Masanin yanayin ƙasa

 

Wikidata.svgMasanin yanayin ƙasa
sana'a
Johannes Vermeer - The Geographer - Google Art Project.jpg
Bayanai
Ƙaramin ɓangare na earth scientist (en) Fassara
Field of this occupation (en) Fassara labarin ƙasa
Nada jerin list of geographers (en) Fassara
Uses (en) Fassara geography terminology (en) Fassara
Yadda ake kira namiji hitaledavan, geografulo, Geograph da geografo
ISCO-08 occupation class (en) Fassara 2632
ISCO-88 occupation class (en) Fassara 2442
Geographer (1668-69), na Johannes Vermeer

Masanin yanayin ƙasa masanin kimiyyar zahiri ne, masanin kimiyyar zamantakewa ko ɗan adam wanda yankin bincikensa shine labari ko yanayin ƙasa, nazarin muhalli na zahiri da zamantakewar ɗan adam, gami da yadda al'umma da yanayi ke cuɗanya. Ma'anar kalmar "geo" ta Helenanci tana nufin "duniya/ƙasa" ita kuma kalmar Helenanci ta, "graphy," tana nufin "bayani," don haka geographer shine wanda ke nazarin duniya.[1] Kalmar “geography” kalma ce ta Tsakiyar Faransa wacce aka yi imanin cewa an fara amfani da ita a 1540.[2]

Duk da cewa anfi sanin masana yanayin kasa a tarihance da yin nazarin taswira kadai, zana taswira na daga cikin ainihin fannin nazarin zane-zanen taswira, wani bangare na yanayin kasa. Masana ilimin kasa ba wai kawai suna nazarin yanayi ne ko zamantakewar ɗan adam kadai ba, suna nazarin dangantakar da ke tsakanin waɗannan biyun. Alal misali, suna nazarin yadda muhalli na zahiri ke ba da gudummawa ga zamantakewar ɗan adam da kuma yadda zamantakewar ɗan adam ke shafar muhalli. [3]

Musamman ma, masana ilimin kasa/yanayi na zahiri suna nazarin muhalli na zahiri yayin da masu binciken nazarin dan adam ke nazarin zamantakewa da al'adun ɗan adam. Wasu masanan kimiyyar ƙasa suna aiki ne a fanninGIS ( tsarin bayanan kimiyyar yanki geographic information system) kuma galibi ana amfani da su a hukummomin cikin gida, jihohi, da hukumomin gwamnatin tarayya da kuma a cikin kamfanoni masu zaman kansu ta kamfanonin muhalli da injiniyoyi.[4]

Hotunan da Johannes Vermeer ya yi mai taken The Geographer da The Astronomer duk ana tsammanin suna wakiltar tasirin bunkasa da kuma daukakar binciken kimiyya a Turai a lokacin da sukayi zane a shekarun1668-69.

Sassan nazariGyara

 Akwai muhimman sassan nazari guda uku, wadanda aka kara karkasu su:[5]

  • Nazarin ɗan adam : wanda ya haɗa da labarin ƙasa na birane, nazarin al'adu, nazarin tattalin arziki, nazarin siyasa, nazarin tarihi, nazarin kasuwanci, nazarin kiwon lafiya, da nazarin zamantakewa.[6]
  • Nazarin muhalli na zahiri : ciki har da geomorphology, ilimin ruwa, ilimin kankarar gilashiya , biogeography, ilimin yanayin sararin samaniya, ilimin gajeren yanayi, ilimin halittu, ilimin teku , geodesy, da ilimin muhalli.[7]
  • Nazarin yankiuna : gami da sararin samaniya, shashin duniya da ake rayuwa wato biosphere, da doron kasa wato lithosphere .

Ƙungiyar National Geographic Society ta gano manyan jigogi guda biyar ga masana kimiyyar kasa:

  • hulda tsakanin mutum da muhalli
  • wuri
  • motsi
  • wuri
  • yankuna[8]

Sanannun masana ilimin ƙasaGyara

 
Gerardus Mercator
  • Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) - ya wallafa Cosmos kuma tare da shi aka kirkiri fannin biogeography (wato nazarin tsirrai).
  • Arnold Henry Guyot (1807-1884) – lura da tsarin kankarar glaciers da ci-gaba fahimta a nazarin matsawar glacier, musamman hanzarin kwarara kankara.
  • Carl O. Sauer (1889-1975) – masanin ilimin kasa.
  • Carl Ritter (1779-1859) - ya mamaye kujerar shugaban farko na ilimin kasa a Jami'ar Berlin.
  • David Harvey (an haife shi a shekara ta 1935) - Mawallafin labarin kasa na Marxist kuma marubucin ka'idoji akan yanayin sararin samaniya da birane, wanda ya lashe kyautar Vautrin Lud .
  • Doreen Massey (1944-2016) – masani a sararin samaniya da wuraren dunkulewar duniya da jam’insa; wanda ya lashe kyautar Vautrin Lud.
  • Edward Soja (1940-2015) - yayi aiki akan ci gaban yanki, tsare-tsare da gudanar da mulki kuma ya sanya kalmomin synekism da postmetropolis; wanda ya lashe kyautar Vautrin Lud.
  • Ellen Churchill Semple (1863-1932) – shugabar mace ta farko ta Ƙungiyar Ma’aikatan Geographers ta Amurka .
  • Eratosthenes ( c. 276-c. 195/194 BC) – kirga girman Duniya.
  • Ernest Burgess (1886-1966) – mahalicci na concentric zone model .
  • Gerardus Mercator (1512-1594) - mai zanen zane wanda ya samar da tsinkayar Mercator
  • John Francon Williams (1854-1911) - marubucin The Geography of the Oceans .
  • Karl Butzer (1934-2016) – Masanin labarin kasa Ba-Amurke, masanin al'adu da kuma masanin ilimin kimiya na muhalli.
  • Michael Frank Goodchild (an haife shi a shekara ta 1944) - Masanin GIS kuma wanda ya lashe lambar yabo ta RGS a cikin 2003.
  • Muhammad al-Idrisi (Larabci: أبو عبد الله محمد الإدريسي; Latin: Dreses) (1100-1165) – marubucin Nuzhatul Mushtaq.
  • Nigel Thrift (an haife shi a shekara ta 1949) – mafarin ka'idar ba wakilci .
  • Paul Vidal de La Blache (1845-1918) - wanda ya kafa makarantar Faransanci na geopolitics, ya rubuta ka'idodin geography na ɗan adam.
  • Ptolemy (C. 100–C. 170) - an tattara ilimin Girkanci da na Roman a cikin littafin Geographia .
  • Radhanath Sikdar (1813-1870) – ƙididdige tsayin Dutsen Everest .
  • Roger Tomlinson (1933 - 2014) – farkon wanda ya kafa tsarin bayanan yanki na zamani.
  • Halford Mackinder (1861-1947) – co-kafa na London School of Economics, Geographical Association .
  • Strabo (64/63 BC - c. AD 24) – ya rubuta Geographica Geographica, daya daga cikin litattafai na farko da ke bayyana nazarin labarin kasa.
  • Waldo Tobler (1930-2018) – ya kafa dokar farko na labarin kasa .
  • Walter Christaller (1893-1969) – ɗan adam geographer kuma mai ƙirƙira na tsakiyar wuri ka'idar .
  • William Morris Davis (1850-1934) – mahaifin Amurka labarin kasa da developer na sake zagayowar zaizayarwa .
  • Yi-Fu Tuan (1930-2022) – Masanin dan Chena kuma Ba’amurke da aka yaba da fara tarihin ɗan adam a matsayin horo.

Cibiyoyi da al'ummomiGyara

  • Ƙungiyar Ma'aikatan Geographer na Amirka [9]
  • Ƙungiyar Ƙasa ta Amirka[10]
  • Cibiyar Nazarin Kasa ta Anton Melik (Slovenia)
  • Gamma Theta Upsilon (na duniya)
  • Cibiyar Harkokin Watsa Labarun Kasa (Pakistan)
  • Ƙungiyar Ƙasa ta Duniya
  • Karachi Geographical Society (Pakistan)
  • National Geographic Society (US)[11]
  • Royal Canadian Geographical Society
  • Royal Danish Geographical Society
  • Royal Geographical Society (Birtaniya)[12]
  • Rukunin Geographical Society

Duba kumaGyara

 

NassoshiGyara

  1. Arrowsmith, Aaron (1832). "Chapter II: The World". A Grammar of Modern Geography. King's College School. pp. 20–21. Archived from the original on 4 October 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
  2. "geography (n.)" (Web article). Online Etymology Dictionary. Douglas Harper. n.d. Archived from the original on 1 August 2017. Retrieved 10 October 2018.
  3. Pedley, Mary Sponberg; Edney, Matthew H., eds. (2020). The History of Cartography, Volume 4: Cartography in the European Enlightenment. University of Chicago Press. pp. 557–558. ISBN 9780226339221. Archived from the original on 4 October 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2021.
  4. "Geographers : Occupational Outlook Handbook : U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics". www.bls.gov. Retrieved 6 October 2021.
  5. "Three types of Geography" (PDF).
  6. Nel, Etienne (23 November 2010). "The dictionary of human geography, 5th edition - Edited by Derek Gregory, Ron Johnston, Geraldine Pratt, Michael J. Watts and Sarah Whatmore". New Zealand Geographer. 66 (3): 234–236. doi:10.1111/j.1745-7939.2010.01189_4.x. ISSN 0028-8144.
  7. Marsh, William M. (2013). Physical geography : great systems and global environments. Martin M. Kaufman. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-76428-5. OCLC 797965742
  8. "Geography Education @". Nationalgeographic.com. 24 October 2008. Archived from the original on 7 February 2010. Retrieved 16 July 2013.
  9. Freeman, T. W.; James, Preston E.; Martin, Geoffrey J. (July 1980). "The Association of American Geographers: The First Seventy-Five Years 1904-1979". The Geographical Journal. 146 (2): 298. doi:10.2307/632894. ISSN 0016-7398. JSTOR 632894.
  10. "AGS History". 26 February 2009. Archived from the original on 26 February 2009. Retrieved 11 October 2021.
  11. "National Geographic Society". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 11 October 2021.
  12. "Royal Geographical Society - Royal Geographical Society (with IBG)". www.rgs.org. Retrieved 11 October 2021.

Kara karantawaGyara

  • Steven Seegel . Maza Taswira: Rayukan Juyin Juya Hali da Mutuwar Ma'aikatan Geographers a Ƙirƙirar Gabashin Tsakiyar Turai. Jami'ar Chicago Press, 2018. ISBN 978-0-226-43849-8 .

Hanyoyin haɗi na wajeGyara

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