Injiniyarin ( CoE ko CpE ) reshen injiniya ne wanda ya haɗu da fannoni da yawa na kimiyyar kwamfuta da injiniyan lantarki da ake buƙata don hada kayan kwamfuta da software .

Wikidata.svgComputer engineering
branch of engineering (en) Fassara, specialty (en) Fassara, academic major (en) Fassara da academic discipline (en) Fassara
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Ƙaramin ɓangare na engineering (en) Fassara
Bangare na computer science (en) Fassara da electrical engineering (en) Fassara
Gudanarwan computer engineer (en) Fassara

Injiniyoyin kwamputa galibin su suna da horo a kan aikin injiniyancin lantarki (ko injiniyan lantarki ), ƙira-iren software, da haɗakar kayan aikin kwamfuta maimakon kawai injiniyan software ko injiniyan lantarki.

Computer injiniyoyi suna da hannu a cikin dayawan hardware da software tare da sarrafa kwamfuta. Daga cikin zane na mutum microcontroller, microprocessor, sirri kwamfutar, da kuma [[supercomputer]]s.

Wannan fanni na aikin injiniya ba wai kawai yana mai da hankali bane a kan yadda tsarin kwamfutocin da kansu zasu rinka har ma da yadda suke haɗuwa cikin hoto mafi girma.

Injiniyancin kwamfuta sun hada da rubuta [[software]] da kuma [[firmware]] don saka [[microcontroller]], da zayyana VLSI kwakwalwan kwamfuta, da zayyana analog na'urori masu auna sigina, da zayyana gauraye siginar allon kayan wutan, kuma zayyana tsarukan .

Injiniyoyin kwomfuta suma sun dace da binciken fasahar mutum-mutumi, wanda ya dogara da yin amfani da tsarin dijital don sarrafawa da kuma lura da tsarin lantarki kamar injina, sadarwa, da na'urori masu auna sigina .

A yawancin cibiyoyin babbar ilmi, ana ba wa ɗaliban injiniyan kwamfuta damar zaɓar fannoni na zurfafa karatu da ƙaraminsu da babba saboda samun cikakken ilimin da aka yi amfani da shi a cikin ƙira da aikace-aikacen kwamfutoci ya wuce girman digiri na farko . Sauran cibiyoyi na iya buƙatar ɗalibai injiniyoyi da su kammala shekara ɗaya ko biyu na babban injiniya kafin ayyana injiniyan kwamfuta a matsayin babban abin da suka fi mayar da hankali.

Wannan kwamfuta motherboard amfani da wani sirri kwamfuta ne sakamakon kwamfuta injiniya kokarin.
Injin Bambanci, kwamfutar farko ta farko.
ENIAC, kwamfutar lantarki ta farko.

Injiniyancin komputa ya fara ne a 1939 lokacin da John Vincent Atanasoff da Clifford Berry suka fara haɓaka komputa na farko na lantarki a duniya ta hanyar ilimin lissafi, lissafi, da injiniyan lantarki . John Vincent Atanasoff ya taɓa zama malamin lissafi da lissafi na Jami'ar Jihar Iowa da Clifford Berry tsohon ɗan digiri ne a ƙarƙashin injiniyan lantarki da kimiyyar lissafi. Tare, sun kirkiri kwamfutar Atanasoff-Berry, wanda aka fi sani da ABC wanda ya ɗauki shekaru 5 ya kammala. Yayin da aka rusa asalin ABC kuma aka jefar dashi a cikin shekarun 1940 aka sanya haraji ga marigayi masu kirkirar, an sake yin kwatankwacin ABC a 1997 inda ya dauki kungiyar masu bincike da injiniyoyi shekaru hudu da $ 350,000 suka gina.

Kwamfutar mutum ta zamani ta fito a cikin shekara 1970s, bayan nasarori da yawa a cikin fasahar semiconductor. Wadannan sun hada da na farko aiki transistor da William Shockley, John Bardeen da Walter Brattain a Bell Labs a 1947, da silicon surface passivation aiwatar (via thermal hadawan abu da iskar shaka ) da Mohammed Atalla a Bell Labs a 1957, wanda aka hada shi da Robert Noyce a kamfanin Fairchild Semiconductor a 1959, transistor mai tasirin karfe-oxide-semiconductor (MOSFET, ko MOS transistor) na Mohamed Atalla da Dawon Kahng a Bell Labs a 1959, da microprocessor guda ( Intel 4004 ) na Federico Faggin, Marcian Hoff, Masatoshi Shima da Stanley Mazor a Intel a 1971.

Tarihin ilimin injiniyan kwamfutaGyara

An fara karatun digiri na farko na injiniyan komputa a Amurka a 1971 a Jami'ar Case Western Reserve a Cleveland, Ohio . As of 2015 , Akwai 250 Abet -accredited kwamfuta injiniya shirye-shirye a cikin US A cikin Turai, takardun aiki na kwamfuta aikin injiniya makarantu da aka yi da dama hukumomin ɓangare na EQANIE cibiyar sadarwa. Saboda karuwar bukatun aiki ga injiniyoyin da zasu iya tsara kayan aiki a lokaci guda, kayan aikin komputa, kayan aiki, da kuma sarrafa dukkan nau'ikan tsarin kwamfutar da ake amfani da su a masana'antu, wasu manyan makarantu a duk duniya suna ba da digiri na farko wanda ake kira injiniyan kwamfuta. Duk shirye-shiryen injiniyan kwamfuta da injiniyan lantarki sun haɗa da analog da ƙirar kewaya na dijital a cikin tsarin karatunsu. Kamar yadda yake tare da yawancin ilimin injiniya, samun cikakken ilimin lissafi da kimiyya ya zama dole ga injiniyoyin komputa.

IlimiGyara

Ana kiran aikin Injiniyan Komputa a matsayin kimiyyar kwamfuta da aikin injiniya a wasu jami'o'i. Yawancin ayyukan aikin injiniya na komputa suna buƙatar aƙalla digiri na farko a cikin injiniyan kwamfuta (ko kimiyyar kwamfuta da injiniya). Yawanci dole ne mutum ya koyi tarin lissafi kamar lissafi, algebra da trigonometry da kuma wasu azuzuwan kimiyyar kwamfuta.[ana buƙatar hujja] Wani lokaci ana karɓar digiri a aikin injiniyan lantarki, saboda kamanceceniyar fannonin biyu. Saboda injiniyoyin kayan masarufi galibi suna aiki tare da tsarin software na kwamfuta, ingantaccen tushe a cikin shirye-shiryen kwamfuta ya zama dole. A cewar BLS, "babban injiniyan injiniya yana kama da injiniyan lantarki amma tare da wasu kwasa-kwasan ilimin komputa da aka kara wa tsarin karatun". Wasu manyan kamfanoni ko ayyuka na musamman suna buƙatar digiri na biyu.

Hakanan yana da mahimmanci injiniyoyin komputa su ci gaba da samun ci gaba cikin sauri a fasaha. Sabili da haka, da yawa suna ci gaba da koyo cikin ayyukansu. Wannan na iya taimakawa, musamman idan ya zo ga koyan sababbin dabaru ko inganta wadanda ake dasu. Misali, yayin da farashin dangi na gyara kwaro yana kara gaba yayin da yake a cikin tsarin cigaban software, za a iya samun tsadar kudi mafi girma wanda aka danganta ga bunkasa da gwaji don lambar inganci da wuri-wuri a cikin aikin, kuma musamman kafin sakin.

Kwarewa: Injin InjiniyaGyara

Mutumin da yake da sana'a a aikin injiniya na kwamfuta ana kiran shi injiniyan kwamfuta.

Take Prefix Suffix Bukatun
Injin Injiniya Injiniya. CpE Ya wuce digiri a kan aikin injiniya na kwamfuta

Itutionaddamarwa: Educungiyar Ilimi (kamar Kwaleji, Jami'ar)

Bokan injiniyan kwamfuta Injiniya. CCpE An wuce jarabawar takardar shaida a cikin injiniyan kwamfuta

Itutionaddamarwa: Privateungiyoyi masu zaman kansu (kamar ƙungiyoyin injiniyan kwamfuta da kamfanoni masu zaman kansu)

Injiniyan kwamfuta mai rajista Injiniya. RCpE An wuce gwajin lasisi a cikin injiniyan kwamfuta

Itutionaddamarwa: Instungiyar Jama'a (kamar Hukumar Kula da Countryasa)

Kwararren injiniyan komputa Injiniya. Kwamfuta An wuce gwajin ƙwararru a cikin injiniyan kwamfuta, ko ƙwarewar aiki

Instaddamarwa: Publicungiyoyin Jama'a ko Masu zaman kansu

* na iya bambanta a yanki da ƙasa.

Aikace-aikace da aikace-aikaceGyara

Injin aikin komputaGyara

Dangane da BLS, aikin Job Outlook na injiniyoyin kayan komputa, haɓakar shekaru goma da ake tsammani daga 2019 zuwa 2029 don injiniyan kayan komputa ya ƙiyasta 2% da kuma jimlar ayyuka 71,100. ("A hankali fiye da matsakaita" a cikin maganganunsu idan aka kwatanta da sauran sana'o'in) ". Wannan raguwa ne daga ƙimar injiniyan kayan komputa na shekara ta 2014 zuwa 2024 na 3% da kuma jimillar ayyuka 77,700. " kuma ya sauka daga 7% na kimar BLS ta shekarar 2012 zuwa 2022 kuma ya ragu daga kashi 9% a cikin kimantawar BLS 2010 zuwa 2020 ." A yau, kayan aikin komputa daidai yake  ga injiniyan lantarki da na’ura mai kwakwalwa (ECE) kuma an raba shi zuwa ƙananan ƙananan fannoni; mafi mahimmanci[ana buƙatar hujja] an saka tsarin zane.

Injin aikin komputaGyara

A cewar Ofishin Labarun Labarun Labarun Amurka (BLS), "ana sa ran injiniyoyin aikace-aikacen kwamfuta da injiniyoyin tsarin komputa zasu kasance cikin sauri fiye da matsakaitan sana'oi" An kiyasta bunkasar shekaru goma zuwa na 2014 don aikin injiniya na kwamfuta kashi goma sha bakwai kuma akwai adadin ayyuka 1,114,000 a wannan shekarar. Wannan ya sauka daga kimar BLS na 2012 zuwa 2022 na 22% na masu haɓaka software. Kuma, ƙara sauka daga kimanta 30% 2010 zuwa 2020 BLS. Kari akan haka, damuwar da ake nunawa kan tsaro ta yanar gizo ya sanya ya sanya injiniyan kayan aikin komputa sama da matsakaicin matakin karuwa ga dukkan fannoni. Koyaya, za'a fitar da wasu daga ayyukan a kasashen waje. [1] Saboda wannan, bunkasar aiki ba zai yi sauri kamar na shekaru goman da suka gabata ba, kamar yadda ayyukan da za su koma ga injiniyoyin masarrafan komputa a Amurka za su koma wajen injiniyoyin kayan komputa a kasashe irin su Indiya. Bugu da ƙari, Binciken Aiki na BLS don Masu Shirye-shiryen Kwamfuta, 2014-24 na da −8% (raguwa, a cikin maganganunsu) da Job Outlook, 2019-29 -9% (ƙi) ga waɗanda suka kwamfyutocin shirin (watau tsarin sakawa) waɗanda ba masu haɓaka aikace-aikacen kwamfuta bane. Bugu da ƙari, mata a cikin sassan software suna raguwa a cikin shekaru har ma fiye da sauran filayen injiniya.

Lasisin injiniyan komputa da aikiGyara

Injiniyan kwamfuta gabaɗaya ana aiwatar dashi a cikin manyan kamfanonin haɓaka samfuran, kuma irin wannan aikin bazai iya lasisin lasisi ba. Koyaya, masu ba da shawara masu zaman kansu waɗanda ke tallata injiniyan kwamfuta, kamar kowane nau'in injiniya, na iya zama ƙarƙashin dokokin ƙasa waɗanda ke ƙuntata aikin injiniyan ƙwararru ga waɗanda suka karɓi Lasisin da ya dace kawai. National Council of Examiners for Engineering and Surveying (NCEES) ta fara bayar da Ka'idoji da Aikin Injiniyan Injiniyan kwamfuta [2] a 2003.

Yankuna na musammanGyara

Akwai yankuna na musamman na musamman a fagen injiniyan kwamfuta.

Tsarin sarrafawaGyara

Tsarin ƙirar sarrafawa ya haɗa da zaɓar saitin koyarwa da wani tsarin aiwatarwa (misali VLIW ko RISC) kuma yana haifar da microarchitecture, wanda za'a iya bayyana shi a mAaisali VHDL ko Verilog. An rarraba ƙirar CPU cikin ƙirar abubuwan da aka haɗa: hanyoyin data (kamar su ALU da bututun mai), sashin sarrafawa: dabaru wanda ke sarrafa hanyoyin bayanai, abubuwan ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya kamar fayilolin rajista, wuraren ajiya, kewayen agogo kamar direbobin agogo, PLLs, cibiyoyin rarraba agogo, pad transceiver circuitry, logic gate cell library wacce ake amfani da ita wajen aiwatar da dabaru.

yaren computer, criptograpy, da kiyaye bayanai

 
Shirye-shiryen kwamfuta.

Injiniyoyin komputa suna aiki a cikin lambobin sirri, da kimiyyar sirri, da kuma kariya ta bayanai don samar da sabbin dabaru don kare bayanai daban-daban, kamar su hotuna na dijital da kiɗa, ɓarkewa, keta haƙƙin mallaka da sauran nau'ikan ɓarna. Misalan sun haɗa da aiki a kan hanyoyin sadarwa mara waya, tsarin eriya da yawa, watsa gani, da alamar ruwa ta dijital .

Sadarwa da hanyoyin sadarwa mara wayaGyara

Waɗanda ke mai da hankali kan sadarwa da hanyoyin sadarwar mara waya, ci gaban aiki a tsarin hanyoyin sadarwa da hanyoyin sadarwa (musamman hanyoyin sadarwar mara waya), haɓakawa da ƙididdigar sarrafa kuskure, da ka'idar bayani. Tsarin cibiyar sadarwa mai saurin gudu, danniyar tsangwama da sauyawa, zane, da kuma nazarin tsarin hakuri, da kuma tsarin adanawa da watsawa duk wani bangare ne na wannan sana'a.

Mai tarawa da tsarin aikiGyara

 
Windows 10, misali na tsarin aiki .

Wannan ƙwararren ya mai da hankali ne kan masu tarawa da ƙirar tsarin aiki da haɓakawa. Injiniyoyi a wannan fannin suna haɓaka sabon tsarin tsarin aiki, dabarun nazarin shirye-shirye, da sabbin dabaru don tabbatar da inganci. Misalan aiki a wannan fagen sun haɗa da canjin canjin lambar algorithm da sabon tsarin aiki.

Kimiyyar lissafi da injiniyaGyara

Kimiyyar lissafi da injiniya sabon horo ne. A cewar Cibiyar Sloan Career Cornerstone, mutanen da ke aiki a wannan yankin, "ana amfani da hanyoyin lissafi don tsarawa da warware rikitattun matsalolin lissafi a fannin injiniya da na zahiri da kuma na zamantakewar al'umma. Misalan sun ha] a jirgin sama zane, da jini aiki na nanometer siffofi a kan semiconductor waina, VLSI kewaye zane, radar ganewa tsarin, ion kai ta hanyar nazarin halittu tashoshi, da kuma fiye da ".

Cibiyoyin sadarwar komputa, sarrafa kwamfuta, da tsarin rarrabawaGyara

A cikin wannan ƙwarewar, injiniyoyi suna gina keɓaɓɓun yanayi don ƙididdiga, sadarwa, da samun damar bayanai . Misalan sun haɗa da hanyoyin sadarwar mara waya ta hanyar raba, sarrafa kayan sarrafawa a cikin tsarin daban-daban, da inganta ƙimar sabis a cikin wayoyin hannu da yanayin ATM. Wasu sauran misalai sun haɗa da aiki akan tsarin sadarwar mara waya da tsarin haɗin waya mai saurin Ethernet.

Tsarin kwamfuta: gine-gine, aiki iri daya, da dogaroGyara

 
Misali na CPU kwamfuta.

Injiniyoyin da ke aiki a cikin tsarin kwamfuta suna aiki akan ayyukan bincike wanda ke ba da izini don amintacce, amintacce, kuma tsarin kwamfuta mai aiki da kyau. Ayyuka kamar ƙirar sarrafawa don zaren abubuwa da yawa da aiki iri ɗaya suna cikin wannan filin. Sauran misalan aiki a wannan fanni sun haɗa da haɓaka sababbin ra'ayoyi, algorithms, da sauran kayan aikin da ke ƙara aiki da tsarin kwamfuta.

Gine-ginen kwamfuta ya haɗa da ƙirar CPU, shimfidar matsayi na ɓoye , ƙungiyar ƙwaƙwalwar ajiya da daidaita ma'auni .

Mahanagar Computer da

 
Misalin mutum-mutumi mai mutumci.

A cikin wannan ƙwarewar, injiniyoyin komputa suna mai da hankali kan haɓaka fasahar hangen nesa don fahimtar yanayi, wakilcin yanayi, da magudi da yanayin. Bayanin da aka tattara bayanai masu girman uku ana aiwatar dasu don aiwatar da ayyuka iri-iri. Waɗannan sun haɗa da ingantaccen samfurin mutum, sadarwar hoto, da mu'amala tsakanin mutane da kwamfuta, da na'urori irin su kyamarori masu manufa ta musamman da na'urori masu auna gani.

Tsarin da aka sakaGyara

 
Misalan na'urorin da ke amfani da tsarin sakawa.

Mutanen da ke aiki a cikin wannan yanki suna ƙirƙirar fasaha don haɓaka saurin, aminci, da aikin tsarin. Ana samun tsarin sakawa a cikin na'urori da yawa daga ƙaramin rediyon FM zuwa jigila. A cewar Cibiyar Kula da Ayyuka ta Sloan Cornerstone, ci gaba da ke gudana a cikin tsarin da aka saka sun hada da "motoci masu sarrafa kansu da kayan aiki don gudanar da bincike da ceto, da tsarin sufuri na atomatik, da kuma hada-hadar mutum-mutumi don gyara kayan aiki a sararin samaniya." As of 2018 , Kwarewar aikin injiniyan komputa na musamman sun hada da tsarin tsarin-kan-guntu, gine-ginen iya sarrafa kwamfuta da Intanet na abubuwa .

Hadaddun da'irori, VLSI zane, gwaji da CADGyara

Wannan keɓaɓɓen aikin injiniyan komputa yana buƙatar cikakken ilimin ilimin lantarki da tsarin lantarki. Injiniyoyin da ke aiki a wannan yankin suna aiki kan haɓaka saurin, abin dogaro, da ingancin makamashi na ƙarni na gaba masu girman sikeli masu haɗaka ( VLSI ) da ƙananan ƙwayoyin cuta. Misali na wannan ƙwarewar shine aikin da aka yi akan rage yawan amfani da wutar lantarki na VLSI algorithms da gine-gine.

Sigina, hoto da sarrafa maganaGyara

Injiniyoyin komputa a wannan yanki suna haɓaka haɓakawa a cikin hulɗar ɗan adam da komputa, gami da fahimtar magana da kira, hotunan likitanci da kimiyya, ko tsarin sadarwa. Sauran ayyuka a wannan yankin sun haɗa da haɓaka hangen nesa ta kwamfuta kamar yarda da siffofin fuskokin ɗan adam .

Antididdigar antididdigaGyara

Fannoni masu alaƙaGyara

Injiniyacin Lantarki

Injiniyancin Iloktironik

Ilimin sanin kwamfuta

Kirkiran Soptwe

Hanyar sadar da alakar wamfuta

AssociungiyoyiGyara

  • Ofungiyar Injiniyoyin Komputa da Masu Fasaha
  • IEEE Computer Society
  • Forungiyar Injin Injin inji

ManazartaGyara