Zuciya dai murdaddiyar sashin jiki ce a mafi yawan dabbobi, wanda farashinsa jini ta cikin jini daga cikin jijiyoyi . [1] Jinin da aka zubo yana ɗaukar oxygen da abinci mai gina jiki zuwa jiki, yayin ɗaukar dattin rayuwa kamar su carbon dioxide zuwa hunhu . [2] A cikin mutane, zuciya kusan girman girman dunƙulen hannu ne kuma tana tsakanin huhun huhu, a tsakiyar ɓangaren kirji . [3]

Zuciya na bugawa

JinsiGyara

A cikin mutane, wasu dabbobi masu shayarwa, da kuma tsuntsaye, da zuciya ne zuwa kashi hudu da bẽnãye: babba hagu da kuma dama atria da kuma ƙananan hagu da kuma dama ventricles . [4] [5] Galibi ana kiran atrium na dama da ventricle tare azaman zuciyar dama da takwarorinsu na hagu kamar zuciyar hagu . [6] Akasin haka, kifi yana da dakuna biyu, atrium da ventricle, yayin da dabbobi masu rarrafe suna da dakuna uku. [5] A cikin lafiyayyar zuciya jini yana gudana ta hanya guda ta cikin zuciya saboda bugun zuciya, wanda ke hana sake komowa . [7] Zuciya a rufe take cikin jakar kariya, pericardium, wanda kuma ya ƙunshi ƙaramin ruwa . Bangon zuciya yana da tsari uku: epicardium, myocardium, da endocardium . [8]

TusarrafiGyara

Zuciya tana harba jini tare da amo wanda wata ƙungiyar ƙwayoyin cuta masu sassaucin ra'ayi ta ƙaddara a cikin kumburin sinoatrial . Waɗannan suna haifar da wani yanayi wanda ke haifar da ƙuntatawar zuciya, tafiya ta cikin ƙirar atrioventricular kuma tare da tsarin tafiyarwar zuciya . Zuciya tana karɓar jini ƙasa da iskar oxygen daga zagayawa na tsari, wanda ya shiga atrium na dama daga mafi girma da ƙanƙancin venae cavae kuma ya wuce zuwa gefen dama. Daga nan ne ake harba shi zuwa cikin huhu na huhu, ta huhu inda yake karɓar iskar oxygen kuma yana bayar da iskar carbon dioxide. Jinin da yake dauke da iskar oxygen sannan ya dawo zuwa atrium na hagu, ya ratsa ta gefen hagu kuma ana fitar da shi ta cikin aorta zuwa zagayawa na yau da kullun − inda ake amfani da iskar oxygen din kuma a sanya shi zuwa carbon dioxide. [2] A zuciya lashe a shimfiɗa, rate kusa zuwa 72 lashe minti daya. [2] Exercise dan lokaci qara kudi, amma lowers Allaha zuciya rate a cikin dogon lokaci, da kuma shi ne mai kyau ga lafiyar zuciya. [2]

Zuciyar bangaran damaGyara

Zuciyar dama ta ƙunshi ɗakuna biyu, atrium na dama da na dama, waɗanda bawul dinsu ya rabu, tricuspid valve. [9] The dama atrium na'am da jini kusan ci gaba daga jiki ta biyu manyan veins, da m kuma na baya venae cavae . Ananan jini daga jijiyoyin jini kuma yana malalawa a cikin atrium na dama ta hanyar jijiyoyin jijiyoyin jini, wanda yake nan da nan sama da zuwa tsakiyar buɗewar ƙarancin vena cava. [10] A bangon dama atrium akwai wani irin yanayi mai kama da oval da aka sani da fossa ovalis, wanda ya kasance ragowar buɗewa a cikin zuciyar tayi wanda aka fi sani da foramen ovale . [10] Yawancin ɓangaren ciki na atrium na dama yana da santsi, ɓacin rai na fossa ovalis na tsakiya ne, kuma farfajiyar gaba tana da manyan raƙuman tsokoki na pectinate, waɗanda suma suke a cikin madaidaicin ƙararrakin atrial . [10]

An haɗa atrium na dama zuwa ventricle na dama ta tricuspid bawul. [11] Bangon hagu na dama yana hade da carneae na trabeculae, tsoffin tsokar zuciya da aka rufe ta endocardium. Bugu da ƙari ga waɗannan raƙuman tsoka, ƙungiyar ƙwayar tsoka ta zuciya, wanda aka rufe shi da endocardium, wanda aka sani da ƙungiyar mai daidaitawa yana ƙarfafa ganuwar bakin ciki na ƙyamar dama kuma tana taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen gudanarwar zuciya. Yana fitowa daga ƙananan ɓangaren ɓangaren maɓuɓɓuka na tsaka-tsalle kuma ya tsallaka sararin ciki na ƙyamar dama don haɗi tare da tsokar papillary mara ƙarfi. [11] Hannun dama na dama ya shiga cikin akwati na huhu, inda yake fitar da jini yayin kwangila. Gangar jikin huhu ta sauka zuwa jijiyoyin hagu da dama na jini wadanda suke daukar jini zuwa kowane huhu. Bakin ciki na huhu yana tsakanin zuciyar dama da akwatin huhu. [11]

Zuciyan bangaran haguGyara

Zuciyar hagu tana da ɗakuna guda biyu: atrium na hagu da na hagu, waɗanda aka keɓe da bawul na mitral . [12] Atrium na hagu yana karɓar jini mai iska daga huhu ta ɗayan jijiyoyin huhu huɗu. Atrium na hagu yana da fitarwa wanda ake kira appendage na hagu . Kamar atrium na dama, atrium na hagu yana layi ne da tsokoki na pectinate . [13] Hannun hagu na hagu zuwa haɗin haɗin hagu ta maɓallin mitral. [14] Hannun hagu na da kauri sosai idan aka kwatanta shi da dama, saboda tsananin ƙarfin da ake buƙata don ɗora jini a jikin duka. Kamar ventricle ɗin dama, na hagu shima yana da carneae, amma babu ƙungiyar mai yin magana . Hagu na hagu yana harba jini zuwa jiki ta cikin bawalin aortic kuma zuwa cikin aorta. Smallananan ƙananan ƙofofi sama da bawul aortic suna ɗauke da jini zuwa zuciyar kanta, babban jijiyoyin jijiyoyin zuciya da kuma jijiyar dama na jijiyoyin jini . [15]

Cututtukan zuciyaGyara

Cututtukan zuciya da jijiyoyin jini (CVD) sune sanadin mutuwa a duniya baki ɗaya kamar na shekarar 2008, wanda ya kai kashi 30% na mace-macen. [16] [17] Daga cikin waɗannan fiye da kashi uku cikin uku sakamakon cututtukan jijiyoyin jijiyoyin jini ne da cutar shanyewar jiki . [16] Hadarin dalilai sun hada da: shan taba, kasancewa kiba, kadan motsa jiki, high cholesterol, hawan jini, da kuma talauci sarrafawa ciwon sukari, da sauransu. [18] Cututtukan zuciya da jijiyoyin jini akai-akai ba su da alamomi ko kuma na iya haifar da ciwon kirji ko ƙarancin numfashi . Ganewar asali na cututtukan zuciya galibi ana yin sa ne ta hanyar ɗaukar tarihin likita, sauraren sautunan zuciya tare da stethoscope, ECG, da duban dan tayi . [19] Kwararrun da ke mai da hankali kan cututtukan zuciya ana kiran su masu ilimin zuciya, kodayake yawancin fannoni na magani na iya kasancewa cikin magani. [17]

BibiliyoGyara

  • Hall, John (2011). Guyton and Hall textbook of medical physiology (12th ed.). Philadelphia: Saunders/Elsevier. ISBN 978-1-4160-4574-8.
  • Longo, Dan; Fauci, Anthony; Kasper, Dennis; Hauser, Stephen; Jameson, J.; Loscalzo, Joseph (2011). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (18 ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. ISBN 978-0-07-174889-6.
  • Susan Standring; Neil R. Borley; et al., eds. (2008). Gray's anatomy : the anatomical basis of clinical practice (40th ed.). London: Churchill Livingstone. ISBN 978-0-8089-2371-8.
  • Nicki R. Colledge; Brian R. Walker; Stuart H. Ralston, eds. (2010). Davidson's principles and practice of medicine (21st ed.). Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-7020-3085-7.

ManazartaGyara

  1. Taber, Clarence Wilbur; Venes, Donald (2009). Taber's cyclopedic medical dictionary. F. A. Davis Co. pp. 1018–1023. ISBN 978-0-8036-1559-5.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Guyton & Hall 2011.
  3. Moore, Keith L.; Dalley, Arthur F.; Agur, Anne M. R. (2009). "1". Clinically Oriented Anatomy. Wolters Kluwel Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 127–173. ISBN 978-1-60547-652-0.
  4. Starr, Cecie; Evers, Christine; Starr, Lisa (2009). Biology: Today and Tomorrow With Physiology. Cengage Learning. p. 422. ISBN 978-0-495-56157-6. Archived from the original on 2 May 2016.
  5. 5.0 5.1 Reed, C. Roebuck; Brainerd, Lee Wherry; Lee, Rodney; Inc, the staff of Kaplan (2008). CSET : California Subject Examinations for Teachers (3rd ed.). New York: Kaplan Pub. p. 154. ISBN 978-1-4195-5281-6. Archived from the original on 4 May 2016.
  6. Gray's Anatomy 2008.
  7. Moore, Keith L.; Dalley, Arthur F.; Agur, Anne M. R. (2009). "1". Clinically Oriented Anatomy. Wolters Kluwel Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 127–173. ISBN 978-1-60547-652-0.
  8. Betts, J. Gordon (2013). Anatomy & physiology. pp. 787–846. ISBN 978-1-938168-13-0. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  9. Betts, J. Gordon (2013). Anatomy & physiology. pp. 787–846. ISBN 978-1-938168-13-0. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Betts, J. Gordon (2013). Anatomy & physiology. pp. 787–846. ISBN 978-1-938168-13-0. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Betts, J. Gordon (2013). Anatomy & physiology. pp. 787–846. ISBN 978-1-938168-13-0. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  12. Betts, J. Gordon (2013). Anatomy & physiology. pp. 787–846. ISBN 978-1-938168-13-0. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  13. Empty citation (help)
  14. Betts, J. Gordon (2013). Anatomy & physiology. pp. 787–846. ISBN 978-1-938168-13-0. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  15. Betts, J. Gordon (2013). Anatomy & physiology. pp. 787–846. ISBN 978-1-938168-13-0. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Empty citation (help)
  17. 17.0 17.1 Longo, Dan; Fauci, Anthony; Kasper, Dennis; Hauser, Stephen; Jameson, J.; Loscalzo, Joseph (2011). Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (18 ed.). McGraw-Hill Professional. p. 1811. ISBN 978-0-07-174889-6.
  18. Empty citation (help)
  19. Moore, Keith L.; Dalley, Arthur F.; Agur, Anne M. R. (2009). "1". Clinically Oriented Anatomy. Wolters Kluwel Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. pp. 127–173. ISBN 978-1-60547-652-0.