Vehicle (from Latin vehiculum ) inji ce da ke jigilar mutane ko kaya. Motoci sun haɗa da kekuna, ababen hawa (babura, motoci, manyan motoci, motocin bas, babur mai motsi ga nakasassu), motocin dogo (jiragen ƙasa, trams), (jiragen ruwa, motocin karkashin ruwa), motocin amphibious (motocin dunƙule, hovercraft), jiragen sama (jirage, helikofta, aerostats) da kuma jiragen sama.

Vehicle
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na machine (en) Fassara, means of transport (en) Fassara da vehicles and vehicle parts product (en) Fassara
Bangare na traffic (en) Fassara
Amfani Sufuri
Yana haddasa convenience (en) Fassara, traffic congestion (en) Fassara da traffic collision (en) Fassara
Ma'aikaci vehicle operator (en) Fassara
Has quality (en) Fassara portability (en) Fassara
Motocin bas sune nau'ikan motocin da ake amfani da su don jigilar jama'a.

Ana rarraba motocin ƙasa gabaɗaya ta hanyar abin da ake amfani da su don amfani da tuƙi a kan ƙasa: masu wheeled, tracked, da jirgin ƙasa ko masu skied. TS EN ISO 3833-1977 daidaitaccen ma'auni ne, kuma ana amfani da shi na duniya a cikin doka, don nau'ikan motocin titi, sharuɗɗa da ma'anoni. [1]

Tarihi Gyara

 
Jirgin ruwa dugout Slavic daga karni na 10.
 
Motoci na daga cikin motocin da aka fi amfani da injina.
  • Tsofaffin jiragen ruwa da aka gano ta hanyar tono kayan tarihi sune logboats, tare da mafi tsufan logboat, kwale-kwalen Pesse da aka samu a cikin bog a cikin Netherlands, kasancewar carbon da aka yi kwanan watan 8040-7510 BC, yana mai da shi 9,500-10,000 shekaru,
  • An gano wani kwale-kwale mai shekaru 7,000 da aka kera daga ciyayi da kwalta a Kuwait. [2]
  • An yi amfani da jiragen ruwa tsakanin 4000-3000 BC a cikin Sumer, [3] tsohuwar Masar da kuma cikin Tekun Indiya. [3]
  • Akwai shaidar motocin rakumi da aka ja a kusan 4000-3000 BC.
  • Shaida ta farko na titin wagon, magajin layin dogo, wanda aka samu zuwa yanzu shine 6 to 8.5 kilometres (4 to 5 mi) doguwar titin Diolkos, wanda ke jigilar kwale-kwale ƙetaren Isthmus na Koranti a Girka tun kusan 600 BC. [4] [5] Motoci masu tayar da hankali da mutane da dabbobi suka ja suna gudu a cikin tsagi a cikin dutsen farar ƙasa, wanda ke ba da sinadarin waƙar, wanda ke hana kekunan barin hanyar da aka nufa. [5]
  • A cikin 200 AZ, Ma Jun ya gina karusa mai nuna kudu, abin hawa tare da tsarin jagoranci na farko.
  • Layukan dogo sun fara bayyana a Turai bayan Duhuwar Zamani. Babban sanannen rikodin layin dogo a Turai daga wannan lokacin shine taga mai tabo a cikin Ministan Freiburg im Breisgau wanda ya fara kusan 1350.
  • A cikin ƙarni na 1515, Cardinal Matthäus Lang ya rubuta bayanin Reisszug, hanyar jirgin kasa mai ban sha'awa a sansanin Hohensalzburg a Austria. Tun da farko layin yana amfani da dogo na katako da igiya mai ɗaukar hemp kuma ikon ɗan adam ko na dabba ne ke sarrafa shi, ta hanyar tuƙi.
  •  
    sufurin Keke kenan
    1769 Nicolas-Joseph Cugnot sau da yawa ana alakan ta shi da kera abin hawa na farko mai sarrafa kansa ko mota a 1769.
  • A cikin Rasha, a cikin a karni na 1780s, Ivan Kulibin ya ƙera mota mai three-wheeled uku tare da sifofi na zamani irin su tashi, birki, akwatin kaya da bearings; duk da haka, ba a kara inganta shi ba.
  • 1783 'Yan'uwan Montgolfier na farko abin hawa balloon
  • 1801 Richard Trevithick ya gina kuma ya nuna motarsa ta hanyar Puffing Devil, wanda mutane da yawa suka yi imani itace farkon motar da ke da amfani da wutar lantarki, ko da yake ba zai iya kula da isasshen tururi na dogon lokaci ba kuma ba shi da amfani sosai.
  • 1817 push bikes, draisines ko dawakai na sha'awa sune hanyoyin farko na ɗan adam don yin amfani da ƙa'idodin masu kafa biyu, draisienne (ko Laufmaschine, "na'ura mai gudana"), wanda Baron Karl von Drais na Jamus ya ƙirƙira, ana ɗaukarsa azaman farkon keken zamani (da babur). Drais ne ya gabatar da shi ga jama'a a Mannheim a lokacin rani 1817.
  • 1885 Karl Benz ya gina (kuma daga baya ya ba da haƙƙin mallaka) motar farko, wanda injin ɗinsa ya yi amfani da shi a Mannheim, Jamus.
  • 1885 Otto Lilienthal ya fara hawan gwaji na gwaji kuma ya sami ci gaba na farko, sarrafawa, jiragen da za a iya sake yin su.
  • 1903 'Yan'uwan Wright sun tashi na farko da sarrafawa, jirgin sama mai ƙarfi
  • 1907 Na farko helikofta Gyroplane no.1 (tethered) da Cornu helikofta (jirgin kyauta) [6]
  • 1928 Opel RAK.1 roka mota
  • 1929 Opel RAK.1 roka glider
  • 1961 Motar Vostok ta ɗauki ɗan adam na farko, Yuri Gagarin, zuwa sararin samaniya
  • 1969 Shirin Apollo ya fara saukar da abin hawa a kan wata
  • 2010 Yawan motocin da ke aiki a duk duniya ya zarce adadin biliyan 1-kusan ɗaya ga kowane mutum bakwai.

Nau'inkan ababen hawa Gyara

 
Samfurin abin hawa da aka fi sani da shi a duniya, keken Tattabara mai tashi. (2011)
 
Itacen bishiyar mafi yawan abubuwan hawa da aka taɓa yi, tare da jimlar adadin da aka nuna ta girman, da nau'in/samfuri mai lakabi da bambanta da launi. Kafaffen jiragen sama, jirage masu saukar ungulu, da jirage masu saukar ungulu na kasuwanci ana iya gani a ƙananan kusurwar dama a matsakaicin zuƙowa.

Ana amfani da kekuna sama da biliyan 1 a duk duniya. A shekara ta 2002 akwai kimanin motoci miliyan 590 da babura miliyan 205 da ke hidima a duniya. Akalla flying pigeon da ke tashi sama da miliyan 500 na kasar Sin da aka kera, fiye da kowane nau'in abin hawa guda daya. Motar da aka fi samarwa ita ce babur Honda Super Cub, wanda ya wuce miliyan 60 a 2008. Motar da aka fi samarwa ita ce Toyota Corolla, tare da aƙalla miliyan 35 da aka yi ta 2010. Jirgin da aka fi sani da tsayayyen jirgin sama shine Cessna 172, tare da kusan 44,000 da aka yi tun 2017. The Soviet Mil Mi-8, a 17,000, shi ne mafi yawan samar da helikwafta. Babban jirgin sama na kasuwanci shine Boeing 737, a kusan 10,000 a cikin shekarar 2018. [7] A kusa da 14,000 na duka biyun, manyan motocin da aka samar sune KTM-5 da Tatra T3. Mafi yawan trolleybus shine ZiU-9.




Manazarta Gyara

  1. ISO 3833:1977 Road vehicles – Types – Terms and definitions Webstore.anis.org
  2. Halsey, William D. (Editorial Director): MacMillan Contemporary Dictionary, page 1106. MacMillan Publishing, 1979. ISBN 0-02-080780-5Empty citation (help)
  3. 3.0 3.1 Denemark 2000, page 208
  4. Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named wagonway
  5. 5.0 5.1 (J. ed.). Missing or empty |title= (help)
  6. Munson 1968
  7. Kingsley-Jones, Max. "6,000 and counting for Boeing’s popular little twinjet." Flight International, Reed Business Information, 22 April 2009. Retrieved: 22 April 2009.