Itace ne tsirrai ko kuma kawai tsirran shine tsirrai wanda ke rayuwa sama da shekaru biyu. [1] Kalmar ( per- + -nnial, "ta cikin shekaru") galibi ana amfani da ita don rarrabe shuka daga gajerun shekaru da biennials . Hakanan ana amfani da kalmar sosai don rarrabe tsirrai tare da ƙarancin girma ko babu girma (girma na biyu a girth) daga bishiyoyi da bishiyoyi, waɗanda su ma ƙwaƙƙwaran shekaru ne.

Chicory na yau da kullun, Cichorium intybus, tsire -tsire ne na ganye
Wikidata.svgShuka mai Shekaru
Cykoria podroznik pokroj.jpg
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na Shuka
Hannun riga da Shuka na Shekara-Shekara
wannan filawar tana daga cikin tsirrai ko shuka mai shekaru a duniya

Shukoki masu shekaru — musamman ƙananan tsire -tsire masu furanni — waɗanda ke girma da fure akan bazara da bazara, suna mutuwa kowane kaka da hunturu, sannan su dawo a cikin bazara daga tushen su ko wani tsarin da ya mamaye su, an san su da perennials . Ko yaya, ya danganta da tsananin yanayin gida (zazzabi, danshi, abubuwan da ke cikin ƙasa, ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta), shuka wanda ke zama a cikin mazaunin sa na asali, ko a cikin lambun da ya fi sauƙi, mai lambu na iya kula da shi a zaman shekara -shekara da shuka kowace shekara, daga iri, daga cuttings, ko daga rarrabuwa. Tumatir inabõbi, misali, live shekaru da dama a cikin halitta wurare masu zafi / subtropical mazauninsu amma suna girma kamar yadda annuals a temperate yankunan domin su sama-ƙasa biomass ba tsira da hunturu.

Hakanan akwai aji na har abada, ko marasa tsiro, perennials, gami da tsirrai kamar Bergenia waɗanda ke riƙe da mayafi na ganye a duk shekara. An san wani tsaka -tsakin tsirrai da ake kira subshrubs, wanda ke riƙe da tsarin katako a cikin hunturu, misali. Penstemon .

Alamar shuka na shekara -shekara, dangane da nau'ikan Plantarum ta Linnaeus, alama ce ta wakilta:Ƙari</img> , wanda kuma shine alamar astronomical ga duniyar Jupiter . [2]

Zagayen rayuwa da tsariGyara

Shuke -shuke masu shekaru da yawa sun fi yawan shuke -shuke (shuke -shuke da ke da ganyayyaki da mai tushe waɗanda ke mutuwa a ƙasa a ƙarshen lokacin girma kuma wanda ke nuna girma na farko kawai) ko na itace (shuke -shuke masu ɗorewa sama da tushe mai tushe wanda ke tsira daga lokacin girma zuwa na gaba, tare da ci gaban firamare da na sakandare, ko girma cikin fa'ida ta kariya ta waje), wasu kuma har abada suna da ganye mai ɗorewa ba tare da tushe ba. Suna iya zama na ɗan gajeren lokaci ('yan shekaru kawai) ko tsawon rai. Sun haɗa da ƙungiyoyi daban-daban na tsire-tsire daga tsire-tsire marasa furanni kamar ferns da hanta zuwa ga shuke-shuken furanni iri-iri kamar orchids, ciyawa, da tsirrai . Shuke -shuke da furanni da 'ya'yan itace sau ɗaya kawai sannan suka mutu ana kiranta monocarpic ko semelparous, waɗannan nau'in na iya rayuwa na shekaru da yawa kafin su yi fure, misali, shuka na ƙarni na iya rayuwa tsawon shekaru 80 kuma ya yi tsayi mita 30 kafin fure da mutuwa. Koyaya, yawancin perennials sune polycarpic (ko iteroparous), suna fure akan yanayi da yawa a rayuwarsu. Perennials suna saka albarkatu fiye da na shekara -shekara zuwa tushen, rawanin, da sauran sifofi waɗanda ke ba su damar rayuwa daga shekara guda zuwa na gaba, amma suna da fa'idar gasa saboda za su iya fara haɓaka su kuma cika a farkon lokacin girma fiye da shekara -shekara, a yin haka za su iya yin gasa mafi kyau don sararin samaniya da tattara ƙarin haske.

Shuke-shuke masu shekaru galibi suna haɓaka tsarukan da ke ba su damar dacewa da rayuwa daga shekara guda zuwa na gaba ta hanyar siyan tsiro maimakon shuka. Waɗannan tsarin sun haɗa da kwararan fitila, tubers, rawanin katako, rhizomes da turions . Suna iya samun tushe na musamman ko rawanin da zai ba su damar tsira lokacin bacci akan lokacin sanyi ko lokacin bushewa a cikin shekarar. Shekara -shekara, sabanin haka, suna samar da iri don ci gaba da nau'in a matsayin sabon ƙarni. A lokaci guda, lokacin shuka ya dace, kuma tsaba suna rayuwa akan sanyi ko lokacin bushewa don fara girma lokacin da yanayin ya sake dacewa.

Yawancin perennials suna da fasali na musamman waɗanda ke ba su damar tsira daga matsanancin yanayin muhalli. Wasu sun saba da yanayin zafi ko bushe wasu kuma sun yi sanyi sosai; suna son saka hannun jari a cikin daidaitawarsu kuma galibi ba su yin fure da saita iri har sai bayan 'yan shekarun girma. A cikin yanayin yanayin zafi duk tsawon shekara, perennials shuke-shuke masu shekari na iya ci gaba da girma. A cikin yanayin yanayi, ci gaban su yana iyakance ta zafin jiki ko danshi zuwa lokacin girma.

Wasu tsirrai da yawa suna riƙe da ganyen su shekara-shekara; Waɗannan su ne shuke -shuke marasa tushe. Ƙwayayyun bishiyoyi suna zubar da duk ganyensu na shekara, sun haɗa da tsire -tsire masu tsire -tsire da na itace; tsire-tsire masu tsire-tsire suna da tushe wanda ba shi da ƙarfi, girma mai ƙarfi, yayin da tsire-tsire masu ƙarfi suna da tushe tare da tsiron da ke rayuwa sama da ƙasa yayin dormancy, wasu perennials shuke-shuke masu shekaru ba su da yawa, ma'ana suna rasa wasu daga cikin ganyayyakin su a cikin hunturu ko bazara. Ƙwayoyin da ba su da yawa suna zubar da ganyensu lokacin da yanayin girma bai dace da photosynthesis ba, kamar lokacin sanyi ko bushewa. A wurare da yawa na duniya, ana nuna yanayin yanayi a matsayin lokacin rigar da bushewa maimakon lokacin zafi da sanyi, kuma tsirrai masu shuɗewa suna rasa ganyensu a lokacin bazara.

Ana kiyaye wasu tsirrai na tsirrai daga gobarar daji saboda suna da tushen ƙasa wanda ke haifar da harbe -harbe, kwararan fitila, kambi, ko tushe ; [3] wasu tsirrai kamar bishiyoyi da bishiyoyi na iya samun yadudduka masu kauri da ke kare mai tushe. Tsarin tsire -tsire masu tsire -tsire daga yankuna masu tsaka -tsaki da tsaunuka na duniya na iya jure sanyi yayin hunturu.

Tsarin shuke -shuke na iya zama na dindin na dogon lokaci sannan kuma ya ba da shawarar haɓaka da haɓaka lokacin da yanayi ya fi dacewa, yayin da yawancin tsire -tsire na shekara -shekara ke kammala zagayen rayuwarsu a lokacin girma ɗaya, kuma biennials suna da lokacin girma biyu.

Meristem na tsire -tsire masu tsire -tsire suna magana da hormones da aka samar saboda yanayin muhalli (watau yanayi), haifuwa, da matakin ci gaba don farawa da dakatar da ikon girma ko fure. Hakanan akwai bambanci tsakanin ikon girma da ainihin aikin haɓaka. Misali, yawancin bishiyoyi suna samun ikon yin girma a lokacin hunturu amma basa fara haɓaka jiki har zuwa lokacin bazara da bazara. Ana iya ganin farkon dormancy a cikin tsire -tsire masu tsire -tsire ta hanyar bushewar furanni, asarar ganyayyaki akan bishiyoyi, da dakatar da haifuwa a duka furanni da tsiro.

Bishiyoyi masu dogon kwana jinsunan iya nuna mun gwada manyan tsaba da cewa suna da amfani na samar da ya fi girma seedlings cewa za a fi gasa da sauran shuke-shuke. Perennials kuma suna samar da tsaba tsawon shekaru da yawa.

NomaGyara

Shuke-shuke masu shekaru da ake nomawa sun haɗa da: tsirrai masu itace kamar bishiyoyin 'ya'yan itace da aka shuka don' ya'yansu masu cin abinci; shrubs da bishiyoyin da aka girma kamar kayan ado na shimfidar wuri; amfanin gona na ganye kamar bishiyar asparagus, rhubarb, strawberries ; da tsire -tsire masu saukin yanayi ba su da ƙarfi a cikin wurare masu sanyi kamar tumatir, eggplant, da coleus (waɗanda ake bi da su shekara -shekara a wuraren sanyi). Perennials kuma sun haɗa da tsire -tsire da aka shuka don furannin su da sauran ƙimar kayan ado ciki har da: kwararan fitila (kamar tulips, narcissus, da gladiolus); da ciyawar ciyawa, da sauran murfin ƙasa, (kamar periwinkle [lower-alpha 1] da <i id="mwhA">Dichondra</i> ). [7]

Kowane nau'in shuka dole ne a rarrabe daban; misali, shuke -shuke waɗanda ke da tsarin tushen fibrous kamar yini -rana, Siberian iris ko ciyawa za a iya raba su tare da allurar lambu guda biyu da aka saka a baya, ko a yanka ta wuƙaƙe. Koyaya, tsirrai irin su gemun gemu suna da tsarin rhizomes; Dole ne a dasa waɗannan tushen tushen tare da saman rhizome sama da matakin ƙasa, tare da ganyayyaki daga shekara mai zuwa. Batun raba perennials shine don haɓaka adadin nau'in shuka guda ɗaya a cikin lambun ku. A Amurka an sayar da fiye da dalar Amurka miliyan 900 na tsirrai na tsirrai masu shuke -shuke a shekarar 2019.

 
Shuke -shuken Dahlia tsirrai ne masu taushi waɗanda suka samo asali daga yanayin yanayin zafi duk shekara kuma suna buƙatar kulawa ta musamman don tsira daga lokacin sanyi.

Amfanin nomaGyara

 
Switchgrass shine tsiro mai tushe. Waɗannan tushen sun fi tsayin mita 3.

Ko da yake yawancin mutane ana ciyar da su ta hanyar sake shuka iri na amfanin gona na hatsi na shekara-shekara, (ko ta halitta ko ta ƙoƙarin ɗan adam), amfanin gona na shekara-shekara yana ba da fa'idodi masu yawa. [8] Perennial shuke-shuke masu shekaru sau da yawa da zurfi, m tushen tsarin wanda zai iya riƙe ƙasa don hana yashewa, kama narkar da nitrogen da shi zai iya sama kasa da kuma ruwa surface, da kuma fitar da-gasa weeds (rage bukatar herbicides ). Waɗannan fa'idodin fa'idoji na dindindin sun haifar da sabbin ƙoƙarin ƙara yawan amfanin gona na nau'ikan tsirrai, [9] wanda zai iya haifar da ƙirƙirar sabbin amfanin gona na tsirrai. [10] Wasu misalan sabbin amfanin gona da ake ci gaba da haɓakawa sune shinkafa mai ɗorewa da ciyawar alkama . Cibiyar Land ta kiyasta cewa amfanin gona, amfanin gona na amfanin gona mai ɗimbin yawa zai ɗauki aƙalla shekaru 25 kafin a cimma.

WuriGyara

Template:Stereo image Shuke -shuken tsirrai suna mamaye tsarukan halittu da yawa a ƙasa da cikin ruwa mai daɗi, tare da kaɗan kaɗan (misali Zostera ) yana faruwa a cikin ruwan teku mara zurfi. Herbaceous perennial shuke-shuke ne musamman rinjaye a cikin yanayi ma wuta-yiwuwa ga itatuwa da kuma shrubs, misali, mafi shuke-shuke a kan prairies da kuma matakan ne Bishiyoyi masu dogon kwana. su ma sun fi rinjaye a kan tundra da sanyi sosai don girma itacen. Kusan duk tsire -tsire na gandun daji suna da yawa, gami da bishiyoyi da shrubs.

Tsire-tsire masu tsire-tsire galibi sune mafi kyawun masu fafatawa na dogon lokaci, musamman a ƙarƙashin kwanciyar hankali, yanayin talauci. Wannan ya faru ne saboda haɓaka manyan tsarin tushen da zai iya samun ruwa da abubuwan gina jiki ƙasa a cikin ƙasa kuma zuwa farkon fitowar bazara. Shuke -shuke na shekara -shekara suna da fa'ida a cikin mawuyacin yanayi saboda saurin haɓakarsu da haɓaka haɓakar su. [11]

Nau'ukanGyara

  • Misalan tsirrai masu shuɗi sun haɗa da Begonia da ayaba .
  • Misalan gandun daji na ganye sun haɗa da goldenrod da mint .
  • Misalan monocarpic perennials sun haɗa da Agave da wasu nau'ikan Streptocarpus .
  • Misalan woody Bishiyoyi masu dogon kwana hada da Maple, Pine, da kuma apple itatuwa.
  • Misalan herbaceous Bishiyoyi masu dogon kwana, a wajen noma hada alfalfa, Thinopyrum intermedium, da kuma Red Clover .

Jerin shuke-shuke masu shekaruGyara

Furen furanniGyara

Perennials da aka girma don furannin kayan ado sun haɗa da nau'ikan iri da iri. Misalan sun hada da

  • Dahlia
  • Kniphofia
  • Hollyhock
  • Lupin

'Ya'yan itãcen marmariGyara

Yawancin tsire -tsire masu ba da 'ya'ya suna da yawa ko da a cikin yanayin yanayi. Misalan sun hada da

Ganyen tsirraiGyara

Yawancin ganye suna da yawa har da waɗannan misalai:

Kayan lambu da yawaGyara

Yawancin tsire -tsire na kayan lambu na iya girma a matsayin tsirrai a cikin yanayin zafi, amma suna mutuwa a cikin yanayin sanyi. Misalan wasu daga cikin mafi yawan kayan lambu na yau da kullun sune:

Bayanan kulaGyara

 

ManazartaGyara

 

Hanyoyin wajeGyara

  1. The Garden Helper. The Difference Between Annual Plants and Perennial Plants in the Garden. Retrieved on 2008-06-22.
  2. Stearn, William T. "Botanical Latin" (four editions, 1966-92)
  3. R. F. Wagle. Fire, Its Effects on Plant Succession and Wildlife in the Southwest: Some Effects of Fire on Plant Succession and Variability in the Southwest from a Wildlife Management Viewpoint. School of Renewable Natural Resources, University of Arizona; 1981. p. 5.
  4. Cal-IPC (2017-03-20). "Vinca major Profile". California Invasive Plant Council. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
  5. Cooperative Research Centre for Australian Weed Management (2008). CRC Weed management Guide: Periwinkle - Vinca major (PDF). ISBN 978-1-920932-71-8. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
  6. Hawaiian Ecosystems at Risk project (HEAR). "Vinca major information from the Global Compendium of Weeds (GCW)". www.hear.org. Retrieved 17 June 2021.
  7. Janick 1986.
  8. Glover et al. Future Farming: A return to roots? Retrieved on 2008-11-11.
  9. Moffat 1996 Retrieved on 2008-11-14
  10. Cox et al. 2000 Retrieved on 2008-11-14
  11. Stephen B. Monsen. Proceedings--ecology and Management of Annual Rangelands. United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, Intermountain Research Station; 1994. p. 342–.


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