Hamadar Gobi ( /ˈɡ oʊ bi / ) wani babban hamada ne ko yanki mai buroshi a Gabashin Asiya . Ya shafi sassan arewaci da arewa maso gabashin kasar Sin da na kudancin Mongoliya . Mazaunan hamadar Gobi suna da iyaka da tsaunin Altai da ciyayi da ciyayi na Mongoliya a arewa, da hamadar Taklamakan a yamma, ta hanyar Hexi Corridor da Tibet Plateau zuwa kudu maso yamma da kuma filin da ke arewa maso gabashin kasar Sin wato China zuwa kudu maso gabas. .

Hamadar Gobi
Mongolia (35427009881).jpg
General information
Gu mafi tsayi Bogd Khan Mountain (en) Fassara
Height above mean sea level (en) Fassara 1,547 m
Tsawo 1,500 km
Yawan fili 2,354,460 km²
Labarin ƙasa
China edcp relief location map Gobi de.jpg
Geographic coordinate system (en) Fassara 42°30′N 103°00′E / 42.5°N 103°E / 42.5; 103
Kasa Sin da Mangolia

Gobi shi ne hamada na 6 mafi girma a duniya kuma na biyu mafi girma a Asiya bayan hamadar Larabawa . Sanannen abu ne a tarihi a matsayin wurin da manyan biranen da yawa ke kan hanyar siliki .

Gobi hamada ce ta inuwar ruwan sama, wanda Tibet Plateau ya kafa, wanda ke hana hazo daga Tekun Indiya zuwa yankin Gobi.

Ilimin sanin ƙasaGyara

Gobi ya auna sama da kimanin 1,600 kilometres (1,000 mi) daga kudu maso yamma zuwa arewa maso gabas da 800 kilometres (500 mi) daga arewa zuwa kudu. Hamada ta fi faɗi a yamma, tare da layin da ke haɗa tafkin Bosten da Lop Nor (87°-89° gabas). A cikin shekarata 2007, ta mamaye wani babban yanki a cikin yanki.

A cikin ma'anarsa mafi faɗi, Gobi ya haɗa da dogon zangon hamada wanda ya tashi daga ƙafar Pamirs (77 ° gabas) zuwa tsaunin Khingan mafi girma, har 116-118 ° gabas, a kan iyakar Manchuria ; kuma daga tudun tudun Altay, Sayan, da Yablonoi a arewa zuwa tsaunukan Kunlun, Altyn-Tagh, da tsaunukan Qilian, waɗanda suka zama gefuna na arewa na Tibet Plateau, a kudu.

Wani yanki mai girman gaske a gabas na babban kewayon Khingan, tsakanin kogin Songhua (Sungari) da na saman ruwan Liao-ho, ana la'akari da shi na Gobi ne ta hanyar amfani da al'ada. Wasu masana ilmin kasa da kuma nazarin halittu sun gwammace su yi la'akari da yankin yammacin yankin Gobi (kamar yadda aka bayyana a sama): rafin Tarim na Xinjiang da hamadar Lop Nor da Hami ( Kumul ), a matsayin hamada na daban kuma mai zaman kanta, wanda ake kira Desert Taklamakan . [1]

Yawancin Gobi ba yashi ba ne amma ya tona asirin dutse.

YanayiGyara

 
Gobi ta NASA World Wind
 
Yashi a yankin Mongoliya ta ciki mai cin gashin kanta, China
 
Wuraren Wuta a Mongoliya
 
Ovoo mai alfarma a cikin jejin Gobi
 
Yashi na Khongoryn Els, Gurvansaikhan NP, Mongolia
 
Ragowar babbar katangar kasar Sin a cikin hamadar Gobi

Gaba ɗaya, Gobi hamada ce mai sanyi, tare da sanyi da dusar ƙanƙara a wasu lokuta ke afkuwa akan kururuwar sa. Bayan kasancewar arewa mai nisa, kuma tana kan tudu mai kusan kimanin 910–1,520 metres (2,990–4,990 ft) sama da matakin teku, wanda ke ba da gudummawa ga ƙarancin yanayin zafi. Matsakaicin kusan 194 millimetres (7.6 in) na ruwan sama duk shekara a Gobi. Ƙarin danshi yana kaiwa sassan Gobi a lokacin hunturu yayin da dusar ƙanƙara ke kadawa daga iska daga Siberian Steppes. Wadannan iskoki na iya sa Gobi ya kai −40 °C (−40 °F) a cikin hunturu zuwa 45 °C (113 °F) a lokacin rani. [2]

Duk da haka, yanayin Gobi yana ɗaya daga cikin mafi girman matsayi, [1] tare da saurin canjin yanayin zafi [1] wanda ya kai 35 °C (63 °F) . . Wadannan na iya faruwa ba kawai na yanayi ba amma a cikin sa'o'i 24.

Zazzabi
(1190 m) Ulaanbaatar (1150 m)
Ma'ana ta shekara −2.5 °C (27.5 °F) −0.4 °C (31.3 °F)
Janairu nufi −26.5 °C (−15.7 °F) −21.6 °C (−6.9 °F)
Yuli yana nufin 17.5 °C (63.5 °F) 18.2 °C (64.8 °F)
Matsanancin −47 to 34 °C (−53 to 93 °F) −42.2 to 39.0 °C (−44.0 to 102.2 °F)

A kudancin Mongoliya, an yi rikodin yanayin zafi ƙasa da −32.8 °C (−27.0 °F) . Akasin haka, a cikin Alxa, Mongoliya ta ciki, ya haura sama da 37 °C (99 °F) a watan Yuli.

Matsakaicin mafi ƙarancin lokacin sanyi shine sanyi −21 °C (−6 °F), yayin da mafi yawan lokuta a lokacin rani yana da zafi 27 °C (81 °F) . Yawancin hazo yana faɗuwa a lokacin bazara.

Duk da cewa damina ta kudu maso gabas ta isa yankin kudu maso gabas na Gobi, yankin a duk fadin wannan yanki yana da tsananin bushewa, musamman a lokacin hunturu, lokacin da kwayar cutar Siberiya ta fi karfi. Wasu Yankunan kudanci da tsakiyar hamadar Gobi suna da saurin girma na tsiro saboda wannan aikin damina . Yawancin yankunan arewacin Gobi suna da sanyi da bushewa, wanda hakan ya sa ya kasa tallafawa girma da yawa; Wannan yanayin sanyi da bushewa ana danganta shi da ƙwayoyin cutar hawan jini na Siberiya-Mongoliya. Don haka, guguwar yashi mai ƙanƙara da dusar ƙanƙara na bazara da farkon bazara da farkon Janairu (hunturu).

Kiyaye, muhalli, da tattalin arzikiGyara

Hamadar Gobi ita ce tushen manyan burbushin halittu masu yawa, ciki har da ƙwayayen dinosaur na farko, ashirin da shida daga cikinsu, tsayin su ya kai inci 9 (23 cm), an gano su a cikin shekarata 1923. [3]

Masanan binciken burbushin halittu da masu binciken burbushin halittu sun yi tono a cikin Nemegt Basin a arewa maso yammacin yankin Gobi Desert (a Mongolia), wanda aka sani da dukiyar burbushinsa, gami da dabbobi masu shayarwa na farko, ƙwai dinosaur, da kayan aikin dutse na farko, kimanin shekaru a ƙalla 100,000.

Duk da matsanancin yanayi, waɗannan hamada da yankunan da ke kewaye da su suna kula da dabbobi da yawa, ciki har da berayen baƙar fata, ƙwanƙolin marmara, raƙuman Bactrian daji, jakin daji na Mongolian da masu yashi . Damisa dusar ƙanƙara, gobi bears da wolf ke ziyartan su lokaci-lokaci. Kadangare sun dace da yanayin hamadar Gobi, inda aka rarraba kusan nau'ikan 30 a iyakar kudancin Mongolian. Mafi yawan ciyayi a hamadar Gobi su ne ciyayi da suka dace da fari. Wadannan shrubs sun haɗa da gishiri sparrow's saltwort ( Salsola passerina ), launin toka mai launin toka, da ƙananan ciyawa kamar ciyawa da allura . Sakamakon kiwo na dabbobi, adadin ciyayi a cikin hamada ya ragu. [4] An kafa manyan wurare ne ajiyar yanayi da yawa a cikin Gobi, gami da Gobi Gurvansaikhan National Park, Great Gobi A da Great Gobi B Yanki mai Kariya .

Wurin yana da hatsarin tattakewa da dabbobi da ababen hawa a kan hanya (sakamakon taimakon mutane ya fi yawa a cikin hamadar Gobi ta gabas, inda ruwan sama ya fi yawa kuma yana iya ɗaukar dabbobi). A Mongoliya, awaki sun lalatar da wuraren ciyayi, waɗanda makiyaya ke kiwon su a matsayin tushen abinci na ulun cashmere . [5]

HamadaGyara

Hamadar Gobi tana fadada ta hanyar kwararowar hamada, cikin sauri a gefen kudu zuwa kasar Sin, wanda ya kai 3,600 square kilometres (1,390 sq mi) . na ciyawar ciyawa da ake cinyewa kowace shekara. Guguwar kura ta karu a tsakanin shekarar 1996 zuwa shekarar 2016, lamarin da ya kara yin illa ga tattalin arzikin kasar Sin. Sai dai kuma, a wasu yankunan kwararowar hamada ta ragu ko kuma ta koma baya.

Iyakar arewa da gabas tsakanin hamada da ciyayi suna canzawa kullum. Wannan yawanci saboda yanayin yanayi kafin lokacin girma, wanda ke yin tasiri akan ƙimar ƙashin ƙura da ci gaban shuka. [6]

Ana danganta fadada yankin na Gobi da ayyukan dan adam, a cikin gida sakamakon sare dazuzzuka, kiwo, da karanci albarkatun ruwa, da kuma sauyin yanayi .

Kasar Sin wato China ta yi kokari da tsare-tsare daban-daban na sassauta yaduwar hamada, wadanda aka samu wasu nasarori. Shirin gandun daji uku na arewa (ko "Green Great Wall") wani aikin dashen itatuwa na gwamnatin kasar Sin ne wanda aka fara shi a shekarar 1978 kuma zai ci gaba har zuwa shekarar 2050. Manufar shirin ita ce mayar da kwararowar hamada ta hanyar dasa bishiyar aspen da sauran itatuwa masu saurin girma a kan 36.5. hekta miliyan a fadin wasu kananan hukumomi kimanin 551 a larduna 12 na arewacin kasar Sin. [7]

EcoregionsGyara

Gobi, wanda aka fayyace, ana iya raba shi zuwa busassun bushes guda biyar, dangane da bambancin yanayi da yanayin yanayi:

  • Gabashin Hamadar Gobi, gabas mafi kusa da yankin Gobi, wanda ya mamaye yanki 281,800 square kilometres (108,804 sq mi) . Ya tashi daga Dutsen Mongoliya ta ciki a China zuwa Mongoliya. Ya haɗa da tsaunukan Yin da wurare da yawa masu ƙasƙanci tare da kwanon gishiri da ƙananan tafkuna. Tana da iyaka da yankin Mongolian-Manchurian ciyayi zuwa arewa, Kogin Yellow River zuwa kudu maso gabas, da yankin hamadar Alashan Plateau zuwa kudu maso gabas da gabas.
  • Alashan Plateau wani yanki na hamada, yana yamma da kudu maso yammacin hamadar Gobi ta Gabas. Ya ƙunshi raƙuman hamada da ƙananan tsaunuka da ke kwance tsakanin kewayon Gobi Altai a arewa, tsaunin Helan zuwa kudu maso gabas, da tsaunin Qilian da yankin arewa maso gabashin Tibet Plateau a kudu maso yamma.
  • Kogin Gobi Lakes Valley steppe hamada, ecoregion ya ta'allaka ne da arewa da hamadar Alashan Plateau, tsakanin tsaunukan Gobi Altai zuwa kudu da tsaunin Khangai a arewa.
  • Dzungarian Basin Semi-hamada, ya haɗa da rafin hamada da ke kwance tsakanin tsaunukan Altai a arewa da kewayon Tian Shan a kudu. Ya hada da yankin arewacin lardin Xinjiang na kasar Sin, ya kuma yadu zuwa kudu maso gabashin Mongoliya. Yankin hamadar Alashan Plateau yana a gabas, kuma kwarin Emin ya taka zuwa yamma, akan iyakar China da Kazakhstan .
  • Tian Shan kewayo, ya raba yankin Basin na Dzungarian da ke cikin hamadar Taklamakan, wanda wani yanki ne mara nauyi, mai yashi mai yashi wanda ke kewaye da manyan tsaunukan Tibet Plateau zuwa kudu da Pamirs zuwa yamma. Hamadar Taklamakan ta hada da Hamadar Lop .

Gabashin Gobi hamada steppeGyara

 
Rakuman Bactrian a lardin Bayankhongor na Mongoliya
 
Wani Khulan ( Mongolian daji ass ) a kan wani tudu a gabashin Gobi na Mongoliya a lokacin faduwar rana.

Filayen ya bambanta sosai, kodayake babu wani babban bambance-bambance a tsayin tsaye. Tsakanin Ulaanbaatar (48°00′N 107°00′E / 48.000°N 107.000°E / 48.000; 107.000 ) da ƙaramin tabkin Iren-dubasu-nor.43°45′N 111°50′E / 43.750°N 111.833°E / 43.750; 111.833 ), fuskar ta lalace sosai. An raba faffadan ɓangarorin lebur da basins ta ƙungiyoyin tsaunuka masu saman lebur na ɗan ƙaramin tsayi a ƙalla 150 to 180 metres (490 to 590 ft) ), ta hanyar da duwatsu masu banƙyama ke fitowa a matsayin tudu da keɓantattun talakawa. Kasan ɓangarorin suna kwance mafi yawa tsakanin 900 to 1,000 metres (3,000 to 3,300 ft) sama da matakin teku. Gaban kudu, tsakanin Iren-dutiasu-nor da kogin Yellow, ya zo wani yanki mai faffadan tuddai masu juye-juye tare da filayen tudu, na karshen yana kan tsayin 1000-1100. m kuma na farko a cikin 1,070 to 1,200 metres (3,510 to 3,940 ft) . Gandun dajin suna da yawa ko ƙasa da ƙasa kuma a wasu lokuta "bays" na ciyayi suna shiga.

Yayin da ake gabatowa kan iyakar Hyangan, ƙasar a hankali ta haura zuwa 1,370 metres (4,490 ft) . sannan zuwa 1,630 metres (5,350 ft) . Anan ƙananan tafkuna akai-akai suna cika ɓacin rai, ko da yake ruwan da ke cikin su galibi gishiri ne ko maras nauyi. Duk a nan kuma na 320 kilometres (199 mi) kudancin Ulaanbaatar, rafuka suna yawan girma kuma ciyawa suna girma ko ƙasa da yawa. Ta cikin dukkan sassan tsakiya, har sai an kai tsaunuka masu iyaka, bishiyoyi da shrubs ba su nan. Laka da yashi sune manyan abubuwan da aka samu; magudanan ruwa, musamman a arewa, ana yawan tono su sau 2 to 3 metres (6 ft 7 in to 9 ft 10 in) zurfi. A wurare da yawa a cikin ɗakin kwana, busassun kwari ko ɓacin rai a kudu, gadaje na loess, a Ikon 5 to 6 metres (16 to 20 ft) lokacin farin ciki, an fallasa su. Yammacin hanyar daga Ulaanbaatar zuwa Kalgan, ƙasar tana ba da kusan siffofi na gaba ɗaya, sai dai cewa tsaunuka ba su warwatse ba bisa ka'ida ba a cikin ƙungiyoyi amma sun fi ƙarfin ma'anar bugun jini, galibi gabas zuwa yamma, yamma-arewa-yamma zuwa gabas-kudu. -gabas, da yamma-kudu-yamma zuwa gabas-arewa-gabas.

Tsawon tsaunuka sun fi girma, na tsaunukan da ke tsakanin 1,000 to 1,700 metres (3,300 to 5,600 ft), da waɗanda ke cikin jeri daga Dari biyu 200 to 500 metres (660 to 1,640 ft) mafi girma, kodayake a wasu lokuta sun kai tsayin 2,400 metres (7,900 ft) . Tsaunukan ba sa kafa sarƙoƙi masu ci gaba, amma sun haɗa da ƙugiya na gajerun ƙugiya da ƙungiyoyi waɗanda ke tasowa daga tushe ɗaya kuma suna tare da labyrinth na kwazazzabo, magudanar ruwa, glazs, da kwanduna. Amma filayen teburi, waɗanda aka gina su da jajayen rijiyoyin Han-gai ( Obruchev 's Gobi formation) waɗanda ke halayen yankunan kudancin gabashin Mongoliya, ba su nan a nan ko kuma suna faruwa ne kawai a wani yanki, kusa da kogin Shara-muren. . Ana haɗuwa da su sosai ta hanyar gullies ko busassun magudanan ruwa. Ruwa ya yi karanci, babu rafuka, babu tafki, babu rijiyoyi, da hazo ba safai ba. Iskar da ta tashi daga yamma da arewa maso yamma, kuma turbaya ta mamaye kasar kamar a cikin Taklamakan da hamadar Lop . Halayen flora sune tafarnuwa daji, Kalidium gracile, wormwood, saxaul, Nitraria schoberi, Caragana, Ephedra, saltwort da ciyawa Lasiagrostis splendens . Albasar daji ta taana Allium polyrrhizum ita ce babban binciken da dabbobin kiwo da yawa ke ci, kuma 'yan Mongoliya suna da'awar cewa hakan yana da mahimmanci wajen samar da daidaitattun bayanai masu kama da hazelnut na raƙumi airag (madara mai ƙima).

Babbar hamadar ya ketare ta hanyoyi da dama na kasuwanci, wasu daga cikinsu ana amfani da su tsawon dubban shekaru masu yawa. Daga cikin mafi mahimmanci akwai waɗanda daga Kalgan (a Babban Ganuwar) zuwa Ulaanbaatar ( 960 kilometres (597 mi) ); daga Jiuquan (a Gansu ) zuwa Hami 670 kilometres (416 mi) ; daga Hami zuwa Beijing ( 2,000 kilometres (1,243 mi) ); daga Hohhot zuwa Hami da Barkul; kuma daga Lanzhou (a Gansu) zuwa Hami. [1]

Alashan Plateau Semi-hamadaGyara

 
Banner na Hagu Alxa, Mongoliya ta ciki, China

Yankin kudu maso yammacin Gobi, wanda aka fi sani da Xitao da Ƙananan Gobi, ya cika sarari tsakanin babban madauki na arewa na kogin Yellow a gabas, kogin Ejin a yamma, da tsaunin Qilian da ƙunƙarar sarkar dutse na Longshou., 3,200 to 3,500 metres (10,500 to 11,500 ft) a tsayi, a kudu maso yamma. Hamadar Ordos, wacce ta mamaye yankin arewa maso gabas na Ordos Plateau, a cikin babban madauki na arewa na Kogin Rawaya, wani bangare ne na wannan yanayin. Yana cikin tsakiyar kwandon manyan ɓangarori Har guda uku waɗanda Potanin ya raba Gobi gaba ɗaya a cikinsu.

"A zahiri," in ji Nikolai Przhevalsky, "launi ne mai kyau, wanda a cikin dukkan yiwuwar sau ɗaya ya kafa gado na babban tafkin ko teku." Ya kammala wannan ne bisa la’akari da matakin yanki na gaba daya, yumɓu mai tauri mai ƙarfi da ƙasa mai yashi da kuma, a ƙarshe, tafkunan gishiri waɗanda ke mamaye mafi ƙanƙanta sassa. Tsawon ɗarurruwan kilomita, ba a iya ganin komai sai yashi mara kyau; a wasu wuraren, suna ci gaba har zuwa yanzu ba tare da hutu ba cewa Mongols suna kiran su Tengger (watau sama). Waɗannan faɗuwar faɗuwar ruwa ba su da ruwa kwata-kwata, haka nan babu wani tsaunuka da ke kawar da yashi mai rawaya da ba a karye ba, wanda ke jujjuya shi da ɗimbin wurare na yumbu mai gishiri ko kuma, kusa da ƙafar tsaunuka, tare da shingle bakarare. Ko da yake a duk faɗin ƙasa mai matsakaicin tsayi mai tsayi 1,000 to 1,500 metres (3,300 to 4,900 ft), wannan sashe, kamar sauran sassa na Gobi, yana da kambi ta hanyar hanyar sadarwa na tsaunuka da raguwa na akalla guda 300. m a cikin girma. Tsire-tsire yana iyakance ga wasu nau'ikan bushes da dozin iri iri na ciyawa da ganyaye, wanda ya fi dacewa shine saxaul ( Haloxylon ammondendron ) da Agriophyllum gobicum . Sauran sun hada da prickly convolvulus, filin wormwood ( Artemisia campestris ), acacia, Inula ammophila, Sophora flavescens, Convolvulus ammanii, Peganum da Astragalus nau'in, amma duk dwarfed, nakasassu da yunwa. Dabbobin sun ƙunshi kaɗan amma tururuwa, kerkeci, fox, kurege, bushiya, marten, lizards masu yawa da wasu ƴan tsuntsaye, misali sandgrouse, lark, stonechat, sparrow, crane, Mongolian ground jay ( Podoces hendersoni ), ƙaho mai ƙaho ( Eremophila alpestris ), da kuma crested lark ( Galerida cristata ).

Dzungarian Basin Semi-hamadaGyara

Kwarin Yulduz ko kwarin Haidag-gol (43°N 83°E / 43°N 83°E / 43; 8343°N 86°E / 43°N 86°E / 43; 86 ) wani karamin hamada ne wanda wasu fitattun mambobi biyu na tsaunukan Shanashen Trahen Osh ke kewaye, wato chucis da kracenard pine rallies, suna tafiya a kai tsaye da nesa da juna. Kuma Yayin da suke tafiya kudu, suna hayewa da juyewa, suna komawa gabas da yamma bi da bi, tare da tafkin Bosten a tsakanin. Waɗannan jeri guda biyu suna nuna gefen arewa da kudanci bi da bi na babban kumburi, wanda ya shimfiɗa zuwa gabas na kusan digiri ashirin na tsayi. A gefenta na arewa, Chol-tagh yana gangarowa da ƙarfi, kuma ƙafar ƙafarsa tana da ɗimbin ɓacin rai, kama daga Lukchun ( 130 metres (427 ft) ). ƙasa da matakin teku) zuwa Hami ( 850 metres (2,789 ft) sama da matakin teku). A kudancin Kuruk-tagh akwai hamadar Lop Nur, hamadar Kum-tagh, da kwarin Bulunzir-gol . Ga wannan babban kumburi, wanda ke tasowa tsakanin iyakokin Chol-tagh da Kuruk-tagh, Mongols suna ba da sunan Ghashuun-Gobi ko "Desert Gishiri". Yana da kusan 130 to 160 kilometres (81 to 99 mi) haye daga arewa zuwa kudu, kuma ana bi da shi ta wasu ƙananan jeri-jeri, rafuffukan da sarƙoƙi na tsaunuka. A ƙasan tsakiyarsa yana gudanar da wani babban kwari mai tsayi, 40 to 80 kilometres (25 to 50 mi) fadi, a tsayin 900 to 1,370 metres (2,950 to 4,490 ft) . Chol-tagh, wanda ya kai matsakaicin tsayi na 1,800 metres (5,900 ft), ba ta cika ba, kuma kafarta ta arewa tana kan kunkuntar bel na yashi mara kyau, wanda ke kaiwa zuwa ga bakin ciki da aka ambata a sama. [1]

Kuruk-tagh shi ne rarrabuwar kawuna, ɓarna da ɓarna na wani yanki na dutse wanda a da ya fi girma mara misaltuwa. A yamma, tsakanin Tafkin Bosten da Tarim, ya ƙunshi guda biyu, maiyuwa uku (3), manyan jeri, waɗanda, ko da yake sun karye a ci gaba, suna gudana gabaɗaya a layi daya da juna, kuma suna runguma a tsakanin su da yawa ƙananan sarƙoƙi na tsayi. Waɗannan ƙananan jeri, tare da manyan jeri, sun raba yankin zuwa jerin tsayi; ƴan ƴan ƴan ƙwari, galibi suna layi ɗaya da sarƙoƙin dutsen da ke kewaye, waɗanda suke gangarowa kamar matakai masu tsayi, daga gefe guda zuwa ga ɓacin rai na Lukchun, ɗayan kuma zuwa jejin Lop.

A lokuta da yawa waɗannan kwaruruka na latudinal ana kange su ta hanyar raƙuman ruwa ko tudu, gabaɗaya tsayin daka a ƙasan kwarin. Inda irin wannan tsaunuka ke wanzuwa, gabaɗaya akan sami, a gefen gabas na ƙoramar maɗaukakiyar, wani baƙin ciki mai kama da kasko, wanda wani lokaci ko wani lokaci ya kasance gindin tsohon tafkin, amma yanzu ya kusa busasshen kwandon gishiri. Tsarin yanayin a haƙiƙa yana kama da wanda ke faruwa a cikin tsaunukan tsaunuka na tsaunin Kunlun . Tsarin ruwa na Ghashiun-Gobi da Kuruk-tagh an ƙaddara shi ta hanyar shirye-shiryen da aka ambata na kwarin latudinal. Yawancin manyan rafukan, maimakon su gangara kai tsaye cikin waɗannan kwaruruka, suna ketare su a hankali kuma su juya yamma kawai bayan sun yanke hanyarsu ta ɗaya ko fiye na shingen karkata.

Zuwa mafi girman kewayo akan babban kumburi Grigory Grum-Grshimailo yana ba da sunan Tuge-tau, tsayinsa shi ne 2,700 metres (8,858 ft) sama da matakin teku kuma wasu 1,200 metres (3,937 ft) sama da kambi na kumburi kanta. Wannan kewayon da ya ɗauka na cikin tsarin Choltagh ne, yayin da Sven Hedin zai sanya shi ga Kuruk-tagh. Wannan na ƙarshe, wanda tabbas yayi kama da kewayon Kharateken-ula (wanda kuma aka sani da Kyzyl-sanghir, Sinir, da Dutsen Singher ), wanda ke kallon kudancin gabar Tekun Bosten, ko da yake ya rabu da shi ta hanyar drift-yashi. Hamadar Ak-bel-kum (White Pass Sands), da farko yajin aikin yamma-arewa-maso-yamma zuwa gabas-kudu maso gabas, amma a hankali yana kewayawa kamar scimitar zuwa gabas-arewa maso gabas kuma a lokaci guda a hankali yana raguwa a tsayi sosai. [1]

A 91º gabas, inda babban kewayon tsarin Kuruk-tagh zuwa gabas-arewa maso gabas, huɗu daga cikin rassan sa sun ƙare, ko kuma sun mutu ba zato ba tsammani, a kan bakin ciki mai zurfi (wanda Sven Hedin ya gani). gabar tekun arewa maso gabas na tsohon babban tafkin Lop-nor ta Tsakiyar Asiya), tare da gaba da su da tashoshi masu kama da tsarin Pe-shan (Boy-san) (duba ƙasa). Kuruk-tagh yana ko'ina cikin ɗan ƙaramin yanki, amma kusan gaba ɗaya bakarare, kasancewar gaba ɗaya ba ta da rayuwar dabbobi, sai dai ga kurege, kurege da raƙuma, waɗanda ke yawan ƴan ƙanana, tarwatsewar tsaunuka. Tsire-tsire, waɗanda ke iyakance ga waɗannan wuraren guda ɗaya, sun kasance mafi ƙanƙanta kuma galibi an iyakance su ga bushes na saxaul (Haloxylon), anabasis, reeds (kamish), tamarisks, poplars, da kuma Ephedra .

TarihiGyara

Binciken TuraiGyara

Gobi dai na da dadadden tarihi na zaman mutane, galibin mazaunan makiyaya ne. A farkon a karni na 20, yankin yana karkashin ikon Manchu-China, kuma Mongols, Uyghurs, da Kazakhs ne suka fi zama. Hamadar Gobi gabaɗaya ta kasance sananne ne kawai ga waɗanda ba na waje ba, saboda bayanan sun keɓance ne ga abubuwan lura da kowane matafiya da ke shiga cikin hanyoyinsu na hamada. Daga cikin masu bincike na Turawa da suka ba da gudummawar fahimtar Gobi, mafi mahimmanci sune kamar haka:

Duba wasu abubuwanGyara

  • Kurar Asiya
  • Geography na Mongoliya
  • Geography na kasar Sin
  • Green bangon China
  • Jerin hamada ta yanki
  • Tsutsar mutuwa ta Mongolian ( olgoi khorkhoi ), an ce tana zaune a Gobi a Mongoliya

ambatoGyara

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Gobi". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
  2. Planet Earth, BBC TV series 2006 UK, 2007 US, "Episode 5".
  3. B Ford, Too Big to Walk (London 2018) p. 216
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named auto
  5. Yiruhan, I. (2001). Changes in the floristic composition of grasslands according to grazing intensity in Inner Mongolia, China. Journal of Japanese Society of Grassland Science, 47, 362-369.
  6. F. Yu, K. P. Price, J. Ellis, J. J. Feddema, P. Shi (2004). "Interannual variations of the grassland boundaries bordering the eastern edges of the Gobi Desert in central Asia". International Journal of Remote Sensing. 25: 327–346.
  7. Claudio O. Delang, China's Soil Pollution and Degradation Problems (Routledge, 2014).

Gabaɗaya nassoshiGyara

  • Owen Lattimore . (1973) "Komawa yankin Arewacin kasar Sin". Jaridar Geographical, Vol. 139, Lamba 2 (Yuni 1973), shafi. 233-242.

Ci gaba da karatuGyara

Hanyoyin haɗi na wajeGyara