Zanen Ɗaki shi ne ɗaki a cikin gidan da za a iya yin nishaɗi da baƙi, kuma kalmar tarihi ce ga abin da a yanzu za a kira shi falo, kodayake za a ce manyan gidajen yau, gidajen ƙasa, da manyan gidaje (da wasu garuruwa ) a Biritaniya don samun ɗakunan zane. Sunan ya samo asali daga sharuddan ƙarni na 16 na janye ɗaki da ɗakin ɗaki, wanda ya ci gaba da amfani har zuwa ƙarni na 17, kuma ya fara bayyana a rubuce a cikin shekara ta 1642. [1] A cikin babban gidan Ingilishi na ƙarni na 16 zuwa farkon karnyi na 18, ɗakin janyewa shine ɗaki wanda mai gidan, matar sa, ko fitaccen bako wanda ke mamaye ɗayan manyan gidaje a cikin gidan na iya "janyewa" don ƙarin sirrin . Sau da yawa yana kan babban ɗakin (ko babban zuriyar ɗakin, ɗakin jihar ) kuma galibi ana kaiwa zuwa ɗakin kwana, ko "jihar". [2]

Wikidata.svgƊakin Zane
Cliffe Castle Small Drawing Room (185060597).jpeg
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na Daki
Bangare na gida da mansion (en) Fassara
Dakin zane na Sir William Burrell ; wani ɓangare na Tarin Burrell a Glasgow, Scotland

A cikin gidaje na zamani, ana iya amfani da shi azaman sunan da ya dace don ɗakin kwana na biyu ko na gaba, amma babu wani aiki na musamman da ke da alaƙa da sunan.

Tarihi da cigabaGyara

 
Zanen Ɗaki na tsakiyar aji a cikin Blackheath, London, 1841, James Holland ne ya zana shi

A cikin ƙarni na 18 na London, ana kiran liyafar safiyar sarauta da Faransanci ya kira levées "ɗakunan zane", tare da ma'anar cewa membobin kotun da ke da gata za su taru a ɗakin zane a wajen ɗakin kwanan sarki. bayyanar jama'a na ranar.

A lokacin yakin basasar Amurka, a Fadar White House ta Confederacy a Richmond, Virginia, ɗakin zane ya kasance a ɗakin ɗakin inda shugaban CSA Jefferson Davis ya gai da baƙi. A ƙarshen waɗannan gaisuwar, maza sun kasance a cikin parlour don yin magana game da siyasa kuma matan sun koma ɗakin zane don tattaunawar su. Wannan al'ada ce ta gama gari a cikin gungun masu wadata na Kudancin Amurka .

A cikin shekara ta 1865, littafin gine -gine a Ingila ya bayyana "ɗakin zane" ta wannan hanyar: [3]

 
Dakin zane na Indiya

Har zuwa tsakiyar karni na ashirin, bayan cin abincin dare matan gidan cin abincin sun janye zuwa ɗakin zane, sun bar mazaje a teburin, inda aka cire mayafin tebur. Bayan tazarar taɗi, galibi tana tare da brandy ko tashar jiragen ruwa kuma wani lokacin sigari, mazajen sun sake komawa cikin mata a ɗakin zane.

Kalmar zane ba a amfani da ita sosai kamar yadda ake yi a da, kuma ana son amfani da ita a Biritaniya kawai waɗanda ke da sauran ɗakunan liyafa, kamar ɗakin safiya, ƙirar karni na 19 don ɗakin zama, galibi da gabas fallasawa, wanda ya dace da kiran rana, ko falo na tsakiyar aji, ƙaddarar ƙarshen karyni na 19 don ɗakin da za a huta. Don haka ɗakin zane shine ɗaki mafi wayo a cikin gidan, galibi tsofaffi na iyali ke amfani dashi lokacin nishaɗi. Ana amfani da wannan kalmar sosai a Indiya da Pakistan, mai yiwuwa tun daga zamanin mulkin mallaka, a cikin manyan biranen biranen da akwai dakuna da yawa.

Kalmar parlour da farko ta ƙaddara mafi ƙarancin ɗakunan liyafa na ɗaliban tsakiyar, amma amfani ya canza a cikin Burtaniya yayin da masu gida ke neman zama tare da manyan gidajen masu hannu da shuni. Parlor ya kasance amfanin yau da kullun a Arewacin Amurka zuwa farkon ƙarni na 20. A cikin amfani da Faransanci kalmar salon, wanda a baya ya keɓanta ɗakin gwamnati, an fara amfani da shi don ɗakin zane a farkon ƙarni na 19, yana nuna tarukan zamantakewar salon da suka shahara a shekarun da suka gabata.

Amfani da layin dogoGyara

Kalmar zane dakin tarihi kuma an yi amfani da shi a kan wasu masaukin jirgin ƙasa na fasinja, yana tsara wasu daga cikin mafi fa'ida da tsada masu zaman kansu da ake samu a cikin motar bacci ko motar jirgin ƙasa mai zaman kansa . Misali, mai suna kamar haka, shi ne Midland Railway “Car Drawing Room Car” a shekara ta 1874 wanda Pullman ya yi kuma aka shigo da shi daga Amurka. [4]

A Arewacin Amurka, yana nufin ɗaki wanda ke kwana da mutane uku ko fiye, tare da gidan wanki mai zaman kansa. [5] Kodayake Amtrak ya yi ritaya motocin baccinsa waɗanda aka gina da ɗakunan zane, Via Rail Canada ke amfani da su . Ana ganin nomenclature na gargajiya a matsayin archaic, saboda haka ana sayar da su azaman "dakuna uku."

Zane zane yakeGyara

Roomakin zane, kasancewar ɗaki a cikin gidan don nishadantar da baƙi, ya ba da suna ga wasan kwaikwayo na ɗaki, salo na abubuwan wasan kwaikwayo da hotuna masu motsi . Farawa da farkon wasan kwaikwayo, wasan ɗakin zane ya ɓullo don yalwaci wasan kwaikwayo har ma ya haɗa da siffofin kalma mai ban mamaki. Tsarin wasan da kansa ya kuma girma daga wasan kwaikwayon ɗakin zane na gargajiya kuma ya koma babban gidan wasan kwaikwayo da fim. Yayin da ɗakin zane da kansa ya faɗi ƙasa, tsarin wasan ya ci gaba da samar da tushen nishaɗi.

Zane dakin comedy yawanci siffofi wit da fi'ili banter tsakanin m, leisured, genteel, babba aji haruffa. Har ila yau ana kiran wasan kwaikwayo na ɗakin zane "wasan kwaikwayo na ɗabi'a ". Oscar Wilde 's 1895 Muhimmancin Kasancewa Mai Neman Ƙwarewa da yawancin wasan kwaikwayo na Noël Coward ayyukan al'ada ne na salo. George Bernard Shaw 's 1919 Heartbreak House yana ƙara ƙaramin zargi na zamantakewa ga nau'in. Cary Grant ya fito a cikin jerin shirye-shiryen zane-zane na ɗakin zane. An san Ernst Lubitsch musamman a matsayin darektan wasan kwaikwayo na ɗakin zane.

ManazartaGyara

  1. http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/57558 "drawing-room", Oxford English Dictionary, "1642 Ld. Sunderland Let. to Wife, The king..is very cheerful, and by the bawdy discourse I thought I had been in the drawing room."
  2. Nicholas Cooper, Houses of the Gentry 1480–1680 (English Heritage) 1999: "Parlours and withdrawing rooms 289–93.
  3. Kerr, Robert. The Gentleman's House: or, How to Plan English Residences, from the Parsonage to the Palace; with Tables of Accommodation and Cost, and a Series of Selected Plans. London: John Murray, 1865, p. 107.
  4. https://www.flickr.com/photos/terry_browne/6821217682/
  5. "Three is no crowd... In the Drawing Room Built by Pullman-Standard," 1945 magazine ad for Pullman sleeping cars, Ad*Access, Duke University Libraries Digital Collections, accessed 9 November 2013.