Noman Kayan Lambu (Horticulture)

Noman Kayan lambu shine fasahar noman shuke -shuke a cikin lambuna don samar da abinci da sinadarai na magani, ko don jin daɗi da dalilai na ado. Masu aikin gona sun kasance masu aikin gona waɗanda ke shuka furanni, 'ya'yan itatuwa da kwayoyi, kayan lambu da ganye, da bishiyoyi masu ado.

Wani ɗalibin aikin lambu yana kula da tsirrai a cikin lambu a Lawrenceville, Georgia, Maris 2015

Karatu da aikace -aikacen noman kayan lambu an gano su tun shekaru dubbai. Noman Gona ya ba da gudummawa ga sauyawa daga al'ummomin mutane masu kiwo zuwa mazaunan zama, ko masu zaman kashe wando, al'ummomin noma. [1] An raba kayan lambu zuwa fannoni da yawa waɗanda ke mai da hankali kan noma da sarrafa nau'ikan tsirrai da abubuwan abinci don dalilai na musamman. Don adana kimiyyar aikin gona, ƙungiyoyi da yawa a duk duniya suna ilimantarwa, ƙarfafawa, da haɓaka ci gaban aikin gona. Wasu sanannun masu aikin lambu sun haɗa da Luca Ghini, Luther Burbank, da Tony Avent.

Ma'ana da iyakaGyara

 
Keken da aka saba amfani da shi a aikin gona a Vottem, Belgium

Noma kayan Lambu ya ƙunshi yaɗuwar shuka da nomansa don haɓaka haɓakar shuke -shuke, amfanin ƙasa, inganci, ƙimar abinci, da juriya ga kwari, cututtuka, da matsalolin muhalli. Hakanan ya haɗa da kiyaye tsirrai, maido da shimfidar wuri, sarrafa ƙasa, shimfidar wuri da ƙirar lambun, gini da kiyayewa, da aikin gona . Kalmar aikin gona ana yin ta ne bayan aikin gona ; ya samo asali ne daga kalmomin Latin hortus da cultura, waɗanda ke nufin “lambun” da “noma”, bi da bi. Ya bambanta da aikin gona, noman bai ƙunshi babban amfanin gona ko kiwon dabbobi ba . Bugu da ƙari, noman ya mai da hankali kan amfani da ƙananan filaye tare da nau'ikan amfanin gona iri -iri yayin da noma ke mai da hankali kan babban amfanin gona na farko a lokaci guda.

Nau'ikan Noman Kayan LambuGyara

Akwai manyan fannoni da yawa da aka mai da hankali a cikin ilimin aikin gona. Sun hada da:

  • Olericulture : samar da kayan lambu.
  • Pomology, wanda kuma ake kira fruticulture : samar da 'ya'yan itatuwa da kwayoyi.
  • Kayan lambu : samar da inabi (galibi an yi niyya don yin giya).
  • Floriculture : samar da furanni da tsire -tsire masu ado.
  • Gudanar da ciyawar ciyawa: samarwa da kiyaye ciyawar ciyawa don wasanni, nishaɗi da amfanin jin daɗi.
  • Arboriculture : namo da kulawa da bishiyoyi daban -daban, shrubs, inabi, da sauran tsirrai masu tsufa, musamman don shimfidar wuri da abubuwan more rayuwa.
  • Noman shuke -shuken shimfidar wuri : zaɓi, samarwa da kuma kula da tsirran da ake amfani da su a tsarin gine -gine.
  • Kimiyyar ilmin kimiya ta bayan girbi : gudanar da girbin amfanin gona na girbi don hana ɓarna yayin adanawa ko jigilar su.

TarihiGyara

 
Babban Cyrus, ya kafa babbar Daular Farisa kuma ya taimaka wajen kafa babban aikin noma. Ya mutu a 530 BC.

Karatu da aikace-aikacen aikin gona sun samo asali ne daga zamanin Cyrus Babba na tsohuwar Farisa kuma yana ci gaba da kasancewa cikin ƙungiyar yau tare da masu aikin lambu na zamani kamar Freeman S. Howlett da Luther Burbank . Asalin shuke-shuken ya ta'allaka ne a cikin sauyin al'ummomin ɗan adam daga salon rayuwar makiyaya a matsayin masu farauta zuwa masu zaman kansu, ko masu zaman kashe wando, al'ummomin noma. A cikin gandun daji na Pre-Columbian Amazon, 'yan ƙasa sun yi amfani da biochar don haɓaka yawan amfanin ƙasa ta hanyar ƙona sharar shuka. [2] Mazauna Turai sun kira wannan ƙasa Terra Preta de Indio . [3] A cikin gandun daji, ana yin irin wannan aikin noman a cikin guguwa, ko kuma ' yankan da ƙona ' yankuna. [4] A cikin tuntuɓar Arewacin Amurka, al'ummomin gandun daji na Gabas ta Tsakiya, waɗanda suka shuka masara, squash, da sunflower, sun bambanta sosai tare da al'ummomin mafarautan masu farautar mutanen Plains . Al’adun Mesoamerican sun mai da hankali kan noman amfanin gona a kan ƙaramin sikeli, kamar “ milpa ” ko filin masara, a kusa da gidajensu ko a cikin wasu filaye na musamman waɗanda aka ziyarta lokaci -lokaci yayin ƙaura daga yanki zuwa na gaba. [1] A Amurka ta Tsakiya, aikin gona na Maya ya ƙunshi haɓaka daji tare da bishiyoyi masu amfani kamar gwanda, avocado, cacao, ceiba da sapodilla . A gonakin masara, an shuka albarkatu da yawa kamar wake, kabewa, kabewa da barkono barkono, kuma a wasu al'adu, mata ne ke kula da waɗannan amfanin gona musamman ko na musamman. [5]

Kungiyoyin Noman Kayan LambuGyara

Akwai ƙungiyoyi daban -daban a duk duniya waɗanda ke mai da hankali kan haɓakawa da ƙarfafa bincike da ilimi a duk rassan kimiyyar noman kayan lambu; irin waɗannan ƙungiyoyi sun haɗa da Ƙungiyar Ƙasa ta Duniya don Kimiyyar Al'adu da American Society of Horticultural Science .

A Burtaniya, akwai manyan kungiyoyi biyu noman kayan lambu. The Ancient Society of York Florists ita ce mafi tsufa al'umma al'adun gargajiyar a duniya kuma an kafa ta a 1768; wannan ƙungiyar tana ci gaba da karɓar baje kolin kayan lambu huɗu a shekara a York, UK. Bugu da ƙari, The Royal Horticultural Society, wanda aka kafa a cikin 1804, sadaka ce a cikin Burtaniya wanda ke jagorantar ƙarfafawa da haɓaka kimiyya, fasaha, da aikin noma a duk rassan sa. Kungiyar tana ba da ilimin aikin gona ta hanyar al'ummarsa, shirye-shiryen koyo, da lambuna da nunin duniya.

Cibiyar Chartered Institute of Horticulture (CIoH) ita ce ƙungiyar ƙwararru wacce ke wakiltar masu noman lambu a Burtaniya da Ireland yayin da kuma ke da reshe na duniya ga membobi a wajen waɗannan tsibiran. An kafa Ƙungiyar Ostiraliya ta Kimiyyar Al'adun Gargajiya a cikin 1990 a matsayin ƙwararrun al'umma don haɓakawa da haɓaka kimiyyar kayan lambu na Australiya da masana'antu. A ƙarshe, Cibiyar Noma ta New Zealand ita ce wata sananniyar ƙungiyar kayan lambu.

An kafa Ƙungiyar Junior Hulticultural Association (NJHA) a shekarar 1934 kuma ita ce ƙungiya ta farko a duniya da aka sadaukar da ita ga matasa da aikin gona. An tsara shirye-shiryen NJHA don taimakawa matasa samun ainihin fahimtar aikin gona da haɓaka ƙwarewa a cikin wannan fasaha da kimiyya da ke haɓaka.

Shirin Global Horticulture Initiative (GlobalHort) yana haɓaka haɗin gwiwa da aiki tare tsakanin masu ruwa da tsaki a harkar noma. Wannan ƙungiya tana mai da hankali na musamman kan aikin gona don ci gaba (H4D), wanda ya haɗa da amfani da noman don rage talauci da haɓaka abinci mai gina jiki a duk duniya. An tsara GlobalHort a cikin ƙungiyar ƙungiyoyi na ƙasa da ƙasa waɗanda ke haɗin gwiwa a cikin bincike, horo, da ayyukan samar da fasaha waɗanda aka tsara don cimma manufofin da aka amince da juna. GlobalHort ƙungiya ce mai zaman kanta mai rijista a Belgium.

Sanannun masu aikin lambuGyara

  • Luca Ghini (1490-1556)
  • Ulisse Aldrovandi (1502-1605)
  • John Bartram (1699-1777)
  • William Forsyth (1737-1804)
  • James Dickson (1738-1822)
  • Joseph Banks (1743-1820)
  • Richard Anthony Salisbury (1761-1829)
  • Luther Burbank (1849-1926)
  • 'Yanci Hyde Bailey (1858-1954)
  • George Washington Carver (1864-1943)
  • John Caspar Wister (1887-1982)
  • Curt Backeberg (1894-1966)
  • György Bálint (asalin sunan mahaifi Braun; 1919–2020)
  • Tony Avent (1957-)

Duba kumaGyara

 

Kara karantawaGyara

  • CR Adams, Ka'idojin Noma Butterworth-Heinemann; Bugu na biyar (11 ga Agusta 2008),  .

Hanyoyin wajeGyara

NassoshiGyara

  1. 1.0 1.1 von Hagen, V.W. (1957) The Ancient Sun Kingdoms Of The Americas. Ohio: The World Publishing Company
  2. Solomon, Dawit, Johannes Lehmann, Janice Thies, Thorsten Schafer, Biqing Liang, James Kinyangi, Eduardo Neves, James Petersen, Flavio Luizao, and Jan Skjemstad, Molecular signature and sources of biochemical recalcitrance of organic carbone in Amazonian Dark Earths, Geochemica et cosmochemica ACTA 71.9 2285–2286 (2007) ("Amazonian Dark Earths (ADE) are a unique type of soils apparently developed between 500 and 9000 years B.P. through intense anthropogenic activities such as biomass-burning and high-intensity nutrient depositions on pre-Columbian Amerindian settlements that transformed the original soils into Fimic Anthrosols throughout the Brazilian Amazon Basin.") (internal citations omitted)
  3. Glaser, Bruno, Johannes Lehmann, and Wolfgang Zech, Ameliorating physical and chemical properties of highly weathered soils in the tropics with charcoal – a review, Biology and Fertility of Soils 35.4 219-220 (2002) ("These so called Terra Preta do Indio (Terra Preta) characterize the settlements of pre-Columbian Indios. In Terra Preta soils large amounts of black C indicate a high and prolonged input of carbonized organic matter probably due to the production of charcoal in hearths, whereas only low amounts of charcoal are added to soils as a result of forest fires and slash-and-burn techniques.") (internal citations omitted)
  4. McGee, J.R. and Kruse, M. (1986) Swidden horticulture among the Lacandon Maya [videorecording (29 mins.)]. University of California, Berkeley: Extension Media Center
  5. Thompson, S.I. (1977) Women, Horticulture, and Society in Tropical America. American Anthropologist, N.S., 79: 908–10