Buddha addini ne wanda ya samo asali daga Indiya, bisa koyarwar Siddhartha Gautama, wanda daga baya ake kira Gautama Buddha. Buddha shine wanda aka ce ya farka zuwa gaskiyar rayuwa.

Buddha
Dharma Wheel.svg
Founded unknown value
Mai kafa gindi Gautama Buddha (en) Fassara
Classification
Practiced by Buddhist (en) Fassara da Sangha (en) Fassara
Branches school of Buddhism (en) Fassara

A cikin karnoninsa koyarwarsa ta bazu daga Nepal zuwa Asiya ta Tsakiya, Tibet, Sri Lanka, kudu maso gabashin Asiya, Sin, Mongolia, Koriya, Japan, da yanzu Turai da Arewa da Kudancin Amurka. Addinin Buddha mabiya ɗariƙar Theravada yafi yawa a Kudancin Asiya; Mahayana ya kara arewa. Addinin Buddha ya wanzu a cikin ɓangarori daban-daban a yau, amma duk makarantu da ƙungiyoyi suna da ra'ayoyi na yau da kullum. Kimanin kashi bakwai cikin ɗari na mutanen duniya mabiya addinin Buddha ne.

Duk da yake mutane da yawa suna ganin addinin Buddha a matsayin addini, [1] wasu suna ganinsa a matsayin falsafa, wasu kuma a matsayin hanyar gano gaskiya . [2] [3]

Bayani da kuma tunanin BuddhaGyara

Siddhartha Gautama (563 - 483 BC ) ya fara rayuwa a matsayin jaririn yarima na wata ƙaramar masarauta a yankin da ke kudancin Nepal a yanzu . Tun yana saurayi ya bar dukiya da matsayi a baya don neman gaskiya. Da aka haskaka yana ɗan shekara 35, Buddha ya yi shekaru 45 masu zuwa na rayuwarsa yana tafiya yana koyarwa a arewacin Indiya. Ya mutu yana da shekaru 80.

Buddha ya mai da hankali sosai ga koyarwarsa kan yadda za a shawo kan wahala. Ya ga cewa dukkan abubuwa masu rai suna wahala a haifuwarsu, cikin rashin lafiya, tsufa, da kuma fuskantar mutuwa. Ta hanyar shawo kan wahala, ya koyar, mutum zai yi farin ciki da gaske.

Farkon Koyarwa sa. Darasinsa na farko bayan wayewarsa shine ga sauran masu neman waɗanda suma sun yi watsi da duniya. Wannan rukuni ne na tsarkaka maza ko sufaye waɗanda Buddha ta yi karatu tare da su tsawon shekaru biyar ko fiye. A gare su ya fara gabatar da abin da ya gani a matsayin Gaskiya ta Gaskiya ta Hudu da Hanyar Hanya Mai Girma Takwas (duba ƙasa). Waɗannan koyarwar suna gano musabbabin wahala da maganin su.

Alamu uku na wanzuwa. Buddha ta koyar da cewa an fi fahimtar rayuwa da zama ba ta dawwama (komai yana canzawa), mara gamsarwa (hagu a kanmu ba mu da farin ciki da gaske), da jituwa (duk abubuwa suna da alaƙa, har ma da cewa an fi fahimtar da kanmu a matsayin ruɗi) ).

Hanyar tsakiya. Addinin Buddha yana koyar da rashin cutarwa da daidaituwa ko daidaitawa, ba zuwa nesa da hanya ɗaya ko wata. Ana kiran wannan Hanyar Tsakiya, kuma yana ƙarfafa mutane su zauna cikin daidaito.

Tunani. Buddha ya ba da shawarar yin zuzzurfan tunani a matsayin wata hanya ta ladabtar da hankali da ganin duniya yadda take. Buddhist na iya yin zuzzurfan tunani yayin da suke zaune a wata hanya ta musamman ko takamaiman. Tsayawa da yin zuzzurfan tunani wasu salon ne.

Guba uku. Yayin tattauna wahalar, Buddha ya gano guba uku na sha'awa, fushi da wauta, kuma ya nuna cewa za mu iya kawo ƙarshen wahalarmu ta hanyar barin son zuciya da shawo kan fushi da wauta.

Nirvana. Ana barin cikakken barin mummunan tasiri Nirvana, ma'ana "a bice," kamar kashe wutar kyandir. Wannan ƙarshen wahalar ana kiranta Haskakawa . A addinin Buddha, Haskakawa da Nirvana galibi ma'anarsu ɗaya.

Shin mabiya Buddha suna imani da allah ko alloli? Buddha bai faɗi cewa alloli suna wanzu ba ko babu, duk da cewa alloli suna taka rawa a cikin wasu labaran Buddha. Idan wani ya tambayi Buddha, "Shin akwai gumakan?" ya yi shiru mai martaba . Wato, ba zai tabbatar ko musantawa ba. Buddhist ba su yi imani da cewa mutane su nemi taimakon alloli don su cece su ko kawo musu wayewa ba. Maimakon haka ya kamata mutane suyi aiki da tafarkinsu mafi kyawon abin da zasu iya.

Sauran koyarwa. Yawancin ra'ayoyin Buddha ana samun su a cikin wasu addinan Indiya, musamman Hindu .

  • Karma. Karma yana nufin ayyuka, kuma Buddha ya koyar da cewa ayyuka suna da sakamako na alheri ko rashin lafiya. Idan mutane suka yanke shawara mai kyau zasu kasance cikin farin ciki da kwanciyar hankali.
"Don gujewa dukkan sharri
Don kyautatawa.
Don tsarkake tunanin mutum: Wannan koyarwar dukkan Buddha ne. " Dhammapāda, XIV, 5
  • Sabuwar rayuwa. Buddha ya koyar game da sake sabuwar rayuwa, ra'ayin cewa bayan mun mutu zamu iya sake haifuwa a wannan duniyar kuma mu fuskanci irin wahalar kamar rayuwar da ta gabata. Babban burin mai addinin Buddha shine neman wayewa (Nirvana) wanda ya sanya mu sama da sake-sakuwa da wahala. Wasu Buddha suna fahimtar ra'ayin ta hanyar waƙa, kuma ba ma'ana ta zahiri ba.

Wanene Buddha?Gyara

Buddha kalma ce ta Pali wacce ke nufin " Farkakke ". Wani wanda ya farka daga gaskiyar hankali da wahala kuma ya koyar da gaskiya ga wasu ana kiransa Buddha. Kalmar "Buddha" galibi tana nufin Buddha na tarihi mai suna Buddha Shakyamuni ( Siddhartha Gautama ). [4] Buddhist ba su yarda cewa Buddha allah ne ba, amma shi mutum ne wanda ya farka kuma zai iya ganin hanyar da hankali ke aiki. Sunyi imanin cewa wannan ilimin gabaɗaya yakan canza mutum. Wannan mutumin na iya taimakawa wasu su zama masu wayewa shima. Mutane masu wayewa sun wuce haihuwa, mutuwa, da sake haihuwa.

Wanene Buddha na farko?Gyara

Dangane da Buddha, akwai Buddha da yawa a gaban Buddha Gautama kuma za a sami Buddha da yawa a bayansa.

A cikin rubutun Pali, Buddha na farko a Buddhavamsa sutta shine Buddha Taṇhaṅkara. Mahapadana sutta ya ce Buddha na farko na buddha bakwai da suka gabata shine Vipassi Buddha ( Amma sutta baya cewa Vipassi shine Buddha na farko ). Idaya daga kalpa na yanzu (farkon duniyarmu ta yanzu (Duniya)) Buddha Gautama ana ɗaukar Buddha na huɗu. A cikin wannan bayanin, na farko shi ne Buddha na Kakibanho, na biyu na Konakamano Buddha, da na uku Buddha na Kassapo. Buddha na ƙarshe na wannan kalpa zai kasance Maitreya Buddha. Sannan duniya (Duniya) zata sabunta kanta kuma daga nan ne zata fara sabon kalpa .

Imani na BuddhaGyara

Lu'ulu'u guda ukuGyara

Buddha suna girmamawa da daraja Jauhari Uku, waɗanda su ne Buddha, da Dharma, da Sangha .

Buddha na nufin wanda aka farka, Dharma ga koyarwar Buddha, kuma Sangha ga mutanen da ke bin Buddha da koyarwarsa.

Buddhist sun ce "Na nemi mafaka a Buddha, da Dharma, da Sangha." Suna samun ta'aziyya a cikin waɗannan kayan adon ko dukiyar.

Gaskiya huɗu masu darajaGyara

Buddha ta farko kuma mafi mahimmancin gaske wanda ta koyar koyarwar ita ce Gaskiya guda Hudu .

  1. Rayuwa tana wahala.
  2. Dalilin wannan wahala shine muna son abubuwa su zama wata hanya.
  3. Hanyar warkar da wahala shine tashi sama da wannan sha'awar.
  4. Hanyar da zata tashi sama da sha'awa shine bin Hanya Mai Sau Uku, ayyukan da ke taimaka mana canza tunaninmu da fahimta.


Hanyoyi masu Girma TakwasGyara

Buddha ta gaya wa mutane su bi hanya ta musamman ta rayuwa da ake kira Hanya Mai Girma Takwas idan suna son fahimtar Gaskiya Masu Daraja Hudu . Wadannan su ne:

  1. Ra'ayoyi masu dacewa. San sani da fahimtar Gaskiya ta Huɗu
  2. Tunani mai dacewa. Kawo hankalinka daga duniya ka nufi Dharma
  3. Jawabin da ya dace. Faɗi gaskiya, kada ku yi tsegumi, kuma kada ku yi mummunan magana game da wasu
  4. Halin da ya dace. Kada ku aikata mugunta, kamar kisa, sata, ko yin rayuwar ƙazanta
  5. Abincin da ya dace. Samun kuɗin ku ta hanyar da ba za ta cutar da kowa ba
  6. Daidaitaccen ƙoƙari. Yi aiki don sanya zuciyarka ta zama mafi kyau kuma ta rage sharri
  7. Daidaita hankali. Ka tuna da Dharma kuma yi amfani da shi koyaushe
  8. Nuna tunani mai kyau. Yi zuzzurfan tunani a matsayin hanyar fahimtar gaskiya

Dokoki guda biyarGyara

Ana ƙarfafa mabiya addinin Buddha su bi ƙa'idodi biyar, ko kuma jagorori. Buddha ta koyar da cewa kisa, sata, yin jima'i ta mummunar hanya, da yin ƙarya ba alamun fasaha ba ne.

  1. Ba zan cutar da mutum ko dabba da ke raye ba.
  2. Ba zan dauki wani abu ba idan ba a ba ni ba.
  3. Ba zan shiga cikin lalata ba.
  4. Ba zan yi karya ko fadin abin da zai cutar da mutane ba.
  5. Ba zan sha kayan maye ba, kamar barasa ko kwayoyi, masu haifar da rashin kulawa.

Idan mutum yana son zama mai zuhudu ko tsoron abin bauta, shi ko ita ma za su bi wasu ƙa'idodin .

ManazartaGyara

  1. Chambers Dictionary, 2006; Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 2003; New Penguin Handbook of Living Religions, 1998; Dewey Decimal System of Book Classification
  2. For example: Thich Nhat Hanh, Path White Clouds|Old Path White Clouds For example: Dorothy Figen, Is Buddhism a Religion?
  3. For example: Narada Thera, Buddhism in a Nutshell, http://www.buddhanet.net/nutshell03.htm
  4. see, for example, Basic points unifying the Theravāda and the Mahāyāna.

Wasu shafukan yanar gizoGyara