba ne, wanda ke faruwa a akalla mutane miliyan 2-3 a kowace shekara.[9][16] Wannan ƙididdigewa ce, duk da haka, saboda ba a kiyaye ƙididdiga masu kyau.[2] Daga cikin cututtukan da ba na melanoma ba, kusan kashi 80% na ciwon daji ne na basal-cell da kashi 20% na ciwon daji na fata.[4] Basal-cell da squamous-cell fata ciwon daji da wuya ya haifar da mutuwa.[9] A Amurka, su ne sanadin kasa da 0.1% na duk mutuwar ciwon daji.[2] A duniya a cikin 2012, melanoma ya faru a cikin mutane 232,000 kuma ya haifar da mutuwar 55,000.[9] Fararen fata a Ostiraliya, New Zealand da Afirka ta Kudu suna da mafi girman adadin cutar melanoma a duniya.[9][17] Manyan nau'ikan ciwon daji guda uku na fata sun zama ruwan dare a cikin shekaru 20 zuwa 40 da suka gabata, musamman a wuraren da galibin fararen fata ne.[3][9]

RabewaGyara

Akwai manyan nau'o'in ciwon daji guda uku: ciwon daji na basal-cell (basal-cell carcinoma) (BCC), squamous-cell cancer skin (squamous-cell carcinoma) (SCC) da kuma m melanoma

Cancer Description Illustration
Basal-cell carcinoma Yi la'akari da launin lu'u-lu'u zuwa launin jiki, ƙananan tasoshin jini a saman, da kuma wani lokacin ulceration wanda zai iya zama halaye. Mabuɗin kalmar shine translucency.
Squamous-cell skin carcinoma Yawanci yana gabatarwa azaman ja, ɓawon burodi, ko faci ko karo. Sau da yawa ƙwayar cuta mai saurin girma.
Malignant melanoma Waɗannan yawanci suna da asymmetrical cikin siffa da/ko rarraba launi, tare da iyaka mara daidaituwa, bambancin launi, kuma galibi mafi girma diamita 6 mm.[18]

Basal-cell carcinomas sun fi kasancewa a wuraren da rana ta fallasa fata, musamman fuska. Ba kasafai suke yin metastases ba kuma da wuya su haifar da mutuwa. Ana samun sauƙin magance su da tiyata ko radiation. Ciwon daji na fata na squamous-cell su ma suna da yawa, amma ba su da yawa fiye da ciwon daji na basal-cell. Suna metastasize akai-akai fiye da BCCs. Ko da a lokacin, ƙimar metastasis ya yi ƙasa kaɗan, ban da SCC na lebe, kunne, da kuma a cikin mutanen da ke da rigakafi. Melanoma sune mafi ƙanƙanta a cikin cututtukan daji na fata guda uku. Suna yawan yin metastasize, kuma suna iya haifar da mutuwa da zarar sun bazu.

Ƙananan ciwon daji na fata sun haɗa da: dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, Merkel cell carcinoma, Kaposi's sarcoma, keratoacanthoma, spindle cell ciwace-ciwacen daji, sebaceous carcinomas, microcystic adnexal carcinoma, Paget ta cutar nono, atypical fibroomsarthoma .

BCC da SCC sau da yawa suna ɗaukar maye gurbin UV-sa hannu wanda ke nuna cewa radiation UVB ke haifar da waɗannan cututtuka ta hanyar lalata DNA kai tsaye. Koyaya, melanoma mai cutarwa galibi yana haifar da ita ta UVA radiation ta hanyar lalata DNA kai tsaye. Lalacewar DNA ta kaikaice tana faruwa ne ta hanyar radicals kyauta da nau'in iskar oxygen mai amsawa. Bincike ya nuna cewa shigar da sinadaran kariya daga rana guda uku a cikin fata, hade tare da daukan minti 60 ga UV, yana haifar da karuwar masu cutarwa a cikin fata, idan an yi amfani da su da yawa kuma ba safai ba. [19] Sai dai kuma masu binciken sun kara da cewa sabbin mayukan man shafawa sau da yawa ba sa dauke da wadannan sinadarai na musamman, kuma hadewar wasu sinadarai na kokarin rike sinadarin da ke saman fata. Har ila yau, sun kara da cewa maimaita aikace-aikace akai-akai yana rage haɗarin samuwar tsattsauran ra'ayi.

Alamomi da alamomiGyara

Akwai nau'ikan alamun cutar kansar fata iri-iri. Waɗannan sun haɗa da canje-canje a cikin fata da ba ta warkewa, ƙumburi a cikin fata, fata mai launin fata, da canje-canje a cikin moles da ke wanzu, irin su gefuna masu jakunkuna zuwa tawadar Allah, ƙara girman tawadar, canza launi, yadda yake ji ko kuma idan ya zubar da jini. . Sauran alamun ciwon daji na fata na iya zama rauni mai raɗaɗi wanda ke ƙaiƙayi ko konewa da babban tabo mai launin ruwan kasa tare da ɗigon ɗigon duhu. [20]

Basal-cell fata ciwon dajiGyara

Ciwon daji na fata na Basal-cell (BCC) yawanci yana gabatarwa azaman tashe, santsi, kumburin lu'u-lu'u akan fatar kai, wuyan rana, gaɓar jiki ko kafadu . Wasu lokuta ana iya ganin ƙananan tasoshin jini (wanda ake kira telangiectasia ) a cikin ƙwayar cuta. Kumburi da zub da jini a tsakiyar ƙwayar cuta na tasowa akai-akai. Yawancin lokaci ana kuskure don ciwon da ba ya warkewa. Wannan nau'i na ciwon daji na fata shine mafi ƙarancin kisa, kuma tare da ingantaccen magani ana iya kawar da shi, sau da yawa ba tare da tabo mai mahimmanci ba.

Squamous-cell kansar fataGyara

Squamous-cell skin cancer (SCC) yawanci ja ne, mai kisa, mai kauri akan fatar da ta fito rana. Wasu suna da tsayayyen nodules da dome mai siffa kamar keratoacanthomas . Ciwon ciki da zubar jini na iya faruwa. Lokacin da ba a kula da SCC ba, yana iya haɓaka zuwa babban taro. Squamous-cell shine na biyu mafi yawan cutar kansar fata. Yana da haɗari, amma ba kusan haɗari kamar melanoma ba.

MelanomaGyara

Yawancin melanoma sun ƙunshi launuka daban-daban daga inuwar launin ruwan kasa zuwa baki. Ƙananan adadin melanoma sune ruwan hoda, ja ko nama a cikin launi; waɗannan ana kiran su amelanotic melanoma kuma sun fi zama m. Alamomin faɗakarwa na cutar sankarau sun haɗa da canjin girma, siffa, launi ko tsayin tawadar Allah. Sauran alamomin su ne bayyanar sabon tawadar Allah a lokacin girma ko ciwo, ƙaiƙayi, ciwon ciki, ja a kusa da wurin, ko zubar jini a wurin. Wani mnemonic da ake amfani da shi sau da yawa shine "ABCDE", inda A yake don "asymmetrical", B don "iyakoki" (wanda ba daidai ba: "Coast of Maine sign"), C don "launi" (mai bambanta), D don "diamita" (mafi girma). fiye 6 mm - girman fensir mai gogewa) da E don "ci gaba."[21][22]

SauranGyara

Merkel cell carcinomas galibi suna girma cikin sauri, jajaye marasa laushi, shuɗi ko launin fata waɗanda ba su da zafi ko ƙaiƙayi. Ana iya kuskuren su da cyst ko wani nau'in ciwon daji.[23]

DalilaiGyara

Hasken ultraviolet daga fitowar rana shine farkon yanayin muhalli na cutar kansar fata.[24][25][26] Wannan na iya faruwa a cikin sana'o'i kamar noma. Sauran abubuwan haɗari waɗanda ke taka rawa sun haɗa da:

  • Launin fata mai haske[25]
  • Shekaru [25]
  • Shan taba[25]
  • Kwayoyin cutar HPV suna ƙara haɗarin cutar kansar fata mai squamous-cell.[25]
  • Wasu cututtuka na kwayoyin halitta ciki har da ciwon melanocytic nevi na haihuwa wanda ke da alaƙa da kasancewar nevi (alamomin haifuwa ko moles) masu girma dabam waɗanda suke ko dai a lokacin haihuwa, ko bayyana a cikin watanni 6 na haihuwa. Nevi ya fi girma fiye da 20 mm (3/4") a girman suna cikin haɗari mafi girma don zama masu ciwon daji.
  • Raunin da ba sa warkarwa na yau da kullun. [25] Wadannan ana kiran su Marjolin's ulcers bisa ga kamannin su, kuma suna iya tasowa zuwa ciwon daji na fata mai squamous-cell.
  • Ionizing radiation kamar X-ray, muhalli carcinogens, da wucin gadi UV radiation (misali tanning gadaje ). [25] An yi imanin cewa gadaje masu tanning sune sanadin dubban daruruwan basal da squamous-cell cancer fata. [27] Hukumar Lafiya ta Duniya a yanzu ta sanya mutanen da ke amfani da gadajen fata na wucin gadi a cikin mafi girman hadarin kamuwa da cutar kansar fata. [28] Shaye-shaye, musamman yawan shan giya yana kara haɗarin kunar rana. [29]
  • Yin amfani da magungunan rigakafi da yawa yana ƙara haɗarin ciwon daji na fata. [30] Cyclosporin A, mai hana calcineurin misali yana ƙara haɗarin kusan sau 200, da azathioprine kusan sau 60. [31]
  • Bayyanar fata da gangan ba ta saba fitowa ga hasken rana yayin wasu halaye na lafiya kamar sunning perineum .

PathophysiologyGyara

Mummunan ciwon ƙwayar cuta wanda da farko ya samo asali ne a cikin epidermis, a cikin mucosa na squamous ko kuma a cikin wuraren da ke cikin squamous metaplasia ana kiransa carcinoma squamous-cell. [32]

Macroscopically, ciwon daji yana tasowa sau da yawa, fungating, ko kuma yana iya zama ulcerated tare da iyakokin da ba daidai ba. Ta hanyar hangen nesa, ƙwayoyin ƙari suna lalata membrane na ginshiƙi kuma su samar da zanen gado ko ɗimbin ɗimbin jama'a waɗanda ke mamaye ƙwayar haɗin gwiwa (dermis). A cikin bambance-bambancen carcinomas, ƙwayoyin tumor suna da nau'i-nau'i, amma suna kama da keratinocytes na al'ada daga prickle Layer (manyan, polygonal, tare da yalwar eosinophilic (ruwan hoda) cytoplasm da tsakiya tsakiya).[32]

Zubar da su ya yi kama da na epidermis na al'ada: ƙwayoyin da ba su da girma / basal a gefe, suna zama mafi girma zuwa tsakiyar ƙwayar ƙwayar cuta. Kwayoyin Tumor suna canzawa zuwa keratinized squamous sel kuma suna samar da nodules zagaye tare da concentric, laminated layers, wanda ake kira "nests cell" ko "epithelial / keratinous pearls". An rage stroma da ke kewaye da shi kuma ya ƙunshi infiltrate mai kumburi (lymphocytes). Mara kyau bambance-bambancen squamous carcinomas sun ƙunshi ƙarin ƙwayoyin sel da keratinization .[32]

Halin kwayoyin da ke cikin tsarin cutar shine maye gurbi a cikin kwayar halitta PTCH1 wanda ke taka muhimmiyar rawa a cikin hanyar siginar shinge na Sonic .[33]

BincikeGyara

Ana gano cutar ta hanyar biopsy da gwajin histopathological .

Hanyoyin gano ciwon daji na fata marasa lalacewa sun haɗa da daukar hoto, dermatoscopy, sonography, microscopy confocal, Raman spectroscopy, spectroscopy na fluorescence, terahertz spectroscopy, na'urar haɗe-haɗe-haɗe-haɗe-haɗe, fasaha na hoto mai yawa, thermography, lantarki bio-impedance, tef tsiri da kuma bincike na kwamfuta.[34]

Dermatoscopy na iya zama da amfani wajen gano ciwon daji na basal cell ban da duba fata.[35]

Babu isassun shedar da ke nuna cewa gani coherence tomography (OCT) yana da amfani wajen gano cutar sankarau ko squamous cell carcinoma. OCT na iya samun rawa wajen gano ciwon daji na basal cell amma ana buƙatar ƙarin bayanai don tallafawa wannan.[36]

An ƙirƙiro na'urorin gano cutar ta kwamfuta waɗanda ke tantance hotuna daga dermatoscopy ko spectroscopy kuma mai binciken zai iya amfani da shi don taimakawa wajen gano cutar kansar fata. An gano tsarin CAD suna da matukar damuwa a cikin gano melanoma, amma suna da ƙima mai inganci. Har yanzu babu isassun shaida don bayar da shawarar CAD idan aka kwatanta da hanyoyin bincike na gargajiya. [37]

Maɗaukakin duban dan tayi (HFUS) ba shi da fa'ida mara tabbas a cikin gano cutar kansar fata.[38] Babu isassun shedar gani da idon basira don tantance basal cell ko squamous cell carcinoma ko wani ciwon daji na fata.[39]

RigakafiGyara

Hasken rana yana da tasiri don haka ana ba da shawarar don hana melanoma [40] da carcinoma squamous-cell. [41] Akwai kadan shaida cewa yana da tasiri a hana basal-cell carcinoma. [42] Sauran shawarwarin don rage yawan ciwon daji na fata sun haɗa da guje wa kunar rana, sanya tufafi masu kariya, tabarau da huluna, da ƙoƙarin guje wa faɗuwar rana ko lokutan fiɗawa. [43] Hukumar Kula da Ayyukan Kariya ta Amurka ta ba da shawarar cewa a shawarci mutane tsakanin shekaru 9 zuwa 25 da su guji hasken ultraviolet. [44]

Ana iya rage haɗarin kamuwa da cutar sankara ta fata ta hanyar matakan da yawa ciki har da rage tanning na cikin gida da faɗuwar rana tsakar rana, ƙara yin amfani da hasken rana, [44] da guje wa amfani da kayan sigari .

Dalilin da ya sa yana da mahimmanci don iyakance hasken rana da kuma guje wa gadaje masu tanning shine saboda dukansu sun haɗa da hasken UV. An san hasken UV yana lalata ƙwayoyin fata ta hanyar canza DNA a cikinsa. Halin DNA wanda ya rikide zai iya haifar da ciwace-ciwacen daji da sauran tsiro a kan fata. Bugu da ari, akwai wasu abubuwan haɗari ban da bayyanar UV kawai. Fata mai kyau, dogon tarihin kunar rana, moles, da tarihin iyali na kansar fata kaɗan ne kawai.[45]

Babu isassun shaida ko dai don ko a kan gwajin cutar kansar fata.[46] Abubuwan da ake amfani da su na bitamin da abubuwan da ake amfani da su na antioxidant ba a gano suna da tasiri a cikin rigakafi ba. [47] Shaida don rage haɗarin melanoma daga matakan abinci mai ƙima ne, tare da wasu shaidun tallafi na annoba, amma babu gwaji na asibiti. [48]

Zinc oxide da titanium oxide galibi ana amfani da su a allon rana don ba da kariya mai fa'ida daga kewayon UVA da UVB.[49]

Cin wasu abinci na iya rage haɗarin kunar rana amma wannan ya yi ƙasa da kariyar da ke samar da hasken rana.[50]

Wani bincike-bincike na rigakafin ciwon daji na fata a cikin mutane masu haɗari masu haɗari sun sami shaida cewa aikace-aikace na T4N5 liposome ruwan shafa fuska rage yawan bayyanar da basal cell carcinomas a cikin mutane tare da xeroderma pigmentosum, da kuma cewa acitretin dauka da baki iya samun fata kariyar fa'ida a cikin mutane. biyo bayan dashen koda .[51]

Wani bincike da aka buga a cikin Janairu 2022 na Kwalejin Magunguna na Jami'ar Jihar Oregon ya nuna cewa allurar rigakafin da ke haifar da samar da furotin mai mahimmanci ga cibiyar sadarwar fata ta antioxidant na iya ƙarfafa garkuwar mutane daga cutar kansar fata.[52]

MaganiGyara

Magani ya dogara da takamaiman nau'in ciwon daji, wurin da ciwon daji yake, shekarun mutum, da kuma ko ciwon daji na farko ne ko kuma maimaituwa. Don ƙananan ciwon daji na basal-cell a cikin matashi, ana iya nuna magani tare da mafi kyawun magani ( Mohs tiyata ko CCPDMA ). A game da wani dattijo mai rauni wanda ke da matsalolin likita masu rikitarwa, da wahala a fitar da ciwon daji na basal-cell na hanci zai iya ba da garantin maganin radiation (ƙananan adadin magani) ko babu magani kwata-kwata. Za'a iya nuna chemotherapy na musamman don babban ciwon daji na basal-cell carcinoma don kyakkyawan sakamako na kwaskwarima, yayin da zai iya zama rashin isa ga ciwon nodular basal-cell carcinoma ko ciwon daji na squamous-cell .[ana buƙatar hujja] ba shi da ƙarancin amsawa ga radiation ko chemotherapy.

Don ƙananan cututtuka, maganin radiation ( radiotherapy na waje na waje [53] ko brachytherapy ), chemotherapy ( imiquimod ko 5-fluorouracil) da kuma cryotherapy (daskarewa da ciwon daji) na iya ba da isasshen kulawa da cutar; dukkansu, duk da haka, na iya samun ƙarancin adadin magani gabaɗaya fiye da wani nau'in tiyata. Sauran hanyoyin magani irin su photodynamic far, epidermal radioisotope far,[54] Topical chemotherapy, electrodesiccation da curettage za a iya samu a cikin tattaunawa na basal-cell carcinoma da squamous-cell carcinoma .

Mohs' micrographic surgery ( Mohs surgery ) wata dabara ce da ake amfani da ita don cire ciwon daji tare da mafi ƙarancin adadin nama da ke kewaye kuma ana duba gefuna nan da nan don ganin ko an sami ƙari. Wannan yana ba da dama don cire mafi ƙarancin adadin nama da samar da mafi kyawun sakamako mai kyau na kwaskwarima. Wannan yana da mahimmanci musamman ga wuraren da fata ta wuce iyaka, kamar fuska. Matsakaicin magani yayi daidai da fiɗa mai faɗi. Ana buƙatar horo na musamman don yin wannan fasaha. Wata hanya ta dabam ita ce CCPDMA kuma mai ilimin likitanci wanda bai saba da tiyatar Mohs zai iya yin shi ba.

A cikin yanayin cutar da ta yadu (metastasized), ana iya buƙatar ƙarin hanyoyin tiyata ko chemotherapy .[55]

Jiyya ga melanoma na metastatic sun hada da kwayoyin immunotherapy na halitta ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, nivolumab, cemiplimab ; Masu hana BRAF, irin su vemurafenib da dabrafenib ; da kuma MEK inhibitor trametinib .[56]

Sake ginawaGyara

A halin yanzu, fiɗa fiɗa ita ce mafi yawan nau'in maganin cututtukan daji na fata. Manufar aikin tiyata na sake ginawa shine maido da kamanni da aiki na yau da kullun. Zaɓin fasaha a cikin sake ginawa yana yin la'akari da girman da wuri na lahani. Ficewa da sake gina kansar fatar fuska gabaɗaya ya fi ƙalubale saboda kasancewar sifofi na zahiri da aiki a fuska.

Lokacin da lahani na fata ya ƙanƙanta, yawancin za a iya gyara su tare da gyare-gyare mai sauƙi inda aka kwatanta gefuna na fata kuma an rufe su da sutures. Wannan zai haifar da tabo na layi. Idan an yi gyaran tare da madaurin fata na halitta ko layin gyale, tabon ba zai iya yiwuwa ba. Lalacewar da ta fi girma na iya buƙatar gyarawa tare da dashen fata, maɗaurin fata na gida, ƙwanƙarar fata, ko maɗaɗɗen ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta. Gwargwadon fata da fatun fata na gida sun fi kowa yawa fiye da sauran zaɓuɓɓukan da aka lissafa.

Gyaran fata shine tauye lahani tare da fata da aka cire daga wani wuri a cikin jiki. Ana dinke fatar fatar da aka yi a gefuna na lahani, sannan a sanya suturar sulke a saman wannan dashen na tsawon kwanaki bakwai zuwa goma, don a daina motsi yayin da yake warkewa a wurin. Akwai nau'i biyu na gyaran fata: tsaga kauri da cikakken kauri. A cikin rabe-raben fata mai kauri, ana amfani da abin aski don aske fata daga ciki ko cinya. Wurin mai ba da gudummawa yana sabunta fata kuma yana warkar da tsawon makonni biyu. A cikin cikakken kauri na fata, an cire wani yanki na fata gaba ɗaya kuma ana buƙatar wurin da ake ba da gudummawa a suture. [57]

Za'a iya amfani da ƙwanƙolin kauri da aka raba don gyara manyan lahani, amma ƙwanƙwaran sun yi ƙasa da kamannin su na kwaskwarima. Cikakken kauri fata grafts sun fi dacewa da kwaskwarima. Koyaya, cikakken kauri za a iya amfani da shi don ƙananan lahani ko matsakaicin girman.

Fatar fata na gida hanya ce ta rufe lahani tare da nama wanda yayi daidai da lahani a launi da inganci. Ana tattara fata daga gefen wurin lahani kuma a sake mayar da ita don cike gibin. Za'a iya tsara nau'o'i daban-daban na ɓangarorin gida don rage ɓarna ga kyallen jikin da ke kewaye da kuma ƙara girman sakamakon sake ginawa. Fatar fata da aka ƙera hanya ce ta canja wurin fata tare da isasshen jini daga wani yanki na jiki da ke kusa. Misalin irin wannan sake ginawa shine maɗaurin goshi da aka fede don gyara babban lahani na fatar hanci. Da zarar kullun ya haɓaka tushen samar da jini ya zama sabon gadonsa, za'a iya cire jijiyar jijiyoyin jini. [58]

HasashenGyara

Adadin mace-mace na basal-cell da squamous-cell carcinoma yana kusa da 0.3%, yana haifar da mutuwar 2000 kowace shekara a Amurka. Idan aka kwatanta, adadin mace-mace na melanoma shine 15-20% kuma yana haifar da mutuwar 6500 a kowace shekara. [59] :29,31Ko da yake yana da ƙasa da yawa, ƙwayar cutar melanoma ita ce ke da alhakin kashi 75 cikin 100 na duk mutuwar da ke da alaka da ciwon daji. [60]

Yawan tsira ga mutanen da ke fama da cutar melanoma ya dogara da lokacin da suka fara jiyya. Yawan maganin yana da yawa sosai lokacin da aka gano melanoma a farkon matakai, lokacin da za a iya cire ta cikin sauƙi ta hanyar tiyata. Hasashen ba shi da kyau idan melanoma ya yadu zuwa wasu sassan jiki . [61] Tun daga 2003 gabaɗayan adadin magani na shekaru biyar tare da aikin tiyata na Mohs ya kusan kashi 95 cikin ɗari don ciwon daji na basal cell. [62]

Ostiraliya da New Zealand suna nuna ɗayan mafi girman adadin cutar kansar fata a duniya, kusan sau huɗu adadin adadin da aka yiwa rajista a Amurka, Burtaniya da Kanada . Kimanin mutane 434,000 ne ke karbar maganin cututtukan da ba na melanoma ba kuma ana jinyar 10,300 daga cutar sankarau. Melanoma ita ce mafi yawan nau'in ciwon daji a cikin mutane tsakanin shekaru 15 zuwa 44 a cikin kasashen biyu. Yawan cutar kansar fata yana karuwa. [63] Yawan cutar melanoma a tsakanin mazauna Auckland na zuriyar Turai a 1995 ya kasance 77.7 a cikin mutane 100,000 a kowace shekara, kuma an yi hasashen zai karu a cikin karni na 21st saboda "sakamakon raguwar sararin samaniyar ozone na gida da kuma raguwar lokacin bayyanar rana ga ci gaban melanoma. ." [64]

EpidemiologyGyara

 
Matsakaicin shekarun mutuwa daga melanoma da sauran cututtukan fata a cikin 100,000 mazauna a 2004 [65]

  no data
  <0.7
  0.7–1.4
  1.4–2.1
  2.1–2.8
  2.8–3.5
  3.5–4.2

  4.2–4.9
  4.9–5.6
  5.6–6.3
  6.3–7
  7–7.7
  >7.7

Ciwon daji na fata yana haifar da mutuwar mutane 80,000 a shekara a shekara ta 2010, 49,000 daga cikinsu na faruwa ne saboda cutar sankarar bargo kuma 31,000 daga cikinsu suna da ciwon daji na fata wadanda ba melanoma ba. [66] Wannan ya haura daga 51,000 a cikin 1990. [66]

Fiye da miliyan 3.5 na kamuwa da cutar kansar fata a kowace shekara a Amurka, wanda ya sa ya zama nau'in ciwon daji mafi yawa a wannan ƙasa. Daya daga cikin Amurkawa biyar zai kamu da cutar kansar fata a wani lokaci na rayuwarsu. Mafi yawan nau'in ciwon daji na fata shine basal-cell carcinoma, sannan kuma carcinoma na squamous cell. Ba kamar sauran cututtukan daji ba, babu wani rajistar cutar kansar fata na basal da squamous a cikin Amurka. [67]

MelanomaGyara

A cikin Amurka a cikin 2008, mutane 59,695 sun kamu da cutar sankara, kuma mutane 8,623 suka mutu daga gare ta. [68] A Ostiraliya fiye da 12,500 sabbin kamuwa da cutar melanoma ne ake ba da rahoton kowace shekara, wanda sama da 1,500 ke mutuwa daga cutar. Ostiraliya ce ke da mafi girman abin da ke faruwa na melanoma a duk duniya. [69]

Kodayake yawan ciwon daji da yawa a cikin Amurka yana raguwa, abin da ke faruwa na melanoma yana ci gaba da girma, tare da kimanin melanoma 68,729 da aka gano a cikin 2004 bisa ga rahotanni na Cibiyar Ciwon daji ta Kasa . [70]

Melanoma ita ce ta biyar mafi yawan ciwon daji a Birtaniya (kusan mutane 13,300 da aka gano tare da melanoma a shekara ta 2011), kuma cutar tana da kashi 1% duk mutuwar ciwon daji (kusan mutane 2,100 sun mutu a 2012).[71]

Ba melanoma baGyara

Kimanin mutane 2,000 ne ke mutuwa daga cututtukan fata na basal ko squamous cell (wanda ba melanoma ba) a cikin Amurka kowace shekara. Adadin ya ragu a cikin 'yan shekarun nan. Yawancin mutuwar suna faruwa ga mutanen da suka tsufa kuma watakila ba su ga likita ba har sai ciwon daji ya yadu; da mutanen da ke da matsalar tsarin rigakafi.[67]

Hanyoyin haɗi na wajeGyara

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