Bayanin haƙƙoƙin dan adam da na jama'a

Bayanin Hakkokin Dan Adam da na Jama'a ( French: Déclaration des droits de l'homme et du citoyen de 1789 ), wanda Majalisar Tsarin Mulki ta Faransa ta kafa a cikin shekarata 1789, takarda ce ta haƙƙin ɗan adam daga juyin juya halin Faransa . [1] Ƙwararrun masana falsafar Haskakawa, sanarwar ta kasance jigon magana na kimar juyin juya halin Faransa kuma yana da babban tasiri ga cigaban sanannen ra'ayi na 'yancin kai da dimokuradiyya a Turai da duniya baki daya.

Sanarwa na 'yancin ɗan adam da na ɗan ƙasa, wanda Jean-Jacques-François Le Barbier ya zana.

Marquis de Lafayette ne ya tsara sanarwar ta asali, tare da shawarwari tare da Thomas Jefferson . Tasirin koyaswar " haƙƙin dabi'a ", haƙƙoƙin ɗan adam ana ɗauka su zama na duniya : inganci a kowane lokaci kuma a kowane wuri. Ya zama ginshiƙi ga al'ummar 'yantattun mutane waɗanda doka ta ba su kariya daidai gwargwado. Kuma An haɗa shi a farkon kundin tsarin mulkin jamhuriyar Faransa ta huɗu a shekarata (1946) da jamhuriya ta biyar (1958) kuma har yanzu tana nan.

TarihiGyara

Abubuwan da ke cikin takardar sun fito ne da yawa daga manufofin wayewa. Lafayette ne ya shirya manyan zane-zane, yana aiki a wasu lokuta tare da babban abokinsa Thomas Jefferson. [2] A cikin watan Agustan shekarata 1789, Abbé Emmanuel Joseph Sieyès da Honoré Mirabeau sun taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen tsarawa da tsara sanarwar Ƙarshen Haƙƙin Dan Adam da na ɗan ƙasa. [3] [4]

A ranar 26 ga watan Agustan shekarar 1789 Majalisar Zartarwa ta Majalisar Dinkin Duniya ta amince da labarin karshe na sanarwar 'yancin dan Adam da dan kasa, a lokacin juyin juya halin Faransa, Kuma a matsayin matakin farko na rubuta kundin tsarin mulki ga Faransa. Wayar da kan yi wahayi, wakilan sun tattauna ainihin sigar sanarwar a kan wani daftarin kasida 24 da the sixth bureau gabatar. , [5] [6] wanda Jérôme Champion de Cicé ke jagoranta . Daga baya an gyara daftarin a yayin muhawarar. Sanarwar ta biyu kuma mafi tsayi, wacce aka fi sani da Sanarwar Haƙƙin Dan Adam da Jama'a na 1793, an rubuta shi a cikin shekarata 1793 amma ba a taɓa karɓe ta ba.

Mahallin falsafa da ka'idarGyara

 
Buga labarai 17 na Sanarwar Haƙƙin Dan Adam da na ɗan ƙasa a 1789 ( Musée de la Révolution française )

Abubuwan da ke cikin sanarwar sun fito ne daga ayyukan falsafa da siyasa na wayewa, kamar son kai, kwangilar zamantakewa kamar yadda masanin falsafa na Genevan Rousseau ya tsara, da kuma raba iko da Baron de Montesquieu ya ɗauka . Kamar yadda ake iya gani a cikin matani, falsafar siyasa ta wayewar kai da ƙa'idodin haƙƙin ɗan adam sun yi tasiri sosai akan furcin Faransanci kamar yadda sanarwar 'yancin kai ta Amurka ta kasance wacce ta gabace ta (4 Yuli shekarata 1776).

A cewar wani littafi na shari’a da aka buga a shekara ta 2007, sanarwar tana cikin ruhin “dokar dabi’a ta duniya”, Duk wadda ba ta dogara da koyarwar addini ko hukuma ba, sabanin ka’idar ka’idar dabi’a ta gargajiya, wadda ta yi.

Sanarwar ta bayyana saiti guda ɗaya na haƙƙoƙin ɗaiɗai da na gamayya ga duk maza. Kuma Tasirin koyarwar haƙƙoƙin dabi'a, waɗannan haƙƙoƙin sun kasance na duniya kuma suna aiki a kowane lokaci da wurare. Alal misali, "An haifi maza kuma suna da 'yanci kuma suna daidai da hakkoki. Sannan Ba za a iya kafa bambance-bambancen al'umma ba a kan abin da ya dace kawai." [7] Suna da wasu haƙƙoƙin dabi'a ga dukiya, 'yanci, da rayuwa. A bisa wannan ka'idar, aikin gwamnati shi ne gane da kuma tabbatar da wadannan hakkoki. Har ila yau, ya kamata a gudanar da gwamnati ta hanyar zaɓaɓɓun wakilai.

A lokacin da aka rubuta, an ba da haƙƙoƙin da ke cikin sanarwar ga maza kawai. Kuma Bugu da ƙari, sanarwar sanarwa ce ta hangen nesa maimakon gaskiya. Sanarwar ba ta da tushe a cikin al'adar yammacin duniya ko ma Faransa a lokacin. Sanarwar ta fito ne a karshen karni na 18 daga yaki da juyin juya hali. Ta ci karo da adawa, saboda ana ɗaukar dimokuradiyya da yancin ɗaiɗaikun mutane a matsayin masu kama da rashin zaman lafiya da rugujewa . Sannna Wannan sanarwar ta ƙunshi akidu da buri waɗanda Faransa ta yi alkawarin yin gwagwarmaya a nan gaba.

AbuGyara

An gabatar da sanarwar ta hanyar gabatarwar da ke bayyana mahimman halaye na haƙƙoƙin da suka cancanta a matsayin "na halitta, waɗanda ba za a iya raba su ba kuma masu tsarki" kuma sun ƙunshi "ƙa'idodi masu sauƙi kuma marasa gasa" waɗanda 'yan ƙasa za su iya dogara da bukatunsu. A cikin kasida ta biyu, “hakkokin dan Adam na dabi’a da wadanda ba a iya bayyana su ba” an bayyana su a matsayin “yanci, dukiya, tsaro da juriya ga zalunci ”. Ya yi kira da a lalata gata aristocratic ta hanyar shelar kawo ƙarshen feudalism da keɓewa daga haraji, 'yanci da daidaitattun haƙƙin ga duk "Maza", da samun damar shiga ofishin gwamnati bisa basira. Sannna Kuma An taƙaita tsarin sarauta, kuma duk ƴan ƙasa su sami damar shiga cikin tsarin doka. An ayyana ‘yancin fadin albarkacin baki da yada labarai, an kuma haramta kama mutane ba bisa ka’ida ba.

Sanarwar ta kuma tabbatar da ka'idodin ikon mallaka, kuma wanda ya bambanta da ikon allahntaka na sarakunan da ke nuna mulkin mulkin Faransa, da daidaito tsakanin 'yan ƙasa, "Dukan 'yan ƙasa, suna daidai da idanu na doka, suna daidai da yarda ga dukan jama'a. masu girma da matsayi da ayyukan yi, gwargwadon iyawarsu kuma ba tare da banbance banbancen kyawawan dabi’u da basirarsu,” sannan yana kawar da hakki na musamman na manya da malamai.

LabaraiGyara

Mataki na I – An haifi ’yan Adam kuma sun kasance masu ‘yanci kuma suna daidai da hakki. Kuma Ba za a iya kafa bambance-bambancen zamantakewa ba ne kawai a kan abin da ake so.

Mataki na II - Manufar kowace ƙungiya ta siyasa ita ce kiyaye haƙƙin ɗan adam na halitta da wanda ba a iya bayyanawa ba. Wadannan hakkoki su ne 'yanci, dukiya, aminci da tsayin daka kan zalunci.

Mataki na III - Ka'idar kowane ikon mallakar ƙasa tana zaune a cikin ƙasa. Babu wata hukuma ko wani mutum da zai yi amfani da duk wata hukuma wacce ba ta fito daga al'umma kai tsaye ba.

Mataki na IV - 'Yanci ya ƙunshi yin duk wani abu da ba zai cutar da wasu ba: don haka, yin amfani da haƙƙin haƙƙin kowane mutum yana da iyakokin da ke tabbatar wa sauran jama'a haƙƙin haƙƙin. Kuma Ana iya ƙayyade waɗannan iyakokin ta hanyar doka kawai.

Mataki na biyar V – Doka tana da haƙƙin hana ayyukan cutarwa ga al'umma kawai. Duk wani abu da shari’a ba ta hana shi ba, ba za a iya tauye shi ba, sannan kuma ba za a iya takurawa kowa ya yi abin da bai umarta ba.

Mataki na shida VI - Doka ita ce bayanin nufin gabaɗaya . Duk da ƴan ƙasa suna da haƙƙin bayar da gudunmawa da kan su ko ta hanyar wakilansu don kafa ta. Dole ne ya zama iri ɗaya ga kowa, ko dai abin da yake karewa, ko kuma ya hukunta. Kuma Dukkan ’yan kasa, kasancewarsu daidai ne a idanunsu, haka nan kuma ana yarda da su ga dukkan masu rike da madafun iko, wurare, da ayyukan yi, gwargwadon iyawarsu ba tare da wani bambanci ba face na kyawawan halaye da basirarsu.

Mataki na bakwai VII -Babu wani mutum da za a iya tuhuma, kama ko tsare shi amma a cikin shari'o'in da doka ta tsara, da kuma bisa ga siffofin da ta tsara. Wadanda suka nemi, aika, aiwatarwa ko kuma suka sa a aiwatar da umarni na sabani, Kuma dole ne a hukunta su; amma duk wani dan kasa da aka kira ko aka kama a karkashin sharuddan doka dole ne ya bi su nan take; yana mai da kansa laifi ta hanyar juriya.

Mataki na takwas VIII - Dole ne doka ta kafa hukuncin da ya dace kawai kuma a fili ya zama dole, Sannna kuma babu wanda za a iya hukunta shi amma a karkashin dokar da aka kafa da kuma kaddamar da shi kafin laifin da kuma amfani da doka.

Mataki na tara IX – Duk wani mutum da ake zaton ba shi da laifi har sai an bayyana shi da laifi idan aka ce ba makawa ne a kama shi, duk wani takura da ba zai zama dole domin a ceci mutumin ba, Kuma dole ne doka ta tsawatar da shi sosai.

Mataki na Goma X – Ba wanda zai iya jin haushin ra’ayinsa, hatta na addini, muddin bayyanarsu ba ta kawo cikas ga tsarin jama’a da doka ta kafa ba.

Mataki na sha ɗaya XI - Sadarwar 'yanci na tunani da ra'ayi shine daya daga cikin mafi kyawun haƙƙin ɗan adam: kowane ɗan ƙasa don haka yana iya yin magana, rubutawa, buga shi da yardar kaina, sai Kuma dai don amsa cin zarafi na wannan 'yanci, a cikin lamuran da doka ta ƙaddara.

Mataki na sha biyu XII - Tabbatar da haƙƙin ɗan adam da na ɗan ƙasa yana buƙatar ƙarfin jama'a: don haka an kafa wannan ƙarfi don amfanin kowa ba don amfanin waɗanda aka amince da su ba.

Mataki na sha uku XIII - Domin kiyaye ƙarfin jama'a da kuma kashe kuɗin gudanarwa, Kuma gudunmawar gama gari ba ta da mahimmanci; dole ne a raba daidai wa daida ga dukkan ’yan kasa, gwargwadon karfinsu na biya.

Mataki na sha huɗu XIV - Kowane ɗan ƙasa yana da hakkin ya tabbatar, da kansa ko ta hanyar wakilansa, buƙatar harajin jama'a, don yarda da shi kyauta, don sanin amfanin da aka sanya shi, da kuma ƙayyade rabo, tushe, tarawa., da kuma tsawon lokaci.

Mataki na sha biyar XV – Al’umma na da hakkin neman asusu daga kowane wakilin jama’a na gwamnatinta.

Mataki na sha shida XVI – Duk wata al’ummar da ba a tabbatar da haƙƙin haƙƙinta ba, ko kuma an ƙaddara rabe-raben iko, Kuma ba ta da Kundin Tsarin Mulki.

Mataki na Sha bakwai XVII - Dukiya kasancewar wani haƙƙi ne mai tsarki, babu wanda za a iya hana shi amfani da shi na sirri, Sannan idan ba lokacin da jama'a ke buƙata ba, bisa doka, a bayyane yake buƙatar ta, kuma ƙarƙashin yanayin adalci kuma kafin a biya shi.

Kasancewa ɗan ƙasa mai ƙwazoGyara

Yayin da juyin juya halin Faransa ya ba da haƙƙi ga mafi girman kaso na jama'a, an sami bambanci tsakanin waɗanda suka sami 'yancin siyasa a cikin ayyana 'yancin ɗan adam da na ɗan ƙasa da waɗanda ba su samu ba. Shiyasa Duk Waɗanda aka ɗauka suna riƙe waɗannan haƙƙoƙin siyasa ana kiran su ƴan ƙasa masu aiki. An ba da izinin zama ɗan ƙasa ga maza waɗanda Faransanci, aƙalla shekaru 25, sun biya haraji daidai da aikin kwanaki uku, kuma ba za a iya bayyana su a matsayin bayi ba. Wannan yana nufin cewa a lokacin sanarwar masu mallakar kadarorin maza ne kawai ke riƙe waɗannan haƙƙoƙin. [8] Mataimakan Majalisar sun yi imanin cewa, wadanda ke da muradin gaske a cikin kasar ne kawai za su iya yanke shawara ta siyasa. [9] Wannan bambance-bambancen ya shafi batutuwa na 6, 12, 14, da 15 na ayyana 'yancin ɗan adam da na ɗan ƙasa kai tsaye saboda kowane ɗayan waɗannan haƙƙoƙin yana da alaƙa da 'yancin jefa ƙuri'a da shiga cikin gwamnati. Tare da dokar 29 Oktoba shekarata 1789, kalmar ɗan ƙasa mai aiki ta shiga cikin siyasar Faransa. [10]

An ƙirƙiri manufar ƴan ƙasa masu son rai don haɗa waɗancan al'ummomin da aka ware daga haƙƙoƙin siyasa a cikin ayyana 'yancin ɗan adam da na ɗan ƙasa. Saboda buƙatun da aka gindaya don ƴan ƙasa masu himma, kuma an ba da ƙuri'ar ga kusan Faransawa miliyan 4.3 [10] daga cikin kusan miliyan 29.[ana buƙatar hujja] aka tsallake sun haɗa da mata, bayi, yara, da baƙi. Kamar yadda babban taron ya zaɓe waɗannan matakan, sun iyakance haƙƙin wasu ƙungiyoyin 'yan ƙasa yayin aiwatar da tsarin dimokuradiyya na sabuwar Jamhuriyar Faransa (1792-1804) . [9] Wannan doka, da aka zartar a cikin shekarata 1789, an gyara ta da waɗanda suka kirkiro Kundin Tsarin Mulki na Shekara na III don kawar da lakabin ɗan ƙasa mai aiki. [11] Ikon jefa ƙuri'a a lokacin, duk da haka, an ba da shi ga masu mallakar dukiya kawai. [11]

An sami takun saka tsakanin ’yan kasa masu aiki da halin ko-in-kula a duk tsawon juyin juya halin Musulunci. Wannan ya faru ne lokacin da ƴan ƙasa masu son rai suka fara yin kira ga ƙarin haƙƙi, ko kuma a fili lokacin da suka ƙi sauraron manufofin da ƴan ƙasa masu ƙwazo suka tsara. Wannan zane mai ban dariya ya nuna a fili bambancin da ke tsakanin ƴan ƙasa masu aiki da masu halin ko in kula tare da tashe-tashen hankula masu alaƙa da irin waɗannan bambance-bambance. A cikin zane mai ban dariya, wani ɗan ƙasa mai ƙwazo yana riƙe da ƙwanƙwasa kuma wani ɗan ƙasa (a hannun dama) yana cewa "Ku kula kada haƙurina ya tsere mini".

Musamman mata sun kasance 'yan kasa masu kishin kasa wadanda suka taka rawar gani a cikin juyin juya halin Musulunci. Olympe de Gouges ta rubuta sanarwarta game da haƙƙin mace da na 'yar ƙasa a shekarata 1791 kuma ta ja hankali kan buƙatar daidaiton jinsi. [12] Ta hanyar goyon bayan manufofin juyin juya halin Faransa da kuma fatan fadada su ga mata, ta wakilci kanta a matsayin 'yar ƙasa mai juyin juya hali. Madame Roland kuma ta tabbatar da Kuma kanta a matsayin mai tasiri a duk lokacin juyin juya halin Musulunci. Ta ga matan juyin juya halin Faransa suna da matsayi uku; "Tsafafa ayyukan juyin juya hali, tsara manufofi, da kuma sanar da wasu abubuwan da suka faru na juyin juya hali." [13] Ta yin aiki da maza, sabanin yin aiki ba tare da maza ba, ta yiwu ta sami damar ci gaba da yakin mata masu juyin juya hali. A matsayinsu na 'yan wasa a juyin juya halin Faransa, mata sun taka rawar gani a fagen zamantakewa ta hanyar kafa ƙungiyoyin jama'a da kuma shiga cikin shahararrun kulake, Sannna wanda ke ba su damar yin tasiri a cikin al'umma, duk da rashin ikon siyasa kai tsaye. [14]

Hakkokin mataGyara

Sanarwar ta amince da haƙƙoƙin da yawa a matsayin na ƴan ƙasa (wanda zai iya zama namiji kaɗai). Wannan ya kasance duk da cewa bayan Maris on Versailles a ranar 5 ga Oktoba shekarata 1789, mata sun gabatar da koke na mata ga Majalisar Dokoki ta kasa inda suka ba da shawarar ba mata dama daidai. A cikin shekarata 1790, Nicolas de Condorcet da Etta Palm d'Aelders sun yi kira ga Majalisar Dokoki ta kasa da ta ba da 'yancin ɗan adam da na siyasa ga mata. Condorcet ya bayyana cewa "wanda ya ki amincewa da hakkin wani, ko wane irin addini, launi, ko jinsi na wancan, ya yi watsi da nasa". Juyin juya halin Faransa bai kai ga amincewa da haƙƙin mata ba kuma hakan ya sa Olympe de Gouges ta buga sanarwar 'yancin mace da na 'yar ƙasa a watan Satumba na shekarar 1791.

Sanarwar 'yancin mace da ta 'yan kasa mata an tsara shi ne bisa tsarin ayyana 'yancin ɗan adam da na ɗan ƙasa kuma abin ban mamaki ne wajen ƙirƙira tare da fallasa gazawar juyin juya halin Faransa, wanda aka sadaukar don daidaito . Yana cewa:

Wannan juyin juya halin zai fara aiki ne kawai a lokacin da dukkanin mata suka fahimci halin da suke ciki na rashin tausayi, da kuma hakkokin da suka rasa a cikin al'umma.

Sanarwar 'Yancin Mace da 'Yar Kasa Mata ta biyo bayan batutuwa goma sha bakwai na ayyana 'yancin ɗan adam da na 'yan ƙasa don batu kuma Camille Naish ta bayyana shi a matsayin "kusan parody ... na ainihin takardar. ". Labari na farko na ayyana 'yancin ɗan adam da na ɗan ƙasa ya yi shelar cewa "An haifi maza kuma suna da 'yanci kuma suna daidai da haƙƙinsu. Bambance-bambancen zamantakewa yana iya dogara ne akan amfanin gama gari kawai." Kasidar farko ta shelanta hakkin mace da ‘yar kasa ta amsa: “An haifi mace ‘yanci kuma ta kasance daidai da namiji a hakki. Sannan Kuma Bambance-bambancen zamantakewa na iya dogara ne akan amfanin gama gari kawai".

Har ila yau, De Gouges ya ja hankali da cewa, a karkashin dokar Faransa, an hukunta mata gaba daya, amma duk da haka an hana mata hakki, Kuma yana mai bayyana cewa "Mata na da 'yancin hawa kan tudu, kuma dole ne su kasance suna da 'yancin hawa kujerar kakakin majalisar".

BautaGyara

Sanarwar ba ta soke cibiyar bautar ba, kamar yadda Jacques-Pierre Brissot's Les Amis des Noirs ya yi amfani da shi kuma ƙungiyar masu shukar mulkin mallaka da ake kira Club Massiac suka kare saboda sun hadu a Hôtel Massiac. [15] Duk da rashin ambaton bautar da aka yi a cikin sanarwar, sannnan tashin bayi a Saint-Domingue a cikin juyin juya halin Haiti an yi wahayi zuwa gare shi, kamar yadda aka tattauna a cikin tarihin CLR James na juyin juya halin Haiti, The Black Jacobins . [16]

Mummunan yanayi ga dubban bayi a cikin Saint-Domingue, mafi yawan ribar bayi a duniya, ya haifar da tashe-tashen hankula wanda za a san shi da tawaye na farko na bawa a cikin Sabuwar Duniya. Masu 'yanci masu launi sun kasance cikin tashin hankali na farko, amma daga baya tsoffin bayi suka mamaye. A cikin shekarata 1794 Yarjejeniyar da Jacobins suka mamaye ta kawar da bauta, gami da mazaunan Saint-Domingue da Guadeloupe. Duk da haka, Napoleon ya mayar da shi a cikin shekarata 1802 kuma ya yi ƙoƙari ya dawo da ikon Saint-Domingue ta hanyar aika dubban sojoji. Bayan fama da asarar kashi biyu bisa uku na maza, da yawa zuwa zazzabi mai launin rawaya, Faransawa sun janye daga Saint-Domingue a 1803. Napoleon ya bar Arewacin Amurka kuma ya amince da Siyan Louisiana ta Amurka. A cikin shekarar 1804, shugabannin Saint-Domingue sun ayyana ta a matsayin ƙasa mai cin gashin kanta, Jamhuriyar Haiti, jamhuriya ta biyu ta Sabuwar Duniya. Napoleon ya soke cinikin bayi a shekara ta 1815.

LuwadiGyara

Yawan 'yancin kai da aka bai wa 'yan ƙasa ta takardar ya haifar da yanayi inda dokar hukunta laifuka ta Faransa ta shekarar 1791 ta haramta liwadi da madigo, wanda ya shafi laifuka ; dokar kawai ta kasa ambaton luwadi a matsayin laifi, don haka babu wanda za a iya gurfanar da shi a gaban kuliya. Dokar 'yan sanda ta shekarar 1791 ta 1791 ta ba da hukunce-hukuncen aikata laifuka don "babban rashin mutunci," wanda 'yan sanda za su iya amfani da su don hukunta duk wanda ya yi jima'i a wuraren jama'a ko kuma ya keta ka'idojin zamantakewa. An sake nanata wannan hanyar hukunta masu luwadi a cikin kundin hukunta manyan laifuka na Faransa na shekarata 1810 .

Duba wasu abubuwanaGyara

Sauran farkon ayyana haƙƙoƙinGyara

  • Dokar León (Modern Spain 1188)
  • Magna Carta (England, 1215)
  • Dokar Kalisz (Poland, 1264)
  • Labaran Henrician da Pacta Conventa (Poland, 1573)
  • Koke na Hakki (England, 1628)
  • Dokar Hakki (England, 1689)
  • Da'awar Dama (Scotland, 1689)
  • Sanarwar Haƙƙin Virginia (United States, 1776)
  • Sanarwar Haƙƙin Pennsylvania (United States, 1776)
  • Dokar Hakki (United States, 1789)
  • Sanarwa na Haƙƙin Mutum da ɗan ƙasar Franchimont (modern-day Belgium, 16 September 1789)
  • Bayanin "Belgian" na 'Yancin Mutum da Jama'a (exiled Belgian and Liégeois revolutionaries in Paris, 23 April 1792)
  • Proclamation of Połaniec (Poland, 7 May 1794)
  • "Batavian" Bayanin Haƙƙin Dan Adam da Jama'a (Batavian Republic, The Hague, 31 January 1795)

ManazartaGyara

  1. The French title can be also translated in the modern era as "Declaration of Human and Civic Rights".
  2. Susan Dunn, Sister Revolutions: French Lightning, American Light (1999) pp. 143–45
  3. Fremont-Barnes 2007, p. 190.
  4. Keith Baker, "The Idea of a Declaration of Rights" in Dale Van Kley, ed. The French Idea of Freedom: The Old Regime and the Declaration of Rights of 1789 (1997) pp. 154–96.
  5. The original draft is an annex to the 12 August report (Archives parlementaires, 1,e série, tome VIII, débats du 12 août 1789, p. 431).
  6. Archives parlementaires, 1e série, tome VIII, débats du 19 août 1789, p. 459.
  7. First Article, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
  8. Censer and Hunt 2001, p. 55.
  9. 9.0 9.1 Popkin 2006, p. 46.
  10. 10.0 10.1 Doyle 1989, p. 124.
  11. 11.0 11.1 Doyle 1989, p. 420.
  12. De Gouges, "Declaration of the Rights of Women", 1791.
  13. Dalton 2001, p. 1.
  14. Levy and Applewhite 2002, pp. 319–20, 324.
  15. The club of reactionary colonial proprietors meeting since July 1789 were opposed to representation in the Assemblée of France's overseas dominions, for fear "that this would expose delicate colonial issues to the hazards of debate in the Assembly", as Robin Blackburn expressed it (Blackburn, The Overthrow of Colonial Slavery, 1776–1848 [1988:174f]); see also the speech of Jean-Baptiste Belley
  16. Cf. Heinrich August Winkler (2012), Geschichte des Westens. Von den Anfängen in der Antike bis zum 20. Jahrhundert, Third Edition, Munich (Germany), p. 386

Gabaɗaya manazartaGyara

  • Jack Censer da Lynn Hunt, 'Yanci, Daidaituwa, Fraternity: Binciken Juyin Juyin Halitta na Faransa, Park Park: Jami'ar Jihar Pennsylvania, 2001.
  • Susan Dalton, "Gender da Sauya Gwargwadon Siyasar Juyin Juya Hali: Shari'ar Madame Roland", Jaridar Kanada na Tarihi, 36, No. 2 (2001): 259-83. doi:10.3138/cjh.36.2.259PMID 18711850 .
  • William Doyle, Tarihin Oxford na juyin juya halin Faransa, Oxford: Jami'ar Oxford Press, 1989.
  • Darline Levy da Harriet Applewhite, Juyin Siyasa na Mata? Al'amarin Paris, a cikin Juyin Juyin Halitta na Faransa: Fassarorin Rikici . ed na 5. Malabar, Fla.: Krieger Pub. Co., 2002. 317-46.
  • Jeremy Popkin, Tarihin Faransa na Zamani, Babban Kogin Saddle: Ilimin Pearson, 2006.
  • "Dan kasa Mai Aikata Aiki/Mai Aminci", 'Yanci, Daidaituwa, 'Yan'uwantaka: Binciko juyin juya halin Faransa (an shiga 30 Oktoba 2011). Tarihin Ayyukan.

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